Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

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  1. Hayat MN, Kaka U, Sazili AQ
    Foods, 2021 Apr 16;10(4).
    PMID: 33923538 DOI: 10.3390/foods10040874
    Cold truck transportation is considered one of the most integral parts in a food processing chain. However, countless cases of product spoilage and food poisoning incidents have proven that temperature control during transport has been neglected. Literature on the impact of temperature during distribution is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of various transportation temperatures and travel duration on the meat quality and microbial population of broiler chicken breast muscle. Sixty broiler chickens (42 days old) were slaughtered and eviscerated; they then had their breast muscles removed (each bird provided two breast muscle samples: left breast and right breast), which were wrapped in plastic film. All 120 packed boneless breasts (PBBs) were then placed at -18 °C for 24 h. After 24 h, the 60 PBB samples were subjected to transportation for 1 h at 4 °C (20 PBBs), 10 °C (20 PBBs), and 15 °C (20 PBBs) while the remaining 60 samples were transported for 5 h at 4 °C (20 PBBs), 10 °C (20 PBBs), and 15 °C (20 PBBs) before analyses. The samples transported at higher temperatures exhibited higher populations of coliform and Salmonella than those transported at lower temperatures. A significant impact of the transportation duration on the Salmonella population was only observed in samples transported at 4 °C for 5 h. However, a significant impact of transportation temperature on color was only recorded for the redness (a*) values, where the samples transported at higher temperatures exhibited higher redness (a*) values. Significant increases in lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values as well as decreases in redness (a*) and pH values were recorded in samples subjected to longer durations of transportation across all the temperatures observed in this study.
  2. Abubakar AA, Noordin MM, Azmi TI, Kaka U, Loqman MY
    Bone Joint Res, 2016 Dec;5(12):610-618.
    PMID: 27965220
    In vivo animal experimentation has been one of the cornerstones of biological and biomedical research, particularly in the field of clinical medicine and pharmaceuticals. The conventional in vivo model system is invariably associated with high production costs and strict ethical considerations. These limitations led to the evolution of an ex vivo model system which partially or completely surmounted some of the constraints faced in an in vivo model system. The ex vivo rodent bone culture system has been used to elucidate the understanding of skeletal physiology and pathophysiology for more than 90 years. This review attempts to provide a brief summary of the historical evolution of the rodent bone culture system with emphasis on the strengths and limitations of the model. It encompasses the frequency of use of rats and mice for ex vivo bone studies, nutritional requirements in ex vivo bone growth and emerging developments and technologies. This compilation of information could assist researchers in the field of regenerative medicine and bone tissue engineering towards a better understanding of skeletal growth and development for application in general clinical medicine.Cite this article: A. A. Abubakar, M. M. Noordin, T. I. Azmi, U. Kaka, M. Y. Loqman. The use of rats and mice as animal models in ex vivo bone growth and development studies. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:610-618. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.512.BJR-2016-0102.R2.
  3. Kaka A, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Yimer N, Khumran AM, Sarsaifi K, et al.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2015 Feb;153:1-7.
    PMID: 25544152 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.12.001
    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing α-linolenic acid (ALA) into BioXcell(®) extender on post-cooling, post-thawed bovine spermatozoa and post thawed fatty acid composition. Twenty-four semen samples were collected from three bulls using an electro-ejaculator. Fresh semen samples were evaluated for general motility using computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) whereas morphology and viability with eosin-nigrosin stain. Semen samples extended into BioXcell(®) were divided into five groups to which 0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA were added, respectively. The treated samples were incubated at 37°C for 15 min for ALA uptake by sperm cells before being cooled for 2 h at 5°C. After evaluation, the cooled samples were packed into 0.25 ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h before thawing and evaluation for semen quality. Evaluation of cooled and frozen-thawed semen showed that the percentages of all the sperm parameters improved with 5 ng/ml ALA supplement. ALA was higher in all treated groups than control groups than control group. In conclusion, 5 ng/ml ALA supplemented into BioXcell(®) extender improved the cooled and frozen-thawed quality of bull spermatozoa.
  4. Kaka U, Hui Cheng C, Meng GY, Fakurazi S, Kaka A, Behan AA, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:305367.
    PMID: 25695060 DOI: 10.1155/2015/305367
    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs.
  5. Kaka U, Chen HC, Goh YM, Abubakar AA, Fakurazi S, Ebrahimi M
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:375421.
    PMID: 26075236 DOI: 10.1155/2015/375421
    This study was conducted to validate the use of a modified algometer device to measure mechanical nociceptive thresholds in six dogs. Dogs were administered morphine intravenously (IV) at 1 mg/kg or saline at equivolume in a crossover design with one-week washout period. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds were determined before, after the administration of treatments at 5 minutes, and hourly for 8 hours. Thresholds were recorded at the carpal pad, metacarpal foot pad, tibia, femur, and abdomen. Heart rates, body temperature, and respiration were recorded at similar time points. Thresholds increased significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline values for up to 3 hours at tibia and abdomen, 4 hours at metacarpal pad, and 5 hours at the carpal pad and femur. Hypothermia, bradycardia, and change in respiration were observed in all dogs after morphine injection. Saline did not alter any threshold levels during the eight-hour study period, indicating no evidence of tolerance, learned avoidance, or local hyperaesthesia. The device and methods of testing were well tolerated by all the dogs. Results suggest that the modified algometer and method of application are useful to measure nociceptive mechanical thresholds in awake dogs.
  6. Kaka U, Rahman NA, Abubakar AA, Goh YM, Fakurazi S, Omar MA, et al.
    J Pain Res, 2018;11:743-752.
    PMID: 29695926 DOI: 10.2147/JPR.S152475
    Objectives: The effects of pre-emptive infusion of ketamine-lidocaine with tramadol on the suppression of central sensitization were investigated in a dog ovariohysterectomy model.

    Patients and methods: Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: ketamine-lidocaine-tramadol (KLT) and tramadol (T) groups. Both groups received intravenous tramadol 4 mg/kg body weight as premedication. Immediately after induction, the KLT group received ketamine and lidocaine at 0.5 and 2 mg/kg loading dose, followed by continuous rate infusion of 50 and 100 µg/kg/min, respectively, for 2 hours. Dogs in T group received saline bolus and continuous rate infusion at equi-volume. Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were recorded, whereas postoperative pain was evaluated using an algometer and short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale.

    Results: Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were obtunded to a greater degree in KLT compared to T group. Postoperatively, the pain scores increased only for the first hour in KLT group, compared to 12 hours in T group. Mechanical thresholds at the abdomen decreased postoperatively between 12 and 60 hours in KLT group versus the entire 72 hours in T group. Thresholds at tibia and radius in both groups increased in the immediate 1 hour postoperatively, but decreased thereafter. Significant decrement of thresholds from baseline were detected in the tibia at 24, 42, and 60 hours in KLT group compared to 24-72 hours in T group, and in the radius between 36 and 48 hours in T group, but none in KLT group.

    Conclusion: Addition of pre-emptive ketamine-lidocaine infusion to single intravenous dose of tramadol enhanced attenuation of central sensitization and improved intra- and postoperative analgesia.

  7. Ali AK, Abubakar AA, Kaka U, Radzi Z, Khairuddin NH, Yusoff MSM, et al.
    Vet World, 2018 Dec;11(12):1706-1711.
    PMID: 30774262 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1706-1711
    Aim: Tissue expansion is an applicable technique to reconstruct many surgical defects. The aim of this research was to evaluate the histological changes caused by immediate skin tissue expansion in rats as an animal model.

    Materials and Methods: Immediate skin tissue expansion in 18 adult female rats was performed using three different sizes (small, medium, and big) of polymethylmethacrylate tissue expanders at the dorsal surface of the metatarsal area of the right limb. The contralateral limb was served as the control. The tissue expanders were surgically implanted and kept for 15 days.

    Results: The immediate skin expansion resulted in histological changes such as the increased thickness of the epidermal layer, the reduction of the dermal layer, an elevated number of fibroblast as well as increased vascularity. Furthermore, skin adnexal structures such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands were farther apart.

    Conclusion: The rat skin was able to rapidly adjust and compensate against a specific range of immediate mechanical expansion. The histological changes suggest that the tissues were prepared to withstand the increased external forces, in addition to create possibly additional skin in a relatively short-term period.

  8. Abdul Basit M, Abdul Kadir A, Loh TC, Abdul Aziz S, Salleh A, Kaka U, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2020 Jul 16;10(7).
    PMID: 32708616 DOI: 10.3390/ani10071209
    This research was conducted to estimate the effects of Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on haematological indices, serum biochemical attributes, and internal organs parameters, including histomorphological features of the liver, in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated into four experimental groups. The dietary treatments were basal diet (BD), which served as the control (C), along with BD + 2 g/kg POLM (Po2), BD + 4 g/kg POLM (Po4), BD + 8 g/kg POLM (Po8), which were the supplemented groups. The body weight gain (BWG) showed a linear increase and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed a linear decrease with increasing POLM dosage at day 42 (p ˂ 0.05) and for the overall growth performance period (p ˂ 0.01). On day 21 and day 42, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), and packed cell volume (PCV) showed linear increases (p ˂0.05) as the dosage of POLM increased in the diet. On day 21, dietary supplementation of POLM linearly decreased (p ˂ 0.05) the serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), and serum levels of urea and creatinine. On the other hand, serum levels of total protein (TP), albumin, and globulin showed a linear increase (p ˂ 0.05) as the POLM dosage increased. On day 42, the serum activity of AST and ALT and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and creatinine showed linear decreases (p ˂ 0.05) with increased levels of POLM in the diet. However, POLM supplementation linearly increased (p ˂ 0.05) the serum levels of TP and globulin. Dietary inclusion of POLM did not influence the organ parameters and showed no adverse effects on the liver histomorphology. In conclusion, supplementation of POLM increased the growth performance, improving haematological indices and serum biochemistry profiles of broiler chickens without any deleterious effects on the liver histomorphology. The results of the present study provide evidence that POLM can be safely used at a dose rate of 8 g/kg of feed as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs).
  9. Behan AA, Akhtar MT, Loh TC, Fakurazi S, Kaka U, Muhamad A, et al.
    Foods, 2021 May 19;10(5).
    PMID: 34069633 DOI: 10.3390/foods10051133
    The supplementation of rumen bypass fat (RBF) has remained one of the preferred approaches used to decrease undesirable saturated fatty acids (FA) and increase beneficial unsaturated FA in the meat. This study was planned to evaluate the influences of rumen bypass fats on meat quality, fatty acid and metabolic profiles in male Dorper sheep (n = 36) with 24.66 ± 0.76 kg (mean ± standard error) initial body weight. Treatment comprised a basal diet (30:70 rice straw to concentrate) with no added RBF as a control (CON), basal diet with prilled fat (PF), basal diet with prilled fat plus lecithin (PFL) and basal diet with calcium soap of palm fatty acids (CaS). The findings revealed that cooking loss, drip loss and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were not affected by RBF supplementation, while meat pH was significantly higher in the CaS on aging day 1. However, the diet supplemented with prilled fat and lecithin modified the meat's fatty acid profile significantly by increasing unsaturated fatty acids and decreasing saturated fats. The relative quantification of the major differentiating metabolites found in LD muscle of sheep showed that total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, choline, glycerophosphocholine and glycerophospholipids were significantly lower in CaS and PFL diets, while glycerol and sphingomyelin were significantly higher in CaS and PFL diets. Most of the metabolites in the liver did not show any significant difference. Based on our results, the supplementation of protected fats did not have a negative influence on meat quality and the meat from Dorper sheep fed prilled fat with lecithin contained more healthy fatty acids compared to other diets.
  10. Handool KO, Ibrahim SM, Kaka U, Omar MA, Abu J, Yusoff MSM, et al.
    J Exp Orthop, 2018 May 02;5(1):13.
    PMID: 29721763 DOI: 10.1186/s40634-018-0128-6
    BACKGROUND: The use of a closed fracture model has become the preferred model to study the fracture healing process, given that the periosteum and the soft tissue surrounding the fracture site play an important role in the fracture healing process. Some techniques like osteotomy, drilling the long bones and the use of the guillotine-like apparatus to induce fracture are characterized by some undesirable effects and complications. The aim of this study is to optimize and evaluate an in vivo fracture model using three-point bending pliers that can be used to study secondary bone fracture healing in rats.

    METHODS: Modified three-point bending pliers were used as a device to create the closed rat tibial bone fracture that was prefixed with an intramedullary pin (23 G × 11/2″) in rats. The exact location of the induced closed fracture was along the long bone. The presence of bone comminution, and the fracture bone alignment were immediately examined after the induction of the fracture until the 6th week.

    RESULTS: All fractures induced were transverse, located in the middle to proximal one third of the tibia, and they all healed without complications. Bone union as shown radiographically occurred within 2-3 weeks postoperative. The average angle of the fracture line with the axis of the tibia was 89.41 ± 2.11°. The lateral and anterio-posterior pin angulation views were 167.33 ± 3.67° and 161.60 ± 4.87° respectively. The average length of proximal end of the fractured bone in comparison with the whole length of intact bone was 41.02 ± 3.27%. There was a significant difference in percentage of the gross callus area and gross callus index, while there was no significant difference in X-ray callus index. There was no significant difference of the gross callus area between slight comminution (n = 4) and non comminution (n = 21).

    CONCLUSION: The optimized rat tibial fracture model resulted in mainly transverse tibial mid-shaft fractures with minimal bone comminution and absence of surrounding soft tissue damage. The size area of consequent soft callus formation and the extent to which the closed fracture model was reproducible are very good outcomes making it feasible for in vivo laboratory research use.

  11. Basit MA, Arifah AK, Loh TC, Saleha AA, Salleh A, Kaka U, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2020 Jun;27(6):1503-1513.
    PMID: 32489287 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.017
    Due to antimicrobial resistance and the public health hazard of antibiotic growth promoters, there is a grave need to find potential alternatives for sustainable poultry production. Piper betle (PB) and Persicaria odorata (PO) are herbs, which have been reported for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to estimate the influence of different dose supplementation of Piper betle leaf meal (PBLM) and Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and gut morphology of broilers chickens. A total of 210 one day-old broiler chicks were randomly grouped into 7 treatments, and each treatment group has 3 replicates (n = 10) with a total number of 30 chicks. The treatments included T1 control (basal diet (BD) with no supplementation), T2 (BD + 2 g/kg PBLM); T3 (BD + 4 g/kg PBLM), T4 (BD + 8 g/kg PBLM), T5 (BD + 2 g/kg POLM), T6 (BD + 4 g/kg POLM), T7 (BD + 8 g/kg POLM). Growth performance, gut morphology and ileal digestibility were measured. Except for T4 (8 g/kg PBLM), graded dose inclusion of PBLM and POLM increased (P 
  12. Ab Aziz MF, Hayat MN, Kaka U, Kamarulzaman NH, Sazili AQ
    Foods, 2020 Jun 04;9(6).
    PMID: 32512753 DOI: 10.3390/foods9060741
    Storage temperature and duration plays an important role in meat processing. Observations in poultry processing plants have shown a serious deviation in storage condition compared to the recommended procedures. Furthermore, there is still a paucity of evidence on the effects of storage temperature and duration on meat quality and microbial population. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different temperature and duration during storage on physico-chemical properties and microbiological quality of broiler chicken Pectoralis major muscle. Eighty birds were slaughtered and processed, following which the packed boneless breast (PBB) (each bird was to provide two breast muscle samples; left breast and right breast) was divided into four groups, each consisted of 40 PBB. Each group was subsequently assigned to storage either at 4 °C, -10 °C, -18 °C or -40 °C, for 24 h before 20 PBB samples from each group were transported to the respective laboratory for meat quality and microbiological analysis. The remaining 20 PBB from each storage temperature were stored for 72 h before being transported for analysis. Results have shown significant increases in drip loss and cooking loss as the storage temperature decreases. Similarly, storage duration significantly affected cooking loss, of which, samples stored for 72 h exhibited higher cooking loss compared to those stored for 24 h. For color, significant differences were only observed in lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values. Longer duration of storage had significantly improved tenderness whereby, samples that have been stored for a shorter duration presented higher pH values. Populations of coliform and Salmonella decreased significantly with decreasing temperature and increasing storage duration.
  13. Syafiqa NN, Zulkifli I, Zuki ABM, Meng Goh Y, Kaka U
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2023 Nov;30(11):103836.
    PMID: 37920797 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2023.103836
    The present study aimed to determine the effect of repeated heat stress on serum levels of cortisol (CORT), acute phase proteins (APP) and heat shock protein (HSP) 70, haematological indicators, and electroencephalographic (EEG) response in the native Katjang and exotic Boer goats. Six female Katjang (15.7 kg ± 0.68) and six female Boer (16.8 kg ± 1.16) goats aged 5 to 6 months old were exposed to 38 ± 1℃ for 8 h, and the procedure was repeated at three different weeks (weeks 1, 2 and 3). Measurements of rectal temperatures and EEG activity and collection of blood samples were conducted before heat exposure (0 h), immediately after the heat exposure (8 h), and 8 h after completion of heat exposure (16 h) (recovery period). The current results revealed that the Boer animals had significantly higher rectal temperatures (RT), haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) counts than their Kajang counterparts. There were significant breed × stage of heat treatment (SHT) × week of heat treatment (WHT) interactions for neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios (NLR). In general, the Katjang animals had elevated NLR compared to those of Boer. The Boer goats had reduced capacity to express serum HSP70 compared to their Katjang counterparts following the heat challenge at week 3. Boer goats demonstrated higher delta waves than the Katjang group, which suggested the former were more stressed following the heat exposure. Breed had a negligible effect on CORT, APP, WBC counts and backfat thickness. Our findings suggested that the Katjang breed, as measured by RT, HB and PCV count, and EEG activity, could be more tolerant to heat stress than Boer. The Katjang goats showed higher HSP70 expression than their Boer counterparts, suggesting improved thermoregulation in the former.
  14. Sultan MT, Butt MS, Karim R, Ahmed W, Kaka U, Ahmad S, et al.
    PMID: 26385559 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0853-7
    Nigella sativa is an important component of several traditional herbal preparations in various countries. It finds its applications in improving overall health and boosting immunity. The current study evaluated the role of fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa against potassium bromate induced oxidative stress with special reference to modulation of glutathione redox enzymes and myeloperoxidase.
  15. Kaka A, Haron W, Yusoff R, Yimer N, Khumran AM, Sarsaifi K, et al.
    Reprod Fertil Dev, 2017 Mar;29(3):490-495.
    PMID: 28442061 DOI: 10.1071/RD15089
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation in BioXcell extender on the quality of frozen-thawed bull semen. Twenty-four ejaculates were collected from three bulls (eight from each bull). Ejaculates with motility ≥70% and normal morphology ≥80% were extended into BioXcell extender to which 0 (control), 3, 5, 10 or 15ngmL(-1) DHA was added. The supplemented semen samples were incubated at 37°C for 15min for DHA uptake by spermatozoa. Later, samples were cooled for 2h at 5°C and packaged into 0.25-mL straws, frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24h and subsequently thawed for evaluation. Results are presented as percentages ± s.e.m. Supplementation with DHA at 3ngmL(-1) significantly improved sperm functional parameters including sperm motility, normal morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity when compared with other supplemented groups and the control. Lipid peroxidation increased as the incorporation of DHA supplementation increased. In conclusion, 3ngmL(-1) concentration of DHA resulted in superior quality of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa and is suggested as the optimum level of DHA to be added into BioXcell extender.
  16. Sabow AB, Goh YM, Zulkifli I, Sazili AQ, Kaka U, Kadi MZAA, et al.
    Meat Sci, 2016 Nov;121:148-155.
    PMID: 27317849 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.05.009
    The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats.
  17. Sabow AB, Sazili AQ, Zulkifli I, Goh YM, Ab Kadir MZ, Abdulla NR, et al.
    Meat Sci, 2015 Jun;104:78-84.
    PMID: 25732178 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.02.004
    The study assessed the effect of conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia on bleeding efficiency of goats and keeping quality of goat meat. Ten Boer cross bucks were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or minimal anesthesia prior to slaughter (AS). The blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of hemoglobin and myoglobin content in longissimus lumborum muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and lipid oxidation. Blood loss at exsanguination, residual hemoglobin and lipid oxidation were not significantly different (p>0.05) between HS and AS. Lactic acid bacteria was the only microbe that was significantly elevated after 24h of storage at 4°C in the AS group. In conclusion, slaughtering goats under minimal anesthesia or fully conscious did not affect bleeding efficiency and keeping quality of goat meat.
  18. Imlan JC, Kaka U, Goh YM, Idrus Z, Awad EA, Abubakar AA, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jul 01;11(7).
    PMID: 34359106 DOI: 10.3390/ani11071979
    The proper slaughter positioning of animals is among the most crucial factors in animal welfare. The lateral position in Halal slaughter is a technique used around the world by Muslims, with a few practicing the upright position. The literature on the effects of slaughter in upright versus lateral positions on pain and stress is scarce. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of slaughter positions on blood biochemical parameters, plasma catecholamines, and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. Twenty Brahman crossbred steers were subjected to slaughter in either lateral recumbency (LP) (n = 10) or an upright position (UP) (n = 10). There was a significant increase in adrenaline (p < 0.0001) and noradrenaline (p < 0.05) at T2 compared to T1 in the animals of both groups. A significant difference (p < 0.0001) was observed in the median frequency (MF) and total power (Ptot) of EEG, parameters for pain and stress, between the animals slaughtered in the upright and the lateral position. However, MF and delta waves were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after slaughter in the UP group than in the LP group. The results demonstrate a lesser amount of stress and pain responses among the LP group.
  19. Sabow AB, Sazili AQ, Aghwan ZA, Zulkifli I, Goh YM, Ab Kadir MZ, et al.
    Anim Sci J, 2016 Jun;87(6):816-26.
    PMID: 26890722 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12496
    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P 
  20. Akhtar MT, Samar M, Shami AA, Mumtaz MW, Mukhtar H, Tahir A, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jul 30;26(15).
    PMID: 34361796 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26154643
    Meat is a rich source of energy that provides high-value animal protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of carbohydrates. Globally, different types of meats are consumed to fulfill nutritional requirements. However, the increasing burden on the livestock industry has triggered the mixing of high-price meat species with low-quality/-price meat. This work aimed to differentiate different meat samples on the basis of metabolites. The metabolic difference between various meat samples was investigated through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis approaches like principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In total, 37 metabolites were identified in the gluteal muscle tissues of cow, goat, donkey and chicken using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PCA was found unable to completely differentiate between meat types, whereas OPLS-DA showed an apparent separation and successfully differentiated samples from all four types of meat. Lactate, creatine, choline, acetate, leucine, isoleucine, valine, formate, carnitine, glutamate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and α-mannose were found as the major discriminating metabolites between white (chicken) and red meat (chevon, beef and donkey). However, inosine, lactate, uracil, carnosine, format, pyruvate, carnitine, creatine and acetate were found responsible for differentiating chevon, beef and donkey meat. The relative quantification of differentiating metabolites was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Our results showed that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for the identification of novel signatures (potential biomarkers) to characterize meats from different sources and could potentially be used for quality control purposes in order to differentiate different meat types.
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