Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Chan KH, Mohammed Haspani MS, Tan YC, Kassim F
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jul;18(3):82-6.
    PMID: 22135607 MyJurnal
    Primary central nervous system atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumour (ATRT) is a rare and highly malignant tumour that tends to occur in infancy and early childhood. The majority of tumours (approximately two-third) arise in the posterior fossa. The optimal treatment for ATRT remains unclear. Options of treatment include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Each of their role is still not clearly defined until now. The prognosis of the disease is generally unfavourable. This is a case report of ATRT in an atypical site in a 9-year-old girl.
  2. Zainudin BM, Kassim F, Annuar NM, Lim CS, Ghazali AK, Murad Z
    J Trop Med Hyg, 1992 Aug;95(4):276-9.
    PMID: 1495124
    A renal transplant patient presented with ileal perforation due to histoplasmosis 3 years after transplantation. Mesenteric lymph nodes and lungs were also affected by the disease. She was successfully treated with amphotericin B followed by ketoconazole.
  3. Wong YP, Abdul Raub SH, Mohd Dali AZ, Kassim F, Visvalingam V, Zakaria Z, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Aug;38(2):93-101.
    PMID: 27568665
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology.
  4. Vethakkan SR, Venugopal Y, Tan AT, Paramasivam SS, Ratnasingam J, Razak RA, et al.
    Endocr Pract, 2012 11 29;19(1):e29-34.
    PMID: 23186972 DOI: 10.4158/EP12218.CR
    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome secondary to hypothalamic germinoma.

    METHODS: We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, management, and clinical course of a patient admitted with SMA syndrome who was subsequently found to have a hypothalamic germinoma.

    RESULTS: An adolescent boy was admitted to the surgical ward with progressive weight loss over a 2 year period and postprandial vomiting. He was diagnosed with SMA syndrome based on evidence of proximal duodenal dilatation, extrinsic compression of the distal duodenum, and a narrowed aortomesenteric angle (16°). Investigations performed to exclude thyrotoxicosis unexpectedly revealed secondary hypothyroidism and further evaluation demonstrated evidence of pan-hypopituitarism. Psychiatric evaluation excluded anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a heterogeneously enhancing hypothalamic lesion, but a normal pituitary gland. Hormone replacement with hydrocortisone, desmopressin, testosterone, and thyroxine resulted in weight gain and resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms. A transventricular endoscopic biopsy subsequently confirmed a hypothalamic germinoma and he was referred to an oncologist.

    CONCLUSION: SMA syndrome secondary to severe weight loss is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. While there have been reports of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and thyrotoxicosis manifesting as SMA syndrome, there are no published reports to date of SMA syndrome secondary to hypothalamic/pituitary disease. Management of SMA syndrome is conservative, as symptoms of intestinal obstruction resolve with weight gain following treatment of the underlying cause. Awareness of this uncommon presentation of endocrine cachexia/hypothalamic disease will prevent unnecessary laparotomies and a misdiagnosis of an eating disorder.

  5. Wong JSL, Nasruddin AB, Selveindran NM, Latif KA, Kassim F, Nair SB, et al.
    AACE Clin Case Rep, 2021 02 01;7(3):220-225.
    PMID: 34095493 DOI: 10.1016/j.aace.2021.01.008
    Objective: Primary hypophysitis refers to the isolated inflammation of the pituitary gland not associated with other secondary causes. Among its histopathologic subtypes, xanthomatous is the rarest.

    Methods: We describe a 22-year-old woman with xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH), its clinical progression over 8 years as well as the treatment effects of prednisolone and azathioprine. Our patient was first referred for severe short stature and delayed puberty at the age of 14 years.

    Results: Investigations revealed multiple pituitary deficiencies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary mass whereby a partial resection was performed. A full resection was not feasible due to the location of the mass. The histopathologic analysis of the tissue was consistent with XH. The results of secondary workout for neoplasm, infection, autoimmune, and inflammatory disorders were negative. After surgery, a progressive enlargement of the mass was observed. Two courses of prednisolone were administered with a significant reduction in the mass size. Azathioprine was added due to the unsustained effects of prednisolone when tapered off and the concern of steroid toxicity with continued use. No further increase in the mass size was noted after 6 months on azathioprine.

    Conclusion: Glucocorticoid and immunotherapy are treatment options for XH; however, more cases are needed to better understand its pathogenesis and clinical progression.

  6. Saraswathy Subramaniam TS, Thayan R, Yusof MA, Suppiah J, Tg Abd Rashid TR, Zawawi ZM, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Feb;9(2):201-3.
    PMID: 26919957 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.01.016
    An efficient public health preparedness and response plan for infectious disease management is important in recent times when emerging and exotic diseases that hitherto were not common have surfaced in countries with potential to spread outside borders. Stewardship from a reference laboratory is important to take the lead for the laboratory network, to proactively set up disease surveillance, provide referral diagnostic services, on-going training and mentorship and to ensure coordination of an effective laboratory response. In Malaysia, the Institute for Medical Research has provided the stewardship for the Ministry of Health's laboratory network that comprises of hospital pathology, public health and university laboratories. In this paper we share our experiences in recent infectious disease outbreak investigations as a reference laboratory within the Ministry of Health infectious disease surveillance network.
  7. Hamzi Abdul Raub S, Isa NM, Zailani HA, Omar B, Abdullah MF, Mohd Amin WA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(2):651-6.
    PMID: 24568473
    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third commonest type of cancer among women in Malaysia. Our aim was to determine the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes in cervical cancer in our multi-ethnic population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicentre study with a total of 280 cases of cervical cancer from 4 referral centres in Malaysia, studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of 12 high risk-HPV genotypes.

    RESULTS: Overall HPV was detected in 92.5% of cases, in 95.9% of squamous cell carcinomas and 84.3%of adenocarcinomas. The five most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (68.2%), 18 (40%), 58 (10.7%), 33 (10.4%) and 52 (10.4%). Multiple HPV infections were more prevalent (55.7%) than single HPV infections (36.8%). The percentage of HPV positive cases in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 95.5%, 91.9% and 80.0%, respectively. HPV 16 and 18 genotypes were the commonest in all ethnic groups. We found that the percentage of HPV 16 infection was significantly higher in Chinese (75.9%) compared to Malays (63.7%) and Indians (52.0%) (p<0.05), while HPV 18 was significantly higher in Malays (52.6%) compared to Chinese (25.0%) and Indians (28%) (p<0.05). Meanwhile, HPV 33 (17.9%) and 52 (15.2%) were also more commonly detected in the Chinese (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the distribution of HPV genotype in Malaysia is similar to other Asian countries. Importantly, we found that different ethnic groups in Malaysia have different HPV genotype infection rates, which is a point to consider during the implementation of HPV vaccination.

  8. Othman FN, Muthuraju S, Noor SSM, Abdullah S, Mohd Yusoff AA, Tharakan J, et al.
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2018 09;112:45-51.
    PMID: 30205968 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2018.07.007
    The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of the angiogenic marker vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) and apoptotic markers of Bcl-2 and Bax in the neurons and astrocytes in the brain infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The immunohistochemistry staining was performed to analyze the expression of the VEGF, Bcl-2 and Bax in the astrocytes and neurons. The expression of VEGF was high in neurons and astrocytes in both the infected brain and control tissues with no difference of angiogenic activity (p = 0.40). Higher Bcl-2 expression was seen in astrocytes of infected brain tissues compared to the control tissues (p = 0.004) promoted a higher anti-apoptotic activity in astrocytes. The neurons expressed strong Bax expression in the infected brain tissues compared to the control tissues (p 
  9. Abd Wahab F, Abdullah S, Abdullah JM, Jaafar H, Md Noor SS, Wan Mohammad WMZ, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Nov;23(6):25-34.
    PMID: 28090176 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.6.3
    Ranking as the most communicable disease killer worldwide, tuberculosis, has accounted with a total of 9.6 million new tuberculosis cases with 1.5 million tuberculosis-related deaths reported globally in 2014. Tuberculosis has remain as an occupational hazard for healthcare workers since 1920s and due to several tuberculosis outbreaks in healthcare settings in the early 1990s, the concern about the transmission to both patients and healthcare workers has been raised. Healthcare workers have two to three folds greater the risk of active tuberculosis than the general population. Several studies on knowledge, attitude and practices on tuberculosis among healthcare workers worldwide have revealed that majority of the participated healthcare workers had good knowledge on tuberculosis. Most of the healthcare workers from South India and South Africa also reported to have positive attitude whereas a study in Thailand reported that most of the healthcare providers have negative attitude towards tuberculosis patients. Nevertheless, majority of the healthcare workers have low level of practice on tuberculosis prevention. An improved communication between healthcare workers and the patients as well as their families is the key to better therapeutic outcomes with good knowledge, attitude and preventive practice towards tuberculosis.
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