There is an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus around the world associated with rapid sociocultural development and changing lifestyles. Increased prevalence of obesity, with a higher consumption of animal products and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, increases the risk of diabetes mellitus and other chronic degenerative diseases. Insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) is caused by insulin deficiency, whereas the main feature of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDD) which accounts for more than 90% of diabetics, is hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which may eventually lead to actual insulin deficiency. Hyperinsulinemia is undesirable because it increases the risk of developing vascular disease. In Malaysia, the prevalence of NIDD in some communities now exceeds 5%, and of impaired glucose tolerance 10%. Along with these increases in prevalence of hyperglycemia are increases in prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) and almost certainly abdominal fatness. In terms of management, nutrition is given priority. Insulin and hypoglycemic drugs (sulphonylureas or biguanides), where required, may adversely affect body composition if overused. Newer therapeutic strategies require greater attention to the underlying problem in NIDD of abdominal fatness by attention to the relevant nutritional factors, physical activity and other lifestyle factors like cigarette smoking and alcohol. The greater impact of obesity and diabetes on Malaysian women as opposed to men also needs to be addressed.
Cardiac arrhythmias are common in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Conduction abnormalities have been seen in a few thyrotoxic patients, but these, in particular high grade atrioventricular (AV) block, often occur in the presence of other conditions. Three thyrotoxic patients with conduction abnormalities are described: two were associated with severe hypokalaemia and the third had congestive cardiac failure. Conditions predisposing to conduction abnormality should be identified when this occurs in a thyrotoxic patient as their correction may help resolve or explain the conduction abnormality.
This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia.
A 42-year-old Chinese woman presented with transient confusional state and memory loss due to acute water intoxicational hyponatremia complicating colonic irrigation (enemas) used as an alternative medicine to promote health. Although there is no evidence that such "antiautointoxication" technique conveys true benefit in any condition, this form of "quackery" may actually cause harm, such as water intoxication as in this case.
The case of a 32 year old male with normal male adrenarchal hair pattern, bilateral gynaecomastia, a small phallus, hypospadias and bilateral poorly developed testes presenting with primary infertility secondary to azoospermia and a pelvic cyst is described. Repeated chromosomal analysis showed 46XX chromosomal constitution. Laparotomy revealed a simple cyst between the urinary bladder and the rectum. XX male syndrome is a rare cause of male infertility. The majority of cases is due to interchange of a fragment of the short arm of the Y chromosome containing the region that encodes the testes determining factor with the X chromosome. The presence of a simple cyst in the anatomical location of the uterus to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature.
Thyroid eye disease is autoimmune in nature and associated with Graves' Disease. Autoantibodies to the 64 kDa antigen in thyroid membranes cross-react to the 64 kDa proteins in human eye muscle membranes. Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity against eye muscle cells are also found in patients with thyroid eye disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the treatment available and to share the authors' experience using cyclosporin A. In the majority of cases, thyroid eye disease is mild, manifest only as bilateral or unilateral proptosis, with/without grittiness of the eyes. This is usually treated conservatively with eye drops. If proptosis is more severe and there is incomplete closure of eyelids, epiphora and conjunctival injection, then lateral tarrsorrhaphy is usually effective, combined with use of eye pads and eye drops. The problem of diplopia can be treated conservatively with special lenses, or with surgical correction of tethered muscles. However when proptosis is severe, with raised intraocular pressure, severe chemosis and danger of blindness, then the choice of therapy is controversial: rapid decompression by surgical means or use of high doses of prednisolone. Most prefer prednisolone therapy initially, surgical decompression if it fails. Various other methods have been tried, aimed at the immunological nature of the disease, namely plasmapheresis, radiotherapy and immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin, with variable success. Our experience with cyclosporin had been mixed and inconclusive.
This is a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of insulin resistance and its associated factors in Hospital UKM patients with schizophrenia using the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) model. Fasting glucose and insulin from 85 patients were obtained. Fasting glucose revealed 15% of the patients were diabetic, while another 15% had impaired fasting glucose. Using the HOMA model, 68% of the patients had insulin resistance. Univariate analyses found BMI (p < 0.001) and waist circumference (p < 0.001) to be associated with insulin resistance. The statistical significance disappeared after multivariate analyses. All patients with schizophrenia should be screened and managed as a group at high risk for development of diabetes with emphasis on body weight management.
Study site: inpatient and outpatients, Psychiatric department, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
A patient with beta hCG-secreting germ cell carcinoma of the pineal and suprasellar regions presented with hydrocephalus, Parinaud's syndrome, hypopituitarism and polyuria. Central diabetes insipidus was strongly suspected although the water deprivation test was not diagnostic. The polyuria however, responded to ADH analogue when the hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism were treated. Pubertal development was evident and serum testosterone was normal despite the low FSH/LH, suggesting hCG stimulation of Leydig cells. This case illustrates that a beta hCG-germ cell tumour of the suprasellar region causing hypopituitarism can mask the presence of central diabetes insipidus and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.
A 53-year-old acromegalic woman had cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea following transphenoidal surgery for a pituitary microadenoma. A continuous lumbar spinal fluid drainage catheter was inserted and on the sixth postoperative day, she developed hyponatremia with features of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) requiring hypertonic saline administration. Over-drainage is potentially hazardous and close biochemical monitoring is required. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of SIADH caused by continuous lumbar drainage in an adult.
This study determined the effects of palm vitamin E (TRF) diet on the levels of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (gHb), serum advanced glycosylation end-products (AGE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats received either control (normal rat chow), TRF diet (normal chow fortified with TRF at 1 g/kg) or Vitamin C diet (vitamin E-deficient but contained vitamin C at 45 g/kg). The animals were maintained on the respective diet for 4 weeks, made diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ), then followed-up for a further 8 weeks. At week-4, mean serum AGE levels of rats given TRF diet (0.7 +/- 0.3 units/ml) were significantly lower than those of control or Vitamin C diet rats (p pounds 0.03). The levels increased after STZ and became comparable to the other groups. At week 12, blood glucose (20.9 +/- 6.9 mM) and gHb (10.0 +/- 1.6%) of rats on TRF diet remained significantly low compared to that of control or Vitamin C diet rats (p pounds 0.03). MDA however, was not affected and remained comparable between groups throughout the study. This study showed that TRF may be a useful antioxidant; effectively prevented increase in AGE in normal rats, and caused decrease in blood glucose and gHb in diabetic rats. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action of TRF.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altered thyroid status on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD type 1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD type 2) bioactivity in rat kidney and colon. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250 g) were treated with either L-thyroxine (T4) or propylthiouracil (PTU) for 4 weeks. Blood were then analysed for serum thyroxine, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+). The kidneys and colon were assayed for 11beta-HSD type 1 and 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity. In T4 treated rats the serum thyroxine was significantly elevated (p<0.05) whilst PTU decreased serum thyroxine significantly (p<0.001) compared to controls. Serum Na+ and K+ were within normal limits. There were no significant changes in 11beta-HSD type 1 bioactivity in both treatment groups compared to controls. However, the 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity in rats given thyroxine was significantly higher in the colon (p<0.003) compared to controls. We conclude that altered thyroid status had no effect on 11beta-HSD type 1 bioactivity but 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity was elevated in the colon of rats given supplementary thyroxine.
Hypercholesterolemia causes endothelial dysfunction, an early feature of atherosclerosis, leading to increased production of adhesion molecules and cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three months of treatment with low dose atorvastatin on serum levels of adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia. Fifty-five patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia were randomized to treatment with atorvastatin 10 mg/day or placebo for 3 months. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and hs-CRP levels were measured to assess the inflammatory activity of the endothelium. There was a significant reduction in ICAM-1 at 2 weeks (p<0.0001) with further reduction at 3 months (p<0.0001). At 3 months, there were significant reductions in VCAM-1 (p<0.02), IL-6 (p<0.0001) and hs-CRP (p<0.01), but an increase in E-selectin levels (p<0.002). Treatment with statin was an independent determinant of change in ICAM-1 (p<0.05) and IL-6 levels (p<0.05) after correcting for anthropometric indices, blood pressure and lipid profile. Low-dose atorvastatin treatment leads to reduction in proinflammatory markers of endothelial function, suggesting an attenuation of endothelial activation and improvement in endothelial function, independent of lipid lowering. This may lead to a reduction in the progression of atherosclerosis.
Although some form of commercial instrument mounting arm is available, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model for an ENT department wishing to trial their invention for use in the clinic or operating theatre. The instrument mounting arm described here is based on existing designs used by hobbyists and model makers for many years but the main benefit of this innovation is its multi-purpose use in the operating theatre and cost effectiveness since it is made of aluminum alloy. It is compact, stable and easily adjustable and can incorporate an endoscope holder or an operating end piece to mount various ENT instruments that offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator.
Vitamin E has been shown to affect bone metabolism. In this study we determined the effects of palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol on bone metabolism. Sprague-Dawley female rats fed with normal rat chow were divided into 4 groups and supplemented with either palm vitamin E 30 mg/kg rat weight, palm vitamin E 60 mg/kg rat weight or alpha-tocopherol 30 mg/kg rat weight. One group was not supplemented. Half of these rats were ovariectomised before supplementation was given for 10 months. As expected, bone mineral density of the ovariectomised rats fed on normal rat chow diet was lower compared to the intact rats. However, these changes were not seen in the supplemented group of rats. Both intact and ovariectomised rats supplemented with palm vitamin E 30 mg/kg rat weight had a lower bone calcium content in both femoral and vertebral bones whilst rats fed palm vitamin E 60 mg/kg rat weight or alpha-tocopherol 30 mg/kg rat weight were able to maintain bone calcium content. Alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated in ovariectomised rats supplemented with palm vitamin E 30 mg/kg rat weight and alpha-tocopherol 30 mg/kg rat weight compared to the intact rats. Alpha-tocopherol also reduced the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase post-ovariectomy. These findings indicate that both palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol maintained bone mineral density in ovariectomised rats but caused conflicting effects on bone calcium content. Further study is needed in order to determine the mechanisms involved.
Thyroid hormones have been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression. This is a cross-sectional study to look at the effects of thyroid hormone status on the circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in a group of 127 patients, aged 20-80 years, who were hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, rendered euthyroid and clinically euthyroid with normal free thyroxine (fT4), but suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. TSH was measured by the IMx (Abbott) ultrasensitive assay, while radioimmunoassays for total T3 and T4 were performed using kits from ICN, USA; fT4 and fT3 using kits from DPC USA; IGF-I and IGFBP-3 using kits from Nichols Institute Diagnostics B.V., Netherlands. Differences in the levels of IGF-I between the 4 groups of patients were significant only in the patients aged 20-40. Mean (+/-SEM) IGF-I levels of hypothyroid patients (169+/-19ng/ml) was significantly lower than hyperthyroid (315+/-26 ng/ml, p=0.003), euthyroid patients (241+/-19 ng/ml, p=0.002) and patients with suppressed TSH (308+/-29 ng/ml, p=0.02). The IGF-I levels of the hyperthyroid and suppressed TSH patients were, however, comparable to age-matched normal subjects (281+/-86 ng/ml). Although there was no difference in mean IGFBP-3 levels between the 4 groups of patients, the levels in the patients aged 20-40 with hyperthyroidism (3.7+/-0.9 microg/ml) and suppressed TSH (3.9+/-1.2 microg/ml) were significantly higher (p=0.02) than age-matched normal subjects (3.1+/-0.8 microg/ml). The IGF-I levels of the thyroid patients aged 20-40 showed significant negative correlation to TSH and positive correlations to the thyroid hormones. Hence, whilst low IGF-I is associated with hypothyroidism, high IGFBP-3 is associated with hyperthyroidism. Our finding that IGFBP-3 remained significantly elevated in patients with suppressed TSH but normalised fT4 and fT3 is important as it suggests a prolonged tissue effect of thyroid hormones on IFGBP-3. As such patients have been shown to have higher risk for atrial fibrillation, the significance and possible role of IGFBP-3 in these conditions should be further elucidated in future studies.
The atherogenic potential of soybean oil (Sb) and palm oil (PO) was compared by measuring lipid profile, lipid peroxidation (LP) and activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in rat sera and liver and heart homogenates. Male Rattus norwegicus rats were fed a basal diet, or basal diet fortified with 20% weight/ weight Sb or PO for 4 or 9 months. There was no difference in high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio between the two groups, but triglyceride concentrations were higher in the PO fed rats compared to the Sb fed rats, although the difference diminished after 9 months. No differences in serum LP and GSHPx activity were seen between the two groups. In the liver and heart, LP was lower in PO after 4 months feeding, but the reverse was seen after 9 months. Liver and heart GSHPx activity was higher in the PO group after both treatment periods. In conclusion, both PO and Sb fed rats appeared comparable in their lipid profile, but the PO food had a temporary beneficial effect on the LP process in liver and heart. GSHPx activity however did not correlate well with LP in liver and heart, suggesting involvement of other antioxidants.
The effects of long-term administration of tocotrienol on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats induced by diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were investigated by the determination of plasma and liver gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), cytosolic glutathione reductase (GSSG-Rx), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Twenty-eight male Rattus norwegicus rats (120-160g) were divided according to treatments into four groups: control group, tocotrienol - supplemented diet group (30mg/kg food), DEN/AAF-treated group and DEN/AAF treated plus tocotrienol-supplemented-diet group (30mg/kg food). The rats were sacrificed after nine months. The results obtained indicated no difference in the morphology and histology of the livers of control and tocotrienol-treated rats. Greyish-white neoplastic nodules (two per liver) were found in all the DEN/ AAF treated rats (n-10) whereas only one nodule was found in one of the carcinogen treated rats receiving tocotrienol supplementation (n-6). Histological examination showed obvious cellular damage for both the DEN/AAF-treated rats and the tocotrienol-supplemented rats but were less severe in the latter. Treatment with DEN/AAF caused increases in GGT, GSH-Px, GST and GSSG-Rx activities when compared to controls. These increases were also observed when tocotrienol was supplemented with DEN/AAF but the increases were less when compared to the rats receiving DEN/AAF only.