We investigated relationship of arsenicosis symptoms with total blood arsenic (BAs) and serum albumin (SAlb) of residents in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. We found that arsenicosis patients had significantly higher BAs and lower SAlb than asymptomatic villagers (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Arsenicosis symptoms were found to be 76.4% (1.764 times) more likely to develop among individuals having an SAlb≤44.3gL(-1) than among those who had an SAlb>44.3gL(-1) (OR=1.764, 95% CI=0.999-3.114) and 117.6% (2.176 times) as likely to occur among those with BAs>5.73µgL(-1) than for those having BAs≤5.73µgL(-1) (OR=2.176, 95% CI=1.223-3.872). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was also found between BAs and SAlb (rs (199)=-0.354, p<0.0001). As such, this study suggests that people with low SAlb and/or high BAs are likely to rapidly develop arsenicosis symptoms.
Results are presented of research undertaken in the Republic of Korea and Malaysia to determine how far integration affects the performance of family planning and allied programs and to identify organizational determinants of clinic level interactive linkages. The report discusses the background of the research, provides overviews of the country programs, outlines research methodologies and procedures, and presents findings. 41 clinics with high, medium, and low performance ratings in Korea and 17 main health centers, 31 sub-health centers, and 49 midwife stations in Malaysia, (some of them intensive input demonstration areas) were assessed on performance, interaction measures, and organizational determinants. The overall finding was that integration affects program performance, but the direction of the impact depends on how the integrated programs are organized. In Malaysia, where the program is specifically organized to integrate family planning with maternal and child health, the integration appears to have increased service delivery and resulted in larger numbers of family planning acceptors. No spill-over was found from the inputs of the 2 components to each other. The overall positive impact and lack of service reduction due to integration appears to result from specific planning for a limited degree of integration. In Korea, a mild negative relationship was found between clinic level performance in the family planning and community development, or Saemaul Undong (SU) components. In the field SU was observed to be more favored and powerful, and was not fully integrated with family planning. The major conclusion of the study was that integration works best when family planning is linked to similar services, and does not work as well with services that are different in character or in degree of government support.
To develop a novel granular adsorbent to remove arsenic and antimony from water, calcined Mg/Al-layered double-hydroxide (CLDH)-incorporated polyethersulfone (PES) granular adsorbents (PES-LDH) were prepared using a core-shell method having 25% PES in an N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The PES-LDH displayed a spherical hollow shape having a rough surface and the average particle size of 1-2 mm. On the PES-LDH surface, nanosized CLDH (100-150 nm) was successfully immobilized by consolidation between PES and CLDH. The adsorption of Sb(V) by PES-LDH was found to be more favorable than for As(V), with the maximum adsorption capacity of As(V) and Sb(V) being 7.44 and 22.8 mg/g, respectively. The regeneration results indicated that a 0.5 M NaOH and 5 M NaCl mixed solution achieved an 80% regeneration efficiency in As(V) adsorption and desorption. However, the regeneration efficiency of Sb(V) gradually decreased due to its strong binding affinity, even though the PES-LDH showed much higher Sb(V) adsorption efficiency than As(V). This study suggested that PES-LDH could be a promising granular adsorbent for the remediation of As(V) and Sb(V) contained in wastewater.
Mercuric species, Hg(II), interacts strongly with dissolved organic matter (DOM) through the oxidation, reduction, and complexation that affect the fate, bioavailability, and cycling of mercury, Hg, in aquatic environments. Despite its importance, the reactions between Hg(II) and DOM have rarely been studied in the presence of different concentrations of chloride ions (Cl-) under anoxic conditions. Here, we report that the extent of Hg(II) reduction in the presence of the reduced DOM decreases with increasing Cl- concentrations. The rate constants of Hg(II) reduction ranged from 0.14 to 1.73 h-1 in the presence of Cl- and were lower than the rate constant (2.41 h-1) in the absence of Cl-. Using a thermodynamic model, we showed that stable Hg(II)-chloride complexes were formed in the presence of Cl-. We further examined that H(0) was oxidized to Hg(II) in the presence of the reduced DOM and Cl- under anoxic conditions, indicating that Hg(II) reduction is inhibited by the Hg(0) oxidation. Therefore, the Hg(II) reduction by the reduced DOM can be offset due to the Hg(II)-chloride complexation and Hg(0) oxidation in chloride-rich environments. These processes can significantly influence the speciation of Hg and have an important implication for the behavior of Hg under environmentally relevant concentrations.
Lead contamination in topsoil of the mining and smelting area of Mitrovica, Kosovo, was investigated for total concentrations and chemical fractions by sequential extraction analysis, mineralogical fractions by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The study revealed that all samples contained Pb exceeding USEPA standard of 400 mg kg-1. The highest total concentration of Pb (125,000 mg kg-1) was the soil from the former smelter. Sequential extraction results showed that the predominant form of Pb was associated with Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction which ranged from 45.37 to 71.61% of total concentrations, while carbonate and silicate Pb-binding fractions were dominant when physical measurements (XRD and SEM-EDX) were applied. Application of Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb), measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, identified that Pb contamination is originated from similar anthropogenic source. The results reflected that the Pb contamination in the soil of this area is serious. In order to provide proper approaches on remediation and prevention of health impacts to the people in this area, a continuous monitoring and health risk assessment are recommended.
To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia.
Colloid mobilization is a significant process governing colloid-associated transport of heavy metals in subsurface environments. It has been studied for the last three decades to understand this process. However, colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in soil solutions have rarely been studied using soils in South Korea. We investigated the colloid mobilization in a variety of flow rates during sampling soil solutions in sand columns. The colloid concentrations were increased at low flow rates and in saturated regimes. Colloid concentrations increased 1000-fold higher at pH 9.2 than at pH 7.3 in the absence of 10 mM NaCl solution. In addition, those were fourfold higher in the absence than in the presence of the NaCl solution at pH 9.2. It was suggested that the mobility of colloids should be enhanced in porous media under the basic conditions and the low ionic strength. In real field soils, the concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb in soil solutions increased with the increase in colloid concentrations at initial momentarily changed soil water pressure, whereas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Al, and Co lagged behind the colloid release. Therefore, physicochemical changes and heavy metal characteristics have important implications for colloid-facilitated transport during sampling soil solutions.
The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries.
Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia.