Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Phan K, Kim KW, Hashim JH
    Environ Res, 2014 Nov;135:37-41.
    PMID: 25262072 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.07.031
    We investigated relationship of arsenicosis symptoms with total blood arsenic (BAs) and serum albumin (SAlb) of residents in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. We found that arsenicosis patients had significantly higher BAs and lower SAlb than asymptomatic villagers (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Arsenicosis symptoms were found to be 76.4% (1.764 times) more likely to develop among individuals having an SAlb≤44.3gL(-1) than among those who had an SAlb>44.3gL(-1) (OR=1.764, 95% CI=0.999-3.114) and 117.6% (2.176 times) as likely to occur among those with BAs>5.73µgL(-1) than for those having BAs≤5.73µgL(-1) (OR=2.176, 95% CI=1.223-3.872). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was also found between BAs and SAlb (rs (199)=-0.354, p<0.0001). As such, this study suggests that people with low SAlb and/or high BAs are likely to rapidly develop arsenicosis symptoms.
  2. Chan Onn Fong, Kim KW, Ness GD
    PMID: 12338570
    Results are presented of research undertaken in the Republic of Korea and Malaysia to determine how far integration affects the performance of family planning and allied programs and to identify organizational determinants of clinic level interactive linkages. The report discusses the background of the research, provides overviews of the country programs, outlines research methodologies and procedures, and presents findings. 41 clinics with high, medium, and low performance ratings in Korea and 17 main health centers, 31 sub-health centers, and 49 midwife stations in Malaysia, (some of them intensive input demonstration areas) were assessed on performance, interaction measures, and organizational determinants. The overall finding was that integration affects program performance, but the direction of the impact depends on how the integrated programs are organized. In Malaysia, where the program is specifically organized to integrate family planning with maternal and child health, the integration appears to have increased service delivery and resulted in larger numbers of family planning acceptors. No spill-over was found from the inputs of the 2 components to each other. The overall positive impact and lack of service reduction due to integration appears to result from specific planning for a limited degree of integration. In Korea, a mild negative relationship was found between clinic level performance in the family planning and community development, or Saemaul Undong (SU) components. In the field SU was observed to be more favored and powerful, and was not fully integrated with family planning. The major conclusion of the study was that integration works best when family planning is linked to similar services, and does not work as well with services that are different in character or in degree of government support.
  3. Prathumratana L, Kim R, Kim KW
    Environ Geochem Health, 2020 Mar;42(3):1033-1044.
    PMID: 30206754 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-018-0186-9
    Lead contamination in topsoil of the mining and smelting area of Mitrovica, Kosovo, was investigated for total concentrations and chemical fractions by sequential extraction analysis, mineralogical fractions by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The study revealed that all samples contained Pb exceeding USEPA standard of 400 mg kg-1. The highest total concentration of Pb (125,000 mg kg-1) was the soil from the former smelter. Sequential extraction results showed that the predominant form of Pb was associated with Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction which ranged from 45.37 to 71.61% of total concentrations, while carbonate and silicate Pb-binding fractions were dominant when physical measurements (XRD and SEM-EDX) were applied. Application of Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb), measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, identified that Pb contamination is originated from similar anthropogenic source. The results reflected that the Pb contamination in the soil of this area is serious. In order to provide proper approaches on remediation and prevention of health impacts to the people in this area, a continuous monitoring and health risk assessment are recommended.
  4. Lee SH, Choi H, Kim KW
    Environ Geochem Health, 2018 Oct;40(5):2119-2129.
    PMID: 29536286 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-018-0087-y
    To develop a novel granular adsorbent to remove arsenic and antimony from water, calcined Mg/Al-layered double-hydroxide (CLDH)-incorporated polyethersulfone (PES) granular adsorbents (PES-LDH) were prepared using a core-shell method having 25% PES in an N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The PES-LDH displayed a spherical hollow shape having a rough surface and the average particle size of 1-2 mm. On the PES-LDH surface, nanosized CLDH (100-150 nm) was successfully immobilized by consolidation between PES and CLDH. The adsorption of Sb(V) by PES-LDH was found to be more favorable than for As(V), with the maximum adsorption capacity of As(V) and Sb(V) being 7.44 and 22.8 mg/g, respectively. The regeneration results indicated that a 0.5 M NaOH and 5 M NaCl mixed solution achieved an 80% regeneration efficiency in As(V) adsorption and desorption. However, the regeneration efficiency of Sb(V) gradually decreased due to its strong binding affinity, even though the PES-LDH showed much higher Sb(V) adsorption efficiency than As(V). This study suggested that PES-LDH could be a promising granular adsorbent for the remediation of As(V) and Sb(V) contained in wastewater.
  5. Lee S, Roh Y, Kim KW
    Environ Geochem Health, 2019 Feb;41(1):71-79.
    PMID: 29761243 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-018-0121-0
    Mercuric species, Hg(II), interacts strongly with dissolved organic matter (DOM) through the oxidation, reduction, and complexation that affect the fate, bioavailability, and cycling of mercury, Hg, in aquatic environments. Despite its importance, the reactions between Hg(II) and DOM have rarely been studied in the presence of different concentrations of chloride ions (Cl-) under anoxic conditions. Here, we report that the extent of Hg(II) reduction in the presence of the reduced DOM decreases with increasing Cl- concentrations. The rate constants of Hg(II) reduction ranged from 0.14 to 1.73 h-1 in the presence of Cl- and were lower than the rate constant (2.41 h-1) in the absence of Cl-. Using a thermodynamic model, we showed that stable Hg(II)-chloride complexes were formed in the presence of Cl-. We further examined that H(0) was oxidized to Hg(II) in the presence of the reduced DOM and Cl- under anoxic conditions, indicating that Hg(II) reduction is inhibited by the Hg(0) oxidation. Therefore, the Hg(II) reduction by the reduced DOM can be offset due to the Hg(II)-chloride complexation and Hg(0) oxidation in chloride-rich environments. These processes can significantly influence the speciation of Hg and have an important implication for the behavior of Hg under environmentally relevant concentrations.
  6. Phan K, Kim KW, Huoy L, Phan S, Se S, Capon AG, et al.
    Environ Geochem Health, 2016 Jun;38(3):763-72.
    PMID: 26298061 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-015-9759-z
    To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia.
  7. Lee S, Ko IW, Yoon IH, Kim DW, Kim KW
    Environ Geochem Health, 2019 Feb;41(1):469-480.
    PMID: 29574658 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-018-0099-7
    Colloid mobilization is a significant process governing colloid-associated transport of heavy metals in subsurface environments. It has been studied for the last three decades to understand this process. However, colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in soil solutions have rarely been studied using soils in South Korea. We investigated the colloid mobilization in a variety of flow rates during sampling soil solutions in sand columns. The colloid concentrations were increased at low flow rates and in saturated regimes. Colloid concentrations increased 1000-fold higher at pH 9.2 than at pH 7.3 in the absence of 10 mM NaCl solution. In addition, those were fourfold higher in the absence than in the presence of the NaCl solution at pH 9.2. It was suggested that the mobility of colloids should be enhanced in porous media under the basic conditions and the low ionic strength. In real field soils, the concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb in soil solutions increased with the increase in colloid concentrations at initial momentarily changed soil water pressure, whereas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Al, and Co lagged behind the colloid release. Therefore, physicochemical changes and heavy metal characteristics have important implications for colloid-facilitated transport during sampling soil solutions.
  8. Duong CN, Ra JS, Cho J, Kim SD, Choi HK, Park JH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2010 Jan;78(3):286-93.
    PMID: 19931116 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.048
    The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries.
  9. Cheng Z, Li HH, Wang HS, Zhu XM, Sthiannopkao S, Kim KW, et al.
    Environ Res, 2016 Oct;150:423-30.
    PMID: 27372065 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.06.011
    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia.
  10. Ko MS, Nguyen TH, Kim YG, Linh BM, Chanpiwat P, Hoang HNT, et al.
    Environ Geochem Health, 2020 Dec;42(12):4193-4201.
    PMID: 32613478 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-020-00631-1
    This study investigated the contamination levels and sources of As and Cd vicinity area from Nui Phao mine that is one of the largest tungsten (W) open pit mines in the world. Soil and plant samples were collected from the study area to identify the concentrations of As and Cd using aqua-regia or HNO3 digestion. According to the Vietnamese agricultural soil criteria, all soil samples were contaminated with As and Cd. The distribution of As concentration is related to the distance from the Nui Phao mine. The higher As concentrations were measured in the area close to the mine. However, the Cd distribution in the soil showed a different pattern from As. Enrichment factor and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) indicated that As in the soil is derived from the mining activities, while Cd could have other geogenic or anthropogenic sources. The ranges of As and Cd concentration in polished rice grains in the Nui Phao mine area exceeded the CODEX criteria (0.2 mg/kg), which indicated extreme contamination. The arsenic concentration between soil and plant samples was determined to be a positive correlation, while the Cd concentration showed a negative correlation, implying that As and Cd have different geochemical behavior based on their sources.
  11. Makkar SR, Lipnicki DM, Crawford JD, Kochan NA, Castro-Costa E, Lima-Costa MF, et al.
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2020 09 25;75(10):1863-1873.
    PMID: 32396611 DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glaa116
    We aimed to examine the relationship between Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE*4) carriage on cognitive decline, and whether these associations were moderated by sex, baseline age, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors. Participants were 19,225 individuals aged 54-103 years from 15 longitudinal cohort studies with a mean follow-up duration ranging between 1.2 and 10.7 years. Two-step individual participant data meta-analysis was used to pool results of study-wise analyses predicting memory and general cognitive decline from carriage of one or two APOE*4 alleles, and moderation of these associations by age, sex, vascular risk factors, and ethnicity. Separate pooled estimates were calculated in both men and women who were younger (ie, 62 years) and older (ie, 80 years) at baseline. Results showed that APOE*4 carriage was related to faster general cognitive decline in women, and faster memory decline in men. A stronger dose-dependent effect was observed in older men, with faster general cognitive and memory decline in those carrying two versus one APOE*4 allele. Vascular risk factors were related to an increased effect of APOE*4 on memory decline in younger women, but a weaker effect of APOE*4 on general cognitive decline in older men. The relationship between APOE*4 carriage and memory decline was larger in older-aged Asians than Whites. In sum, APOE*4 is related to cognitive decline in men and women, although these effects are enhanced by age and carriage of two APOE*4 alleles in men, a higher numbers of vascular risk factors during the early stages of late adulthood in women, and Asian ethnicity.
  12. Röhr S, Pabst A, Riedel-Heller SG, Jessen F, Turana Y, Handajani YS, et al.
    Alzheimers Res Ther, 2020 12 18;12(1):167.
    PMID: 33339532 DOI: 10.1186/s13195-020-00734-y
    BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is recognized as a risk stage for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, but its prevalence is not well known. We aimed to use uniform criteria to better estimate SCD prevalence across international cohorts.

    METHODS: We combined individual participant data for 16 cohorts from 15 countries (members of the COSMIC consortium) and used qualitative and quantitative (Item Response Theory/IRT) harmonization techniques to estimate SCD prevalence.

    RESULTS: The sample comprised 39,387 cognitively unimpaired individuals above age 60. The prevalence of SCD across studies was around one quarter with both qualitative harmonization/QH (23.8%, 95%CI = 23.3-24.4%) and IRT (25.6%, 95%CI = 25.1-26.1%); however, prevalence estimates varied largely between studies (QH 6.1%, 95%CI = 5.1-7.0%, to 52.7%, 95%CI = 47.4-58.0%; IRT: 7.8%, 95%CI = 6.8-8.9%, to 52.7%, 95%CI = 47.4-58.0%). Across studies, SCD prevalence was higher in men than women, in lower levels of education, in Asian and Black African people compared to White people, in lower- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries, and in studies conducted in later decades.

    CONCLUSIONS: SCD is frequent in old age. Having a quarter of older individuals with SCD warrants further investigation of its significance, as a risk stage for AD and other dementias, and of ways to help individuals with SCD who seek medical advice. Moreover, a standardized instrument to measure SCD is needed to overcome the measurement variability currently dominant in the field.

  13. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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