To reveal whether an increase of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 isolates is due to clonal dissemination across the countries, plasmids (pHK02-026, pM16-13, pIN03-01, and pTH02-34) were extracted from four K. pneumoniae isolates collected in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia, respectively. Complete sequencing of blaCTX-M-15-carrying plasmids was performed. In addition to the four plasmids, a previously sequenced plasmid (pKP12226) of a K. pneumoniae ST11 isolate from Korea was included in the analysis. While pIN03-01 and pTH02-34, which belonged to the incompatibility group IncX3, showed nearly the same structure, the others of IncF1A or IncFII exhibited very different structures. The number and kinds of antibiotic genes found in the plasmids were also different from each other. Cryptic prophage genes were identified in all five blaCTX-M-15-harboring plasmids from the ST11 isolates; P1-like region in pKP12226, CPZ-55 prophage region in pHK02-026, phage shock operon pspFABCD in pM16-13, and SPBc2 prophage yokD in pIN03-01 and pTH02-34. The plasmids with blaCTX-M-15 in the prevailing K. pneumoniae ST11 isolates in Asian countries might emerge from diverse origins by recombination. The prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 clone in Asian countries is not mainly due to the dissemination of a single strain.
We examined the constitutional provisions on the right to health in the Western Pacific region countries and compared universal health coverage (UHC) achievement. In 9 of the 11 countries, the constitution had provisions related to health rights, of which 7 countries also included details related to the health care system. Additionally, 5 countries also had provisions for the vulnerable. The countries with weak state obligation and no clear provisions on health rights (China and Laos) all recorded low UHC achievement scores. Australia and Malaysia, which do not have constitutional provisions regarding health, have achieved high UHC achievement scores. Constitution is the supreme law of a country and the basis for developing and implementing health and medical laws and policies. In addition, laws or constitutions that regulate the rights to health can help gain access to health care. Follow-up research related to the constitutional right to health will be needed.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative bioplastic to replace petroleum-based plastics. Our understanding of PHA synthase PhaC is poor due to the paucity of available three-dimensional structural information. Here we present a high-resolution crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PhaC from Chromobacterium sp. USM2, PhaC Cs -CAT. The structure shows that PhaC Cs -CAT forms an α/β hydrolase fold comprising α/β core and CAP subdomains. The active site containing Cys291, Asp447 and His477 is located at the bottom of the cavity, which is filled with water molecules and is covered by the partly disordered CAP subdomain. We designated our structure as the closed form, which is distinct from the recently reported catalytic domain from Cupriavidus necator (PhaC Cn -CAT). Structural comparison showed PhaC Cn -CAT adopting a partially open form maintaining a narrow substrate access channel to the active site, but no product egress. PhaC Cs -CAT forms a face-to-face dimer mediated by the CAP subdomains. This arrangement of the dimer is also distinct from that of the PhaC Cn -CAT dimer. These findings suggest that the CAP subdomain should undergo a conformational change during catalytic activity that involves rearrangement of the dimer to facilitate substrate entry and product formation and egress from the active site.
Cell death is a process of dying within biological cells that are ceasing to function. This process is essential in regulating organism development, tissue homeostasis, and to eliminate cells in the body that are irreparably damaged. In general, dysfunction in normal cellular death is tightly linked to cancer progression. Specifically, the up-regulation of pro-survival factors, including oncogenic factors and antiapoptotic signaling pathways, and the down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factors, including tumor suppressive factors, confers resistance to cell death in tumor cells, which supports the emergence of a fully immortalized cellular phenotype. This review considers the potential relevance of ubiquitous environmental chemical exposures that have been shown to disrupt key pathways and mechanisms associated with this sort of dysfunction. Specifically, bisphenol A, chlorothalonil, dibutyl phthalate, dichlorvos, lindane, linuron, methoxychlor and oxyfluorfen are discussed as prototypical chemical disruptors; as their effects relate to resistance to cell death, as constituents within environmental mixtures and as potential contributors to environmental carcinogenesis.
Conference abstracts: Malaysia in affiliation
(1). PO-211. AGE-SPECIFIC STRESS-MODULATED
CHANGES OF SPLENIC IMMUNOARCHITECTURE
IN THE GROWING BODY. Marina Yurievna Kapitonova, Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad, Flossie Jayakaran; Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia
(2). PO-213. A DETAILED OSTEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE ANOMALOUS GROOVES NEAR THE
MASTOID NOTCH OF THE SKULL. ISrijit Das, 2Normadiah Kassim, lAzian Latiff, IFarihah Suhaimi, INorzana Ghafar, lKhin Pa Pa Hlaing, lIsraa Maatoq, IFaizah Othman; I Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2 Department of Anatomy, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. das_sri email@example.com
(3). PO-21S. FIRST LUMBRICAL MUSCLE OF THE
PALM: A DETAILED ANATOMICAL STUDY WITH
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. Srijit Das, Azian Latiff, Parihah Suhaimi, Norzana Ghafar, Khin Pa Pa Hlaing, Israa Maatoq, Paizah Othman; Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. firstname.lastname@example.org
(4). PO-336. IMPROVEMENT IN EXPERIMENTALLY
INDUCED INFRACTED CARDIAC FUNCTION
FOLLOWING TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN
UMBILICAL CORD MATRIX-DERIVED
MESENCHYMAL CELLS. lSeyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani, lMastafa Latifpour, 2Masood Deilami, 3Behzad Soroure-Azimzadeh, lSeyed
Hasan Eftekharvaghefi, 4Fatemeh Nabipour, 5Hamid
Najafipour, 6Nouzar Nakhaee, 7Mohammad Yaghoobi, 8Rana Eftekharvaghefi, 9Parvin Salehinejad, IOHasan Azizi; 1 Department of Anatomy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 2 Department of Cardiosurgery, Hazrat-e Zahra Hospital, Kerman, Iran; 3 Department of Cardiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 4 Department of Pathology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 5 Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 6 Department of Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 7 Department
of Biotechnology, Research Institute of Environmental Science, International Center for Science, High Technology & Environmental Science, Kerman, Iran; 8 Students Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 9 Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 10 Department of Stem Cell, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com