CASE REPORTS: We describe a novel case where primary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was found after a trans-oral excision of a tumor containing ectopic thyroid tissue at the posterior pharynx, an area not known to be a location for ectopic thyroid. Delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in regional cervical metastases and multifocal PTC. The female patient successfully underwent total thyroidectomy, selective cervical and central lymph node dissection, followed by adjuvant radioactive iodine ablation, with no evidence of distant metastases.
CONCLUSIONS: Ectopic thyroid tissue is uncommon and may be in the posterior pharynx. The principles of management remain those of differentiated thyroid malignancy: complete surgical resection of any tumor focus, total thyroidectomy, and node dissection of involved lymph nodes, followed by adjuvant radioactive iodine in iodine-sensitive tumors.
Case presentation: A 26-year-old lady presented with anterior neck swelling with symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome for 6 months. Imaging study revealed a mediastinal mass which was preceded with core biopsy which was consistent with high-grade small cell NETs. Despite second-line adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, her disease became advanced which was confirmed via restaging scan. There were bilateral breast lesions discovered during the scan which was deemed to be metastatic NETs histologically. Despite prompt initiation of treatment, she succumbed 1 year after the radiotherapy due to disease progression.
Conclusion: High suspicion of an index is needed for diagnosis when patients with known primary NETs present with suspicious breast lesions. Triple assessment is mandatory, however histopathology assessment and immunohistochemistry staining are the mainstay of diagnosis.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among all (n = 361) consented dental undergraduate students of our dental school. A twenty-item Lay's Procrastination Scale for student population and a ten-item General Self-Efficacy Scale were used for the study after getting institutional ethical approval. The quantitative data were explained using descriptive statistics. Independent sample t-test and ANOVA were used to determine the association between self-efficacy, academic procrastination, and genders and academic years. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between self-efficacy and procrastination. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the related factors to academic procrastination.
RESULTS: High procrastination (score ≥62) was seen among 28.5% of students. The mean self-efficacy score was 29.5. There was no significant difference between genders for procrastination scores (P = 0.835) and between academic years (P = 0.226). Males showed significantly more self-efficacy (P < 0.001), and self-efficacy did not show any significant difference (P = 0.204) between academic years though a tendency for year 5 students to have lower self-efficacy scores was observed. Academic procrastination was negatively correlated with self-efficacy (r = -0.238 and P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: For dental undergraduates who have cognitive load as well as work associated with patients, procrastination and self-efficacy are negatively correlated.