Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) partially purified from roots of Vigna mungo exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.5 to 6.0 and maximum enzyme activity at 50 degrees C. Levels of PDE activity in roots remained relatively constant from the first to the eleventh day after germination; on the twelfth day there was a 400% increase in PDE activity. The enzyme was stable for at least 48 hours at 28 degrees C, retaining 92% of its original activity. Plant growth hormones including gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid and kinetin at 1.0 and 10.0 microM concentrations did not have any significant effect on enzyme activity. Nucleotides tested including cyclic 2'3' AMP, cyclic 2'3' GMP completely abolished enzyme activity at 1.0mM while cyclic 3'5' GMP, cyclic 3'5' GMP, 2'deoxy 5' ATP, 2'deoxy 5'GTP and 5'ADP were also inhibitory to the enzyme. The enzyme was stimulated by Mg2+, Fe2+ and NH4+ while Cu2+ and Fe3+ were inhibitory. Theophylline, caffeine, phosphate, pyrophosphate and EDTA were inhibitory to the enzyme.
Genital discharge from patients unth. smear positive gonorrhoea was transported from the clinic to the laboratory in. Stuart's transport medium (Oxoid CM 111). Within. six hours of transit time the recovery rate of gonococci was 94%. When compared with "bedside" inoculation onto Modified Thayer Martin medium, there was no significant difference in recovery rates up to 6 hours of transportation in Stuart's transport medium, However, the rate of isolation of gonococci was significantly reduced after 20 to 30 hours of transportation. It is concluded that Stuart's transport medium is an acceptable transport medium for specimens containing gonococci when specimens reach the laboratory within 6 hours of collection.
Torsion of ovarian tumors occurred predominantly in the reproductive age group. The majority of the cases presented in pregnant (22.7%) than in non-pregnant (6.1%) women. The major presenting symptom was pain but an abdominal mass was palpable in 79.4% of cases. Torsion was more common on the right ovary and 50% were gangrenous at laparotomy. Most of the tumors were benign cystic teratomas. Only 8.7% of the tumors were malignant.
Breast tuberculosis (TB) is rare even in endemic countries. Most of these cases occur as secondary TB due to a concurrent infection. Primary breast TB is diagnosed when it is the only site of disease without other foci of infection. The presentation of primary breast TB may often mimic carcinoma of the breast. While imaging is not specific, histopathology provides a definitive diagnosis. Here, we present a case of primary breast TB in a breast cancer patient and review the literature.
Plant fibers have become a highly sought-after material in the recent days as a result of raising environmental awareness and the realization of harmful effects imposed by synthetic fibers. Natural plant fibers have been widely used as fillers in fabricating plant-fibers-reinforced polymer composites. However, owing to the completely opposite nature of the plant fibers and polymer matrix, treatment is often required to enhance the compatibility between these two materials. Interfacial adhesion mechanisms are among the most influential yet seldom discussed factors that affect the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the plant-fibers-reinforced polymer composites. Therefore, this review paper expounds the importance of interfacial adhesion condition on the properties of plant-fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The advantages and disadvantages of natural plant fibers are discussed. Four important interface mechanism, namely interdiffusion, electrostatic adhesion, chemical adhesion, and mechanical interlocking are highlighted. In addition, quantifying and analysis techniques of interfacial adhesion condition is demonstrated. Lastly, the importance of interfacial adhesion condition on the performances of the plant fiber polymer composites performances is discussed. It can be seen that the physical and thermal properties as well as flexural strength of the composites are highly dependent on the interfacial adhesion condition.
This review describes the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Cinnamomum subavenium (Lauraceae). The plant grows wild in southern Mainland China, Burma, Cambodia, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant is recorded as having long been used to treat carcinomatous swelling, stomach ache, chest pain, abdominal pain, hernia, diarrhoea, rheumatism, nausea and vomiting. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects that is useful to researchers for further exploration for the necessary development of this potential herb.
First-void urine samples collected from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic patients were examined by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a commercial enzyme immunoassay (IDEIA Chlamydia) for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis or cervicitis. The primers for the PCR amplified a target in the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene in C trachomatis while the IDEIA detected genus-specific chlamydial lipopolysaccharide. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting urine specimens with a second (plasmid-based) PCR and taking urethral or endocervical swab results into consideration. For 231 men (chlamydial prevalence 20.4%), the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 59.6%, 99.5%, 96.6% and 90.6% for urine IDEIA, 68.1%, 99.5%, 97% and 92.4% for urethral swab IDEIA and 97.9%, 99.5%, 97.9% and 99.5% for urine PCR. The corresponding rates for 66 women (chlamydial prevalence 54.6%) were 19.4%, 100%, 100% and 50.8% for urine IDEIA, 86.1%, 96.7%, 96.9% and 85.3% for endocervical swab IDEIA and 91.7%, 93.3%, 94.3% and 90.3% for urine PCR. Hence, in a high prevalence population, the urine IDEIA was a suitable alternative to the male urethral swab IDEIA but significantly less sensitive than the endocervical swab IDEIA. The urine PCR was, however, much more sensitive than the urine IDEIA for both men and women and could replace the endocervical swab IDEIA for the diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis.
A study of the melt volume flow rate (MVR) and the melt flow rate (MFR) of kenaf fibre (KF) reinforced Floreon (FLO) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) biocomposites under different temperatures (160-180 °C) and weight loadings (2.16, 5, 10 kg) is presented in this paper. FLO has the lowest values of MFR and MVR. The increment of the melt flow properties (MVR and MFR) has been found for KF or MH insertion due to the hydrolytic degradation of the polylactic acid in FLO. Deterioration of the entanglement density at high temperature, shear thinning and wall slip velocity were the possible causes for the higher melt flow properties. Increasing the KF loadings caused the higher melt flow properties while the higher MH contents created stronger bonding for higher macromolecular chain flow resistance, hence lower melt flow properties were recorded. However, the complicated melt flow behaviour of the KF reinforced FLO/MH biocomposites was found in this study. The high probability of KF-KF and KF-MH collisions was expected and there were more collisions for higher fibre and filler loading causing lower melt flow properties.
This paper examined the role of loneliness in mediating the relation between social support and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults within the Malaysian context. Young adults (N = 275; Mage = 22.41; SD = 1.76; 57.5% females) completed self-administered questionnaires on the scales of perceived social support, loneliness and life satisfaction. The results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed a partial mediation effect of loneliness on the relation between social support and life satisfaction. The integration of the bottom-up theory of subjective well-being and social cognitive theory is included to explain the mediating process. The results revealed that perceived social support can relate to a lower level of loneliness, which could eventually lead to higher levels of young adults' life satisfaction. Overall, the findings highlighted the importance of social support as well as their loneliness as a mediating pathway in promoting Malaysian Chinese young adults' life satisfaction. Interventions are also suggested to optimize life satisfaction as a whole.
To evaluate the response and progression-free survival (PFS) of Malaysian patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and unknown epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status treated with gefitinib.
We report a woman presenting with respiratory failure due to a right-sided pleural effusion, lung metastases and lymphangitis carcinomatosis from advanced lung adenocarcinoma in the third trimester of pregnancy, who showed good response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
There is a paucity of data on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in young Asian women and of comparative data among various ethnic groups with respect to risk factor profile and clinical outcomes. We present a comprehensive overview of the clinical characteristics of young Asian women with AMI and a comparative analysis among Chinese, Malay and Indian women in a multi-ethnic Asian country.
Molybdenum-reducing activity in the heterotrophic bacteria is a phenomenon that has been reported for more than 100 years. In the presence of molybdenum in the growth media, bacterial colonies turn to blue. The enzyme(s) responsible for the reduction of molybdenum to molybdenum blue in these bacteria has never been purified. In our quest to purify the molybdenum-reducing enzyme, we have devised a better substrate for the enzyme activity using laboratory-prepared phosphomolybdate instead of the commercial 12-phosphomolybdate we developed previously. Using laboratory-prepared phosphomolybdate, the highest activity is given by 10:4-phosphomolybdate. The apparent Michaelis constant, Km for the laboratory-prepared 10:4-phosphomolybdate is 2.56 +/- 0.25 mM (arbitrary concentration), whereas the apparent V(max) is 99.4 +/- 2.85 nmol Mo-blue min(-1) mg(-1) protein. The apparent Michaelis constant or Km for NADH as the electron donor is 1.38 +/- 0.09 mM, whereas the apparent V(max) is 102.6 +/- 1.73 nmol Mo-blue min(-1) mg(-l) protein. The apparent Km and V(max) for another electron donor, NADPH, is 1.43 +/- 0.10 mM and 57.16 +/- 1.01 nmol Mo-blue min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively, using the same batch of molybdenum-reducing enzyme. The apparent V(max) obtained for NADH and 10:4-phosphomolybdate is approximately 13 times better than 12-phoshomolybdate using the same batch of enzyme, and hence, the laboratory-prepared phosphomolybdate is a much better substrate than 12-phoshomolybdate. In addition, 10:4-phosphomolybdate can be routinely prepared from phosphate and molybdate, two common chemicals in the laboratory.
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized as the commonest neurodegenerative illness that gradually degenerates the central nervous system. The goal of this review is to come out with a summary of the recent progress of numerous forms of sensors and systems that are related to diagnosis of PD in the past decades. The paper reviews the substantial researches on the application of technological tools (objective techniques) in the PD field applying different types of sensors proposed by previous researchers. In addition, this also includes the use of clinical tools (subjective techniques) for PD assessments, for instance, patient self-reports, patient diaries and the international gold standard reference scale, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Comparative studies and critical descriptions of these approaches have been highlighted in this paper, giving an insight on the current state of the art. It is followed by explaining the merits of the multiple sensor fusion platform compared to single sensor platform for better monitoring progression of PD, and ends with thoughts about the future direction towards the need of multimodal sensor integration platform for the assessment of PD.
In this study, the effects of lignin modification on the properties of kenaf core fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) biocomposites were examined. A weight percent gain (WPG) value of 30.21% was recorded after the lignin were modified with maleic anhydride. Lower mechanical properties were observed for lignin composites because of incompatible bonding between the hydrophobic matrix and the hydrophilic lignin. Modified lignin (ML) was found to have a better interfacial bonding, since maleic anhydrides remove most of the hydrophilic hydrogen bonding (this was proven by a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer-a reduction of broadband near 3400 cm-1, corresponding to the -OH stretching vibration of hydroxyl groups for the ML samples). On the other hand, ML was found to have a slightly lower glass transition temperature, Tg, since reactions with maleic anhydride destroy most of the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds, resulting in a softer structure at elevated temperatures. The addition of kraft lignin was found to increase the thermal stability of the PBS polymer composites, while modified kraft lignin showed higher thermal stability than pure kraft lignin and possessed delayed onset thermal degradation temperature.
Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is considered the cheapest natural fiber with good properties and exists abundantly in Malaysia. It has great potential as an alternative main raw material to substitute woody plants. On the other hand, the well-known polymeric hydrogel has gathered a lot of interest due to its three-dimensional (3D) cross-linked network with high porosity. However, some issues regarding its performance like poor interfacial connectivity and mechanical strength have been raised, hence nanocellulose has been introduced. In this review, the plantation of oil palm in Malaysia is discussed to show the potential of OPEFB as a nanocellulose material in hydrogel production. Nanocellulose can be categorized into three nano-structured celluloses, which differ in the processing method. The most popular nanocellulose hydrogel processing methods are included in this review. The 3D printing method is taking the lead in current hydrogel production due to its high complexity and the need for hygiene products. Some of the latest advanced applications are discussed to show the high commercialization potential of nanocellulose hydrogel products. The authors also considered the challenges and future direction of nanocellulose hydrogel. OPEFB has met the requirements of the marketplace and product value chains as nanocellulose raw materials in hydrogel applications.
In this study, polybutylene succinate (PBS) was blended with five types of modified tapioca starch to investigate the effect of modified tapioca starch in PBS blends for food packaging by identifying its properties. Tensile and flexural properties of blends found deteriorated for insertion of starch. This is due to poor interface, higher void contents and hydrolytic degradation of hydrophilic starch. FTIR results show all starch/PBS blends are found with footprints of starch except OH stretching vibration which is absent in B40 blends. Besides, Broad O⁻H absorption in all specimens show that these are hydrogen bonded molecules and no free O⁻H bonding was found. SEM testing shows good interfacial bonding between PBS and starch except E40 blends. Therefore, poor results of E40 blends was expected. In TGA, a slightly weight loss found between 80 to 100 °C due to free water removal. Apart from this, insertion of all types of starch reduces thermal stability of blend. However, high crystallinity of starch/PBS blend observed better thermal stability but lower char yield. Starch A and B blends are suggested to be used as food wrap and food container materials while starch D blend is suitable for grocery plastic bags according to observed results.
Mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and electrical breakdown of polypropylene/lignin/kenaf core fiber (PP/L/KCF) composite were studied. PP/L, PP/KCF and PP/L/KCF composites with different fiber and lignin loading was prepared using a compounding process. Pure PP was served as control. The results revealed that tensile and flexural properties of the PP/L/KCF was retained after addition of lignin and kenaf core fibers. Thermal stability of the PP composites improved compared to pure PP polymer. As for thermal conductivity, no significant difference was observed between PP composites and pure PP. However, PP/L/KCF composite has higher thermal diffusivity. All the PP composites produced are good insulating materials that are suitable for building. All PP composites passed withstand voltage test in air and oil state as stipulated in IEC 60641-3 except PP/L in oil state. SEM micrograph showed that better interaction and adhesion between polymer matrix, lignin and kenaf core fibers was observed and reflected on the better tensile strength recorded in PP/L/KCF composite. This study has successfully filled the gap of knowledge on using lignin and kenaf fibers as PP insulator composite materials. Therefore, it can be concluded that PP/Lignin/KCF has high potential as an insulating material.
This paper presents the research landscape on microplastics and nanoplastics (M/NPs) in global food webs based on a bibliometric analysis of 330 publications published in 2009-2019 extracted from Web of Science. The publications increased tremendously since 2013. Marine Pollution Bulletin is one of the top productive journals for this topic. The publication landscape related to M/NPs in global food webs, as interdisciplinary research, is highly dependent on the funding availability. The high productivities of England, China, USA and European countries are attributed to the funding from the agencies at regional or national levels. Keyword analysis reveals the shift of research hotspots from investigations on M/NPs absorbed by various organisms in the ecosystems to studies on the trophic transfer of M/NPs and sorbed contaminants in the food webs and their associated adverse impacts. Funding agencies play important roles in leading the future development of this topic.
In this study, it focused on empty fruit brunch (EFB) fibres reinforcement in polybutylene succinate (PBS) with modified tapioca starch by using hot press technique for the use of agricultural mulch film. Mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were studied. Mechanical analysis showed decreased in values of modulus strength for both tensile and flexural testing for fibres insertion. Higher EFB fibre contents in films resulted lower mechanical properties due to poor fibre wetting from insufficient matrix. This has also found evident in SEM micrograph, showing poor interfacial bonding. Water vapour permeability (WVP) shows as higher hydrophilic EFB fibre reinforcement contents, the rate of WVP also increase. Besides this, little or no significant changes on thermal properties for composite films. This is because high thermal stability PBS polymer show its superior thermal properties dominantly. Even though EFB fibres insertion into PBS/tapioca starch biocomposite films have found lower mechanical properties. It successfully reduced the cost of mulch film production without significant changes of thermal performances.