DESIGN: A cross-sectional, non-interventional study.
METHODS: The IOP measurements by handheld Icare rebound tonometer (Finland) were first performed by a primary care physician. Then the IOP was measured using Perkins Mk3 applanation tonometer (Haag-Streit, UK) by an ophthalmologist who was masked to previous readings from the Icare rebound tonometer. The mean IOP measured by each tonometer was compared. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the correlation between the IOP measurements of the 2 instruments. The level of agreement between them was assessed using the Bland and Altman method.
RESULTS: A total of 420 left eyes were examined. The mean age of subjects was 38.6 ± 18.2 years. Approximately 67% of subjects were female. The mean IOP was 16.3 ± 4.0 mm Hg using Icare and 13.4 ± 2.3 mm Hg using PAT. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a moderate positive correlation between the 2 methods (r = +0.524, P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed a slope of 0.28 with R² of 0.255. The mean difference between the 2 methods was 2.90 ± 3.5 mm Hg and the sample t-test revealed a statistically significant mean difference from 0 (P < 0.001). The 95% limits of agreement between the 2 methods were between -9.73 and 3.93 mm Hg.
CONCLUSIONS: The handheld Icare rebound tonometer is a reasonably acceptable screening tool in community practices. However, Icare overestimated IOP with a mean of 2.90 mm Hg higher than the PAT. Thus, using Goldmann applanation tonometer as a confirmatory measurement tool of IOP is suggested.
CASE PRESENTATION: An ophthalmic trainee performed an Ozurdex™ intravitreal injection into a 48-year-old Asian man's right eye under aseptic conditions. This patient was then followed up for further management. On day 7 post-procedure, a slit lamp examination revealed that the Ozurdex™ implant was injected into the intralenticular structure of his right eye and had fractured into two pieces. The posterior capsule of the right lens was breached, with one half of the Ozurdex™ implant stuck at the entry and the other stuck at the exit wound of the posterior capsule. This patient underwent right eye cataract extraction and repositioning of the fractured implant; he made an uneventful recovery.
CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists should be aware of the potential risk of injecting an Ozurdex™ implant into an anatomical structure other than the vitreous cavity. Adequate training and careful administration of the Ozurdex™ implant are necessary to avoid such a complication, which fortunately is rare.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year old male presented with left Cogan's anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), left appendicular ataxia and bilateral upgaze palsy. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) brain showed a left dorsal tegmental infarct at the level of pontomesencephalic junction.
CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the clinical importance of Cogan's anterior INO in combination with upgaze palsy and ataxia, and report possible site of lesion in patients with such constellation. Clinicians should consider looking for cerebellar signs in cases of Cogan's anterior INO, apart from just considering localizing the lesion at the midbrain.
METHODS: This was a primary school-based cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling, conducted at Bau district in Sarawak, Malaysia in 40 primary schools. A questionnaire was used to collect information of usage pattern in insufficient lighting, timing and position. The physical and behavioural complaints were traced. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. A p-value < 0.05 with 95% CI was considered as statistically significant.
RESULTS: About 52.8% of the 569 students used digital devices in a bright room, 69.8% in the day time and 54.4% in sitting position. The physical complaints were headache (32.9%), neck, shoulder and back pain (32.9%) followed by by eye strain (31.8%). Regarding behavioural problems, 25.7% of the students had loss of interest in study and outdoor activities (20.7%), skipped meals (19.0%) and arguments/disagreements with parents (17.9%). After logistic regression analysis, the lying position (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.096, 2.688) and darkroom lighting (OR=2.323 95% CI: 1.138, 4.744) appeared to be potential predictors of the complaint.
CONCLUSION: One-quarter of the students studied experienced physical complaints, and one-fifth had behavioural problems associated with the use of electronic devices. Lying position and darkroom lighting are the potential predictors of complaints. Therefore, we suggest that the children should use electronic devices in the sitting position with adequate room lighting.
METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AAC were identified prospectively over a 12-month period (November 2011 to October 2012) by active surveillance through the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system. Data were collected at case identification and at 6 months follow-up.
RESULTS: There were 114 cases (108 patients) reported, giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) or 2 patients (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) per 1 00 000 in the whole population in Scotland. Precipitating factors were identified in 40% of cases. Almost one in five cases was associated with topical dilating drops. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from 6/6 to perception of light. The mean presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) was 52 mm Hg (SD 11). Almost 30% cases had a delayed presentation of 3 or more days. At 6 months follow-up, 75% had BCVA of 6/12 or better and 30% were found to have glaucoma at follow-up. Delayed presentation (≥3 days) was associated with higher rate of glaucoma at follow-up (22.6% vs 60.8%, p<0.001), worse VA (0.34 vs 0.74 LogMAR, p<0.0001) and need for more topical medication (0.52 vs 1.2, p=0.003) to control IOP.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of AAC in Scotland is relatively low compared with the Far East countries, but in line with previous European data. Almost one in five cases were associated with pupil dilation for retinal examination.