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  1. Abdul-Kadir MA, Lim LT
    BMJ Open Ophthalmol, 2020;5(1):e000630.
    PMID: 33195813 DOI: 10.1136/bmjophth-2020-000630
    The 2019 novel coronavirus which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) known as SARS-CoV-2 still remains as a global pandemic since its discovery and continues to spread across the world, given how highly contagious the virus is. We reviewed various articles that explore eye involvement in COVID-19 and other human coronaviruses, its human manifestations in comparison to animal studies and potential mechanism of viral entry into the eye surface. Evidence of animal studies depicted various complications of coronaviruses infection into the eyes, in both anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Conjunctival inflammation remains uncommon in association with COVID-19, with other ophthalmic findings. The risk of transmission via the ocular surface remains likely low, though it is inarguably present based on preliminary finding of viral load in ocular samples and expression of ACE2 on the ocular surface. Testing the tears sample for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 was unreliable due to limitations of the testing kits and conflicting evidence of the viral titre in the ocular samples. Further larger, more precise and specific studies are required to allow us to better understand the pattern of virulence underlying the associations of SARS-CoV-2 in the eye despite its rare occurrence. This review article aims to enhance better awareness among clinicians regarding ocular manifestations associated with COVID-19 and necessary precautions should be implemented to minimise the risk of person-to-person especially in the nosocomial setting.
  2. Lim LT, Vasudevan V, Shelton J, Vitale AT, Moorthy R
    Retin Cases Brief Rep, 2017 Spring;11(2):119-122.
    PMID: 27305849 DOI: 10.1097/ICB.0000000000000307
    PURPOSE: To report a case series of two cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis, previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, which developed macular necrosis, not previously associated with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, healed with fibrosis, despite aggressive immune-modulating therapy and good control of systemic disease.

    METHODS: Case series of two cases with observation of treatment progress.

    RESULTS: The results reported the progress of response to treatment in the two cases, which resulted in the final outcome of fibrosis in the macula region, despite being on aggressive immune-modulating therapy and good systemic control.

    CONCLUSION: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis can be associated with macular necrosis leading to fibrosis, unresponsive to immune-modulating therapy.
  3. Ting SL, Lim LT, Ooi CY, Rahman MM
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila), 2019 06 05;8(3):229-232.
    PMID: 31165604 DOI: 10.22608/APO.2018433
    PURPOSE: To compare the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) of Icare rebound tonometer and Perkins applanation tonometer (PAT) during community eye screening and to assess the agreement between these 2 instruments.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional, non-interventional study.

    METHODS: The IOP measurements by handheld Icare rebound tonometer (Finland) were first performed by a primary care physician. Then the IOP was measured using Perkins Mk3 applanation tonometer (Haag-Streit, UK) by an ophthalmologist who was masked to previous readings from the Icare rebound tonometer. The mean IOP measured by each tonometer was compared. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the correlation between the IOP measurements of the 2 instruments. The level of agreement between them was assessed using the Bland and Altman method.

    RESULTS: A total of 420 left eyes were examined. The mean age of subjects was 38.6 ± 18.2 years. Approximately 67% of subjects were female. The mean IOP was 16.3 ± 4.0 mm Hg using Icare and 13.4 ± 2.3 mm Hg using PAT. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a moderate positive correlation between the 2 methods (r = +0.524, P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed a slope of 0.28 with R² of 0.255. The mean difference between the 2 methods was 2.90 ± 3.5 mm Hg and the sample t-test revealed a statistically significant mean difference from 0 (P < 0.001). The 95% limits of agreement between the 2 methods were between -9.73 and 3.93 mm Hg.

    CONCLUSIONS: The handheld Icare rebound tonometer is a reasonably acceptable screening tool in community practices. However, Icare overestimated IOP with a mean of 2.90 mm Hg higher than the PAT. Thus, using Goldmann applanation tonometer as a confirmatory measurement tool of IOP is suggested.

  4. Yap JF, Wai YZ, Ng QX, Lim LT
    J Med Case Rep, 2019 May 06;13(1):131.
    PMID: 31056080 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-019-2064-1
    BACKGROUND: This is a case report of an iatrogenic intralenticular broken steroid (Ozurdex™) implant in a patient with uveitis. There are only a few case reports on broken Ozurdex™ implants in the vitreous cavity, with none of them involving the crystalline lens. A few authors have described the accidental injection of an Ozurdex™ implant into the crystalline lens, but all of the implants remained in one piece in the lens and none of them were broken. We report an unusual case of an Ozurdex™ implant which was injected inadvertently into the crystalline lens, resulting in a broken Ozurdex™ implant with an entry and exit wound through the posterior capsule of the lens.

    CASE PRESENTATION: An ophthalmic trainee performed an Ozurdex™ intravitreal injection into a 48-year-old Asian man's right eye under aseptic conditions. This patient was then followed up for further management. On day 7 post-procedure, a slit lamp examination revealed that the Ozurdex™ implant was injected into the intralenticular structure of his right eye and had fractured into two pieces. The posterior capsule of the right lens was breached, with one half of the Ozurdex™ implant stuck at the entry and the other stuck at the exit wound of the posterior capsule. This patient underwent right eye cataract extraction and repositioning of the fractured implant; he made an uneventful recovery.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists should be aware of the potential risk of injecting an Ozurdex™ implant into an anatomical structure other than the vitreous cavity. Adequate training and careful administration of the Ozurdex™ implant are necessary to avoid such a complication, which fortunately is rare.

  5. Wai YZ, Ng QX, Lim TH, Lim LT
    BMC Ophthalmol, 2021 Feb 25;21(1):105.
    PMID: 33632162 DOI: 10.1186/s12886-021-01868-9
    BACKGROUND: Cogan's anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is characterized by INO with inability to converge and commonly thought to be due to rostral midbrain lesion. A lesion outside midbrain that causes unilateral Cogan's anterior INO combined with upgaze palsy and ataxia are rarely described.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year old male presented with left Cogan's anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), left appendicular ataxia and bilateral upgaze palsy. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) brain showed a left dorsal tegmental infarct at the level of pontomesencephalic junction.

    CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the clinical importance of Cogan's anterior INO in combination with upgaze palsy and ataxia, and report possible site of lesion in patients with such constellation. Clinicians should consider looking for cerebellar signs in cases of Cogan's anterior INO, apart from just considering localizing the lesion at the midbrain.

  6. Kipli K, Hoque ME, Lim LT, Mahmood MH, Sahari SK, Sapawi R, et al.
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2018;2018:4019538.
    PMID: 30065780 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4019538
    Digital image processing is one of the most widely used computer vision technologies in biomedical engineering. In the present modern ophthalmological practice, biomarkers analysis through digital fundus image processing analysis greatly contributes to vision science. This further facilitates developments in medical imaging, enabling this robust technology to attain extensive scopes in biomedical engineering platform. Various diagnostic techniques are used to analyze retinal microvasculature image to enable geometric features measurements such as vessel tortuosity, branching angles, branching coefficient, vessel diameter, and fractal dimension. These extracted markers or characterized fundus digital image features provide insights and relates quantitative retinal vascular topography abnormalities to various pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, hypertensive retinopathy, transient ischemic attack, neovascular glaucoma, and cardiovascular diseases. Apart from that, this noninvasive research tool is automated, allowing it to be used in large-scale screening programs, and all are described in this present review paper. This paper will also review recent research on the image processing-based extraction techniques of the quantitative retinal microvascular feature. It mainly focuses on features associated with the early symptom of transient ischemic attack or sharp stroke.
  7. Ting SL, Saimon R, Rahman MM, Safii R, Ho SL, John N, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):649-654.
    PMID: 33219172
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Physical and behavioural problems from extended usage of electronic devices are issues among primary school children. This study is aimed to investigate the prevalence of physical and behavioural complaints arising from the electronic device usage and to identify the potential factors that predicted the complaints.

    METHODS: This was a primary school-based cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling, conducted at Bau district in Sarawak, Malaysia in 40 primary schools. A questionnaire was used to collect information of usage pattern in insufficient lighting, timing and position. The physical and behavioural complaints were traced. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. A p-value < 0.05 with 95% CI was considered as statistically significant.

    RESULTS: About 52.8% of the 569 students used digital devices in a bright room, 69.8% in the day time and 54.4% in sitting position. The physical complaints were headache (32.9%), neck, shoulder and back pain (32.9%) followed by by eye strain (31.8%). Regarding behavioural problems, 25.7% of the students had loss of interest in study and outdoor activities (20.7%), skipped meals (19.0%) and arguments/disagreements with parents (17.9%). After logistic regression analysis, the lying position (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.096, 2.688) and darkroom lighting (OR=2.323 95% CI: 1.138, 4.744) appeared to be potential predictors of the complaint.

    CONCLUSION: One-quarter of the students studied experienced physical complaints, and one-fifth had behavioural problems associated with the use of electronic devices. Lying position and darkroom lighting are the potential predictors of complaints. Therefore, we suggest that the children should use electronic devices in the sitting position with adequate room lighting.

  8. Chua PY, Day AC, Lai KL, Hall N, Tan LL, Khan K, et al.
    Br J Ophthalmol, 2018 Apr;102(4):539-543.
    PMID: 28794074 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310725
    PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence, and describe the clinical features and short-term clinical outcomes of acute angle closure (AAC).

    METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AAC were identified prospectively over a 12-month period (November 2011 to October 2012) by active surveillance through the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system. Data were collected at case identification and at 6 months follow-up.

    RESULTS: There were 114 cases (108 patients) reported, giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) or 2 patients (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) per 1 00 000 in the whole population in Scotland. Precipitating factors were identified in 40% of cases. Almost one in five cases was associated with topical dilating drops. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from 6/6 to perception of light. The mean presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) was 52 mm Hg (SD 11). Almost 30% cases had a delayed presentation of 3 or more days. At 6 months follow-up, 75% had BCVA of 6/12 or better and 30% were found to have glaucoma at follow-up. Delayed presentation (≥3 days) was associated with higher rate of glaucoma at follow-up (22.6% vs 60.8%, p<0.001), worse VA (0.34 vs 0.74 LogMAR, p<0.0001) and need for more topical medication (0.52 vs 1.2, p=0.003) to control IOP.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of AAC in Scotland is relatively low compared with the Far East countries, but in line with previous European data. Almost one in five cases were associated with pupil dilation for retinal examination.

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