Probiotics are live bacteria that could exert health beneficial effects upon consumption. In additional to their conventional use as gut modulators, probiotics are investigated for their role to prevent cancer. In-vivo and molecular studies have demonstrated encouraging outcomes, mainly attributed to its antimicrobial effects against carcinogen-producing microorganisms, antimutagenic properties, and alteration of the tumor differentiation processes. Prebiotics are indigestible food components that could promote the growth of beneficial bacteria including probiotics. Present studies have suggested that prebiotics also possess protective effect against colon carcinogenesis, mainly attributed to the production of short chain fatty acids upon its fermentation by gut microflora, and alteration of gene-expressions in tumor cells. Synbiotic (combination of probiotic and prebiotic) has been found to exert a synergistic effect in improving colon carcinogenesis compared to when both were used individually. This paper highlights the colon cancer preventive effects by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. In addition, the controversial outcomes on the insignificant effect of these food adjuncts will be discussed.
The conventional use of probiotics to modulate gastrointestinal health, such as in improving lactose intolerance, increasing natural resistance to infectious diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, suppressing traveler's diarrhea, and reducing bloating, has been well investigated and documented. Most of the mechanisms reported to date are mainly caused by the suppression of pathogenic bacteria. Currently, the potential applications of probiotics are being expanded beyond alleviating gastrointestinal disorders to include benefits involving antihypertension, immunomodulation, improving serum lipid profiles, and the alleviation of postmenopausal disorders. Although they seem promising, most of these postulated benefits are based on in vitro evaluations, and the lack of in vivo evidence and/or incompatible outcomes between in vitro experiments and in vivo trials has led to inconclusive claims. This present review highlights some of the previous roles of probiotics on gut health and addresses several potential roles currently being investigated.
The long history of safety has contributed to the acceptance of probiotics as a safe food adjunct. Consequently, many probiotic products and their applications have been granted GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. However, this classification has been frequently generalized for all probiotic strains regardless of their application. Cases of probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium have been isolated from infection sites, leading to the postulation that these probiotics can translocate. Probiotic translocation is difficult to induce in healthy humans, and even if it does occur, detrimental effects are rare. Despite this, various reports have documented health-damaging effects of probiotic translocation in immunocompromised patients. Due to probiotics' high degree of safety and their morphological confusion with other pathogenic bacteria, they are often overlooked as contaminants and are least suspected as pathogens. However, the antibiotic resistance of some strains has increased the complexity of their eradication. Probiotic translocation and infection deserve further investigation and should become a facet of safety assessment so the negative effects of probiotics do not outweigh the benefits.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroporation (2.5-7.5 kV cm⁻¹ for 3.0-4.0 ms) on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, membrane properties and bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) at 30-90 J/m²) on the membrane properties of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their bioconversion of isoflavones in prebiotic-soymilk. UV treatment caused membrane permeabilization and alteration at the acyl chain, polar head and interface region of membrane bilayers via lipid peroxidation. Such alteration subsequently led to decreased (p < 0.05) viability of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria immediately after the treatment. However, the effect was transient where cells treated with UV, particularly UVA, grew better in prebiotic-soymilk than the control upon fermentation at 37°C for 24 h (p < 0.05). In addition, UV treatment also increased (p < 0.05) the intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. This was accompanied by an increased (p < 0.05) bioconversion of glucosides to bioactive aglycones in prebiotic-soymilk. Our present study illustrated that treatment of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria with UV could develop a fermented prebiotic-soymilk with enhanced bioactivity.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVB; 90 J/m²) on growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of L. casei FTDC 2113. UV radiation significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the growth of parent cells in mannitol-soymilk fermented at 37°C for 24 h. This had led to an enhanced intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity with a subsequent increase in bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk (P < 0.05). UV radiation also promoted (P < 0.05) the tolerance of parent cells towards acidic condition (pH 2 and 3) and intestinal bile salts (oxgall, taurocholic and cholic acid). In addition, parent treated cells also exhibited better (P < 0.05) adhesion ability to mucin and antimicrobial activity compared to that of the control. All these positive effects of UV radiation were only prevalent in the parent cells without inheritance by first, second and third passage of cells. Although temporary, our results suggested that UV radiation could enhance the bioactive and probiotic potentials of L. casei FTDC 2113, and thus could be applied for the production of probiotic products with enhanced bioactivity.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound on the growth of probiotics and bioconversion of isoflavones in prebiotic-soymilk. Previous studies have shown that ultrasound elevated microbial enzymatic activity and growth by altering cellular membranes. The growth of probiotics was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) immediately after ultrasound treatment, attributed to membrane permeabilization, cell lysis, and membrane lipid peroxidation upon ultrasound treatment. The ultrasound treatment also caused alteration at the acyl chain, polar head, and interface region of the probiotic membrane phospholipid bilayers. The cells treated with ultrasound showed recovery from injury with subsequent increase in growth upon fermentation in soymilk (P < 0.05). Ultrasound treatment at 100 W for 2 and 3 min also enhanced (P < 0.05) the intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity of probiotics, leading to increased (P < 0.05) bioconversion of glucosides to aglycones in the prebiotic-soymilk. Our present study illustrated that ultrasound treatment could produce bioactive synbiotic-soymilk with increased concentrations of bioactive aglycones.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.
Lactobacillus sp. FTDC 2113, L. acidophilus FTDC 8033, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. casei ATCC 393, Bifidobacterium FTDC 8943 and B. longum FTDC 8643 were incorporated into soymilk supplemented with fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, mannitol, maltodextrin and pectin. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of prebiotics on the bioactivity of probiotic-fermented soymilk. Proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of FOS, while the supplementation of inulin and pectin increased the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity accompanied by lower IC(50) values. The beta-glucosidase activity was also enhanced in the presence of pectin. This led to higher bioconversion of glucosides to aglycones by probiotics, especially genistin and malonyl genistin to genistein. Results from this study indicated that the supplementation of prebiotics enhanced the in-vitro antihypertensive effect and production of bioactive aglycones in probiotic-fermented soymilk. Therefore, this soymilk could potentially be used as a dietary therapy to reduce the risks of hypertension and hormone-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and osteoporosis.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physicochemical, and functional properties of agrowastes derived from okara ( Glycine max), corn cob ( Zea mays sp.), wheat straw ( Triticum sp.), and rice husk ( Oryza sativa) for potential applications in foods. The fibrous materials (FM) were treated with alkali to yield fibrous residues (FR). Rice husk contained the highest ash content (FM, 8.56%; FR, 9.04%) and lowest lightness in color (FM, 67.63; FR, 63.46), possibly due to the abundance of mineral constituents. Corn cob contained the highest amount of soluble dietary fiber (SDF), whereas okara had the highest total dietary fiber (TDF). The high dietary fiber fractions of corn cob and okara also contributed to the highest water- and oil-holding capacities, emulsifying activities, and emulsion stabilities for both FM and FR samples. These results indicate that these agrowastes could be utilized as functional ingredients in foods.
Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are able to produce antimicrobial compounds to inhibit opportunisticwounding skin pathogen. The antimicrobial compounds produced are organic acids, putative bacteriocin, hydrogen peroxide, and diacetyl. Staphylococcus epidermidis is well-known as an opportunistic wounding skin pathogen in wound infections related to implanted medical devices.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of electroporation on growth, bioconversion of isoflavones, and probiotic properties of parent organisms and subsequent passages of Bifidobacterium longum FTDC 8643. Electroporation with the strength of electric field at 7.5 kV cm(-1) for 3.5 ms was applied on B. longum FTDC 8643. The viability of B. longum FTDC 8643 increased significantly upon treatment with electroporation. Such treatment also enhanced the intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity, leading to enhanced production of bioactive isoflavone aglycones in mannitol-soymilk (P
AIMS: The study aimed to optimize the growth and evaluate the production of putative dermal bioactives from Lactobacillus rhamnosus FTDC 8313 using response surface methodology, in the presence of divalent metal ions, namely manganese and magnesium.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A central composite design matrix (alpha value of ± 1.414) was generated with two independent factors, namely manganese sulphate (MnSO(4) ) and magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4) ). The second-order regression model indicated that the quadratic model was significant (P < 0.01), suggesting that the model accurately represented the data in the experimental region. Three-dimensional response surfaces predicted an optimum point with maximum growth of 10.59 log(10) CFU ml(-1) . The combination that produced the optimum point was 0.80 mg ml(-1) MnSO(4) and 1.09 mg ml(-1) MgSO(4) . A validation experiment was performed, and data obtained showed a deviation of 0.30% from the predicted value, ascertaining the predictions and the reliability of the regression model used. Effects of divalent metal ions on the production of putative dermal bioactives, namely hyaluronic acid, diacetyl, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and organic acids in the region of optimized growth, were evaluated using 3D response surfaces generated. Evaluation based on the individual and interaction effects showed that both manganese and magnesium played an important role in the production of these putative bioactives.
CONCLUSIONS: Optimum growth of Lact. rhamnosus FTDC 8313 in reconstituted skimmed milk was achieved at 10.59 log(10) CFU ml(-1) in the presence of MnSO(4) (0.80 mg ml(-1) ) and MgSO(4) (1.09 mg ml(-1) ). Production of putative dermal bioactive and inhibitory compounds including hyaluronic acid, diacetyl, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and organic acids at the regions of optimized growth showed potential dermal applications.
SIGNIFICANT AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This research can serve as a fundamental study to further evaluate the potential of Lactobacillus strains in non-gut-related roles such as dermal applications.
This study explored the potential of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from agrowastes, okara (soybean solid waste), oil palm trunk (OPT), and oil palm frond (OPF) obtained via alkali treatment, in the nanoencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus . SDF solutions were amended with 8% poly(vinyl alcohol) to produce nanofibers using electrospinning technology. The spinning solution made from okara had a higher pH value at 5.39 ± 0.01 and a higher viscosity at 578.00 ± 11.02 mPa·s (P < 0.05), which resulted in finer fibers. FTIR spectra of nanofibers showed the presence of hemicellulose material in the SDF. Thermal behavior of nanofibers suggested possible thermal protection of probiotics in heat-processed foods. L. acidophilus was incorporated into the spinning solution to produce nanofiber-encapsulated probiotic, measuring 229-703 nm, visible under fluorescence microscopy. Viability studies showed good bacterial survivability of 78.6-90% under electrospinning conditions and retained viability at refrigeration temperature during the 21 day storage study.
Oil palm trunk (OPT), oil palm frond (OPF), and okara are agrowastes generated abundantly by the palm oil and soy industries. There are vast potentials for these fibrous biomass rather than disposal at landfills or incineration. Fibrous materials (FM) and alkali-treated fibrous residues (FR) were produced from the selected wastes and subsequently characterized. Functional properties such as emulsifying properties, mineral-binding capacity, and free radical scavenging activity were also evaluated for possible development of functional products. Supernatants (FS) generated from the alkaline treatment contained soluble fractions of fibers and were also characterized and used for the production of nanofibers. Okara FM had the highest (P < 0.05) protein (31.5%) and fat (12.2%) contents, which were significantly reduced following alkali treatment. The treatment also increased total dietary fiber (TDF) in okara by 107.9%, in OPT by 67.2%, and in OPF by 25.1%. The increased fiber fractions in FR enhanced functional properties such as water-holding capacities and oil-holding capacities. Okara displayed the highest (P < 0.05) emulsifying properties compared to OPT and OPF. High IDF content of OPT and OPF contributed to high antioxidant activities (377.2 and 367.8% higher than that of okara, respectively; P < 0.05). The soluble fraction from alkali treatment of fibers was successfully electrospun into nanofibers, which can be further developed into nanoencapsulants for bioactive compound or drug delivery.
Fifteen strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were screened based on their ability to adhere to hydrocarbons via the determination of cellular hydrophobicity. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. bulgaricus FTDC 1311, and L. casei ATCC 393 showed greater hydrophobicity and, thus, were selected for examination of cholesterol-removal properties. All selected strains showed changes in cellular fatty acid compositions, especially total fatty acids and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of cholesterol compared with those grown in the absence of cholesterol. In addition, we found that cells grown in media containing cholesterol were more resistant to sonication and enzymatic lysis compared with those grown without cholesterol. We further evaluated the location of the incorporated cholesterol via the insertion of fluorescence probes into the cellular membrane. In general, enrichment of cholesterol was found in the regions of the phospholipid tails, upper phospholipids, and polar heads of the cellular membrane phospholipid bilayer. Our results also showed that lactobacilli were able to reduce cholesterol via conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol, aided by the ability of strains to produce cholesterol reductase. Our results provided experimental evidence to strengthen the hypothesis that probiotics could remove cholesterol via the incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane and conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol. The strains studied may be potential health adjunct cultures in fermented dairy products with possible in vivo hypocholesterolemic effects.
Four strains of probiotics were evaluated for their alpha-galactosidase activity. Lactobacillus acidophilus FTCC 0291 displayed the highest specific alpha-galactosidase activity and was thus selected to be optimized in soy whey medium supplemented with seven nitrogen sources. The first-order model showed that meat extract, vegetable extract, and peptone significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the growth of L. acidophilus. The second-order polynomial regression estimated that maximum growth was obtained from the combination of 7.25% (w/v) meat extract, 4.7% (w/v) vegetable extract, and 6.85% (w/v) peptone. The validation experiment showed that response surface methodology was reliable with a variation of only 1.14% from the actual experimental data. Increased utilization of oligosaccharides and reducing sugars contributed to increased growth of L. acidophilus in the soy whey medium. This was accompanied by increased production of short-chain fatty acids and a decrease in pH.