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  1. Yusof Z, Ramasamy S, Mahmood NZ, Yaacob JS
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 04;23(6).
    PMID: 29867000 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061345
    This project studied the effect of vermicompost application on the composition of bioactive anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutans. The correlation between the bioactive constituents and antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. In this project, a field study was conducted using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatment groups, including control plants (CC), plants supplied with chemical fertilizer (CF), plants supplied with vermicompost (VC), and plants supplied with mixed fertilizer (MF). The leaves of C. nutans from all treatment groups were harvested, subjected to solvent extraction, and used for quantification of total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). The initial antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, as well as after two and four weeks of storage at -20 °C and 4 °C. Data analysis showed that CC plants contained the highest TAC (2180.14 ± 338.43 µg/g dry weight) and TFC (276.25 ± 3.09 mg QE/g dry weight). On the other hand, CF plants showed the highest TPC (181.53 ± 35.58 mg GAE/g dry weight). Moreover, we found that CC plants had the highest antioxidant potential against DPPH radicals whereas MF plants showed the lowest antioxidant potential. After four weeks of extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C, the TPC, TFC, TAC, and antioxidant potential of the extracts decreased. Extracts from VC showed the lowest percentage of total phenolic and total flavonoid loss after extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C compared with other plant extracts. At this juncture, it could be deduced that the application of vermicompost had little effect on the expression of phenolics, flavonoids, or anthocyanin in C. nutans. However, the extract from plants treated with vermicompost (VC and MF) showed better stability compared with CC and CF after extract storage at different temperatures.
  2. Aghajani Mir M, Taherei Ghazvinei P, Sulaiman NM, Basri NE, Saheri S, Mahmood NZ, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2016 Jan 15;166:109-15.
    PMID: 26496840 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.09.028
    Selecting a suitable Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method is a crucial stage to establish a Solid Waste Management (SWM) system. Main objective of the current study is to demonstrate and evaluate a proposed method using Multiple Criteria Decision Making methods (MCDM). An improved version of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) applied to obtain the best municipal solid waste management method by comparing and ranking the scenarios. Applying this method in order to rank treatment methods is introduced as one contribution of the study. Besides, Viekriterijumsko Kompromisno Rangiranje (VIKOR) compromise solution method applied for sensitivity analyses. The proposed method can assist urban decision makers in prioritizing and selecting an optimized Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) treatment system. Besides, a logical and systematic scientific method was proposed to guide an appropriate decision-making. A modified TOPSIS methodology as a superior to existing methods for first time was applied for MSW problems. Applying this method in order to rank treatment methods is introduced as one contribution of the study. Next, 11 scenarios of MSW treatment methods are defined and compared environmentally and economically based on the waste management conditions. Results show that integrating a sanitary landfill (18.1%), RDF (3.1%), composting (2%), anaerobic digestion (40.4%), and recycling (36.4%) was an optimized model of integrated waste management. An applied decision-making structure provides the opportunity for optimum decision-making. Therefore, the mix of recycling and anaerobic digestion and a sanitary landfill with Electricity Production (EP) are the preferred options for MSW management.
  3. Rahman A, Munisamy S, Ghaffar NA, Mahmood NZ, Rasool AHG
    Microcirculation, 2019 01;26(1):e12513.
    PMID: 30422359 DOI: 10.1111/micc.12513
    OBJECTIVES: To assess microvascular reactivity and glycemic parameters in GDM compared to age and GA matched controls.

    METHODS: This study involved 21 GDM patients and 31 controls. Microvascular reactivity was assessed using LDF and PORH. Microvascular parameters; PORHmax , PORHpeak , and time to peak perfusion (Tp) were recorded after the release of 3 minutes' upper arm occlusion. HOMA-IR was performed to evaluate insulin resistance.

    RESULTS: Average age and GA for subjects were 32.9 years and 29.2 weeks. Mean FBG and a 2-hour postprandial for GDM and controls were 4.87 ± 0.71 vs 3.99 ± 0.59 mmol/L; P 

  4. Ng CC, Boyce AN, Abas MR, Mahmood NZ, Han F
    Environ Monit Assess, 2019 Jun 14;191(7):434.
    PMID: 31201562 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7573-2
    Over the years, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) has been widely used for many purposes. However, there are inadequate phytoassessment studies conducted using EDTA in Vetiver grass. Hence, this study evaluates the phytoassessment (growth performance, accumulation trends, and proficiency of metal uptake) of Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash in both single and mixed heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn)-disodium EDTA-enhanced contaminated soil. The plant growth, metal accumulation, and overall efficiency of metal uptake by different plant parts (lower root, upper root, lower tiller, and upper tiller) were thoroughly examined. The relative growth performance, metal tolerance, and phytoassessment of heavy metal in roots and tillers of Vetiver grass were examined. Metals in plants were measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) after acid digestion. The root-tiller (R/T) ratio, biological concentration factor (BCF), biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and metal uptake efficacy were used to estimate the potential of metal accumulation and translocation in Vetiver grass. All accumulation of heavy metals were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in both lower and upper roots and tillers of Vetiver grass for Cd + Pb + Cu + Zn + EDTA treatments as compared with the control. The single Zn + EDTA treatment accumulated the highest overall total amount of Zn (8068 ± 407 mg/kg) while the highest accumulation for Cu (1977 ± 293 mg/kg) and Pb (1096 ± 75 mg/kg) were recorded in the mixed Cd + Pb + Cu + Zn + EDTA treatment, respectively. Generally, the overall heavy metal accumulation trends of Vetiver grass were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd for all treatments. Furthermore, both upper roots and tillers of Vetiver grass recorded high tendency of accumulation for appreciably greater amounts of all heavy metals, regardless of single and/or mixed metal treatments. Thus, Vetiver grass can be recommended as a potential phytoextractor for all types of heavy metals, whereby its tillers will act as the sink for heavy metal accumulation in the presence of EDTA for all treatments.
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