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  1. Hagger MS, Hardcastle SJ, Hu M, Kwok S, Lin J, Nawawi HM, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2018 10;277:493-501.
    PMID: 30270090 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.06.010
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be effectively managed using cholesterol-lowering medication, patients often fall short of complete treatment adherence. Identifying the psychological factors associated with self-regulation of FH medication is important to inform interventions to maximize adherence. The aim of the present study was to test an integrated psychological model in predicting FH patients' intentions to take medication.

    METHODS: FH patients attending clinics in seven countries were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey study. Consenting patients (N = 551) completed self-report measures of generalized beliefs about medication overuse and harms, beliefs in treatment effectiveness, specific beliefs about taking medication (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control), and intentions to take medication. Participants also completed measures of demographic variables (age, gender, education level, income, cardiovascular disease status). Data were analysed using path analysis controlling for country and demographic variables.

    RESULTS: Attitudes (β = .331, p<0.001), subjective norms (β = .121, p=0.009), and beliefs about medication overuse (β = -.160, p<0.001) were significant predictors of intentions to take medication. Treatment beliefs predicted intentions indirectly (β = .088, p<0.001) through attitudes and subjective norms. There was also an indirect effect of beliefs about medication overuse on intentions (β = -.045, p=0.056), but the effect was small compared with the direct effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate the importance among FH patients of specific beliefs about taking medication and generalized beliefs about medication overuse and treatment in predicting medication intentions. When managing patients, clinicians should emphasize the efficacy of taking cholesterol-lowering drugs and the importance of treatment outcomes, and allay concerns about medication overuse.

  2. Hagger MS, Hamilton K, Hardcastle SJ, Hu M, Kwok S, Lin J, et al.
    Soc Sci Med, 2019 Oct 07;242:112591.
    PMID: 31630009 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.112591
    RATIONALE: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition that predisposes patients to substantially increased risk of early-onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. FH risks can be minimized through regular participation in three self-management. BEHAVIORS: physical activity, healthy eating, and taking cholesterol lowering medication.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the effectiveness of an integrated social cognition model in predicting intention to participate in the self-management behaviors in FH patients from seven countries.

    METHOD: Consecutive patients in FH clinics from Australia, Hong Kong, Brazil, Malaysia, Taiwan, China, and UK (total N = 726) completed measures of social cognitive beliefs about illness from the common sense model of self-regulation, beliefs about behaviors from the theory of planned behavior, and past behavior for the three self-management behaviors.

    RESULTS: Structural equation models indicated that beliefs about behaviors from the theory of planned behavior, namely, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, were consistent predictors of intention across samples and behaviors. By comparison, effects of beliefs about illness from the common sense model were smaller and trivial in size. Beliefs partially mediated past behavior effects on intention, although indirect effects of past behavior on intention were larger for physical activity relative to taking medication and healthy eating. Model constructs did not fully account for past behavior effects on intentions. Variability in the strength of the beliefs about behaviors was observed across samples and behaviors.

    CONCLUSION: Current findings outline the importance of beliefs about behaviors as predictors of FH self-management behaviors. Variability in the relative contribution of the beliefs across samples and behaviors highlights the imperative of identifying sample- and behavior-specific correlates of FH self-management behaviors.

  3. Hagger MS, Hardcastle SJ, Hu M, Kwok S, Lin J, Nawawi HM, et al.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2018 06;25(9):936-943.
    PMID: 29592531 DOI: 10.1177/2047487318766954
    Background High rates of inadequate health literacy are associated with maladaptive health outcomes in chronic disease including increased mortality and morbidity rates, poor treatment adherence and poor health. Adequate health literacy may be an important factor in the effective treatment and management of familial hypercholesterolemia, and may also be implicated in genetic screening for familial hypercholesterolemia among index cases. The present study examined the prevalence and predictors of health literacy in familial hypercholesterolemia patients attending clinics in seven countries. Design Cross-sectional survey. Methods Consecutive FH patients attending clinics in Australia, Brazil, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan and the UK completed measures of demographic variables (age, gender, household income and highest education level) and a brief three-item health literacy scale. Results Rates of inadequate health literacy were lowest in the UK (7.0%), Australia (10.0%), Hong Kong (15.7%) and Taiwan (18.0%) samples, with higher rates in the Brazil (22.0%), Malaysia (25.0%) and China (37.0%) samples. Income was an independent predictor of health literacy levels, accounting for effects of age. Health literacy was also independently related to China national group membership. Conclusions Findings indicate non-trivial levels of inadequate health literacy in samples of familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Consistent with previous research in chronic illness, inadequate health literacy is related to income as an index of health disparities. Chinese familial hypercholesterolemia patients are more likely to have high rates of inadequate health literacy independent of income. Current findings highlight the imperative of education interventions targeting familial hypercholesterolemia patients with inadequate health literacy.
  4. See CK, Turnbull D, Ritson F, Martin S, Tully P, Wittert G
    JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep, 2019 Sep;17(9):1894-1900.
    PMID: 30925504 DOI: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-004035
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to examine the association between serum testosterone concentration and the presence and severity of depression in men.

    INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort studies examining the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depression in men have produced mixed results. There has not, however, been any prior attempt to systematically interrogate the data. Clarification of the relationship has clinical importance because depression may be under-diagnosed in men.

    INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider studies involving community-dwelling men who are not receiving testosterone replacement therapy. The exposure of interest reviewed will include endogenous testosterone concentration measured through validated assays. Studies measuring total and testosterone fraction concentration will be included. This review will include studies with depression or incident depression outcomes as defined by either clinical diagnosis of depression or validated self-administered questionnaire assessing depression symptomatology.

    METHODS: This review will follow the JBI approach for systematic reviews of etiology and risk. The following sources will be searched: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and the ISRCTN Registry. Analytical observational studies including prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case control studies and analytical cross-sectional studies published in English or other languages with English translation will be considered. Retrieval of full-text studies, assessment of methodological quality and data extraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Data will be pooled in statistical meta-analysis, where possible.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42018108273.

  5. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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