Methylene blue (MB) is a dye pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. We investigate and critically evaluate the applicability of BaTiO3/GO composite for photodegradation of MB in synthetic wastewater under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its performance, the BaTiO3/GO composite is varied based on the BaTiO3 weight. To compare and evaluate any changes in their morphologies and crystalline structures before and after treatment, BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) tests are conducted, while the effects of reaction time, pH, dose of photocatalyst and initial MB concentration on its photodegradation by the composite are also investigated under identical conditions. The degradation pathways and removal mechanisms of MB by the BaTiO3/GO are elaborated. It is evident from this study that the BaTiO3/GO composite is promising for MB photodegradation through ·OH. Under optimized conditions (0.5 g/L of dose, pH 9.0, and 5 mg/L of MB concentration), the composite with 1:2 dose ratio of BaTiO3/GO has the highest MB degradation rate (95%) after 3 h of UV vis irradiation. However, its treated effluents still could not comply with the discharge standard limit of less than 0.2 mg/L imposed by national environmental legislation. This suggests that additional biological treatments are still required to deal with the remaining oxidation by-products of MB, still present in the wastewater samples such as 3,7-bis (dimethyl-amino)-10H-phenothiazine 5-oxide.
We aim at fabricating a ternary magnetic recyclable Bi2WO6/BiOI@Fe3O4 composite that could be applied for photodegradation of tetracycline (TC) from synthetic wastewater. To identify any changes with respect to the composite's morphology and crystal structure properties, ΧRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, PL and VSM analyses are carried out. The effects of Fe3O4 loading ratio on the Bi2WO6/BiOI for TC photodegradation are evaluated, while operational parameters such as pH, reaction time, TC concentration, and photocatalyst's dose are optimized. Removal mechanisms of the TC by the composite and its photodegradation pathways are elaborated. With respect to its performance, under the same optimized conditions (1 g/L of dose; 5 mg/L of TC; pH 7; 3 h of reaction time), the Bi2WO6/BiOI@5%Fe3O4 composite has the highest TC removal (97%), as compared to the Bi2WO6 (63%). After being saturated, the spent photocatalyst could be magnetically separated from solution for subsequent use. In spite of three consecutive cycles with 71% of efficiency, the spent composite still has reasonable photocatalytic activities for reuse. Overall, this suggests that the composite is a promising photocatalyst for TC removal from aqueous solutions.
Methylene blue is a refractory pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. This study tests the feasibility of TiO2/graphene oxide (GO) composite in enhancing photocatalytic degradation of MB in synthetic wastewater with respect to scientific and engineering aspects. To enhance its removal, we vary the composition of the composite based on the TiO2 weight. Under UV-vis irradiation, the effects of photocatalyst's dose, pH, and reaction time on MB removal by the composites are evaluated under optimum conditions, while any changes in their physico-chemical properties before and after treatment are analyzed by using TEM, SEM, XRD, FTIR and BET. The photodegradation pathways of the target pollutant by the composite and its removal mechanisms are also elaborated. It is found that the same composite with a 1:2 wt ratio of GO/TiO2 has the largest surface area of 104.51 m2/g. Under optimum reactions (0.2 g/L of dose, pH 10, and 5 mg/L of pollutant's concentration), an almost complete MB removal could be attained within 4 h. This result is higher than that of the TiO2 alone (30%) under the same conditions. Since the treated effluents could meet the strict discharge standard limit of ≤0.2 μg/L set by China's regulation, subsequent biological treatments are unnecessary for completing biodegradation of remaining oxidation by-products in the wastewater effluents.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a refractory pollutant presents in water body that possesses serious threats to living organisms. To deal with it, we investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 composite as a novel photocatalyst for BPA removal from aqueous solutions under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its removal for BPA, the surface of BiOI/Bi2WO6 is modified with graphene oxide (GO). This composite is named as 'GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6'. Changes in its physico-chemical properties after surface modification with GO are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, XPS, PL, and BET methods. Optimized conditions of BPA degradation by the composite are determined under identical conditions. Photodegradation pathways of BPA and its removal mechanisms by the same composite are presented. It is obvious that the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 has demonstrated its potential as a promising photocatalyst for BPA removal under UV-vis irradiation. About 81% of BPA removal is attained by the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 under optimized conditions (10 mg/L of BPA, 0.5 g/L of dose, pH 7 and 5 h of reaction time). The oxidation by-products of BPA degradation include p-hydroquinone or 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-phenol. In spite of its performance, the treated effluents are still unable to meet the maximum discharge limit of <1 mg/L set by national legislation. Therefore, subsequent biological processes are essential to maximize its biodegradation in the wastewater samples before their discharge into waterbody.
This work investigates the use of novel BiOI@ZIF-8 nanocomposite for the removal of acetaminophen (Ace) from synthetic wastewater. The samples were analyzed using FTIR, XRD, XPS, DRS, PL, FESEM-EDS, and ESR techniques. The effects of the loading capacity of ZIF-8 on the photocatalytic oxidation performance of bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) were studied. The photocatalytic degradation of Ace was maximized by optimizing pH, reaction time and the amount of photocatalyst. On this basis, the removal mechanisms of the target pollutant by the nanocomposite and its photodegradation pathways were elucidated. Under optimized conditions of 1 g/L of composite, pH 6.8, and 4 h of reaction time, it was found that the BiOI@ZIF-8 (w/w = 1:0.01) nanocomposite exhibited the highest Ace removal (94%), as compared to that of other loading ratios at the same Ace concentration of 25 mg/L. Although this result was encouraging, the treated wastewater still did not satisfy the required statutory of 0.2 mg/L. It is suggested that the further biological processes need to be adopted to complement Ace removal in the samples. To sustain its economic viability for wastewater treatment, the spent composite still could be reused for consecutive five cycles with 82% of regeneration efficiency. Overall, this series of work shows that the nanocomposite was a promising photocatalyst for Ace removal from wastewater samples.
We test the feasibility of TiO2(B)@carbon composites as adsorbents, derived from wheat straws, for tetracycline (TC) adsorption from aqueous solutions. Hydrochar (HC), biochar (BC), and hydrochar-derived pyrolysis char (HDPC) are synthesized hydrothermally from the waste and then functionalized with TiO2(B), named as 'Composite-1', 'Composite-2', and 'Composite-3', respectively. A higher loading of TiO2(B) into the HC was also synthesized for comparison, named as 'Composite-4'. To compare their physico-chemical changes before and after surface modification, the composites are characterized using FESEM-EDS, XRD, BET, FRTEM, and FTIR. The effects of H2O2 addition on TC removal are investigated. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TC removal are studied, while TC adsorption mechanisms are elaborated. We found that the Composite-4 has the highest TC removal (93%) at pH 7, 1 g/L of dose, and 4 h of reaction time at 50 mg/L of TC after adding H2O2 (10 mM). The TC adsorption capacities of the Composite-1 and Composite-4 are 40.65 and 49.26 mg/g, respectively. The TC removal by the Composite-1 follows the pseudo-second order. Overall, this suggests that converting the wheat straw into HC and then functionalizing its surface with TiO2(B) as a composite has added values to the waste as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment.