Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

  1. Lim TM, Ibrahim MI
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2012 Jul;10(3):136-42.
    PMID: 24155829
    Drug selection methods with scores have been developed and used worldwide for formulary purposes. These tools focus on the way in which the products are differentiated from each other within the same therapeutic class. Scoring Analytical Tool (SAT) is designed based on the same principle with score and is able to assist formulary committee members in evaluating drugs either to add or delete in a more structured, consistent and reproducible manner.
  2. Saleh K, Ibrahim MI
    Pharm World Sci, 2005 Dec;27(6):442-6.
    PMID: 16341951 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-005-1318-8
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines.

    SETTING: The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory).

    METHOD: The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines.

    RESULTS: The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain areas in Sabah availability was less than 80.0% and still a problem.
  3. Noordin MI, Chung LY
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2004;30(9):925-30.
    PMID: 15554216
    This study adopts Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to analyze the thermal properties of samples (2.5-4.0 mg) from the tip, middle, and base sections of individual paracetamol suppositories, which were sampled carefully using a stainless steel scalpel. The contents of paracetamol present in the samples obtained from these sections were determined from the enthalpies of fusion of paracetamol and expressed as % w/w paracetamol to allow comparison of the amount of paracetamol found in each section. The tip, middle, and base sections contained 10.1+/-0.2%, 10.1+/-0.2%, and 10.3+/-0.2% w/w paracetamol, and are statistically similar (One-way anova; p>0.05). This indicates that the preparation technique adopted produces high quality suppositories in terms of content uniformity. The contents of paracetamol in the 120-mg paracetamol suppositories determined by DSC and UV spectrophotometry were statistically equivalent (Students's t-test; p>0.05), 120.8+/-2.6 mg and 120.8+/-1.5 mg, respectively, making DSC a clear alternative method for the measurement of content of drug in suppositories. The main advantages of the method are that samples of only 2.5-4.0 mg are required and the procedure does not require an extraction process, which allows for the analysis to be completed rapidly. In addition, it is highly sensitive and reproducible, with the lower detection limit at 4.0% w/w paracetamol, which is about 2.5 times lower than the content of paracetamol (10% w/w) present in our 120-mg paracetamol suppositories and commercial paracetamol suppositories, which contained about 125 mg paracetamol. Therefore, this method is particularly suited for determination of content uniformity in individual suppositories in quality control (QC) and in process quality control (PQC).
  4. Palaian S, Ibrahim MI, Mishra P
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2011 Oct;9(4):228-235.
    PMID: 24198861
    BACKGROUND: Ozzzzzzzair.

    OBJECTIVE: Ozzzzzzzair.

    METHODS: Ozzzzzzzair.

    RESULTS: Ozzzzzzzair.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ozzzzzzzair.

  5. Dawood OT, Ibrahim MI, Palaian S
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Apr;8(2):96-102.
    PMID: 25132876
    Minor ailments like sore throat, fever, cough and diarrhea can be relieved with over-the-counter (OTC) medications such as paracetamol or other traditional remedies, without seeking for consultation from general practitioners. Parents usually take the responsibility to come up with some kind of treatment for their children.
  6. Ali SE, Ibrahim MI, Palaian S
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Oct;8(4):226-32.
    PMID: 25126145
    The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.

    Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3), 93.1% (n=448) students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340) stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389). The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%), 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%), followed by respiratory disease (19.6%), Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT) disease (18.1%) and headache/fever (16.8%). Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%), ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%), vitamins & minerals (10.8%), GIT drugs (8.5%), anti-infections (7.3%) and herbal medicines (3.5%). Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.

    There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.
  7. Palaian S, Ibrahim MI, Mishra P
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Jul;8(3):201-7.
    PMID: 25126141
    The pharmacovigilance program in Nepal is less than a decade old, and is hospital centered. This study highlights the findings of a community based pharmacovigilance program involving the community pharmacists.
  8. Palaian S, Ibrahim MI, Mishra P
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Jul;8(3):179-86.
    PMID: 25126138
    Analyzing the pattern and quality of scientific communications on pharmacovigilance can help the regional centers in Nepal and other developing countries to develop approaches for communicating effectively medicine safety issues. This kind of research is lacking in developing countries.
  9. Syarifah-Noratiqah, S.B., Zulfarina, M.S., 'Atiqah, A., Qodriyah, H.M.S., Naina-Mohamed, I., Fairus, S.
    Medicine & Health, 2018;13(1):29-48.
    Hyperlipidemia is a condition of high lipid levels in the plasma and often linked with the deposition of lipid droplets in the aorta which initiate the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a common cardiovascular disorder initiated by the formation of foams cells in the vascular wall which leads to turbulent blood flow, injury to the endothelial layer and subsequent vascular thrombosis. Since the early 1980’s, Golden-Syrian hamsters have been widely used as an animal model in the research of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The use of hamsters in the hyperlipidemic and atherosclerotic model is due to their lipoprotein profile that is closer to human setting, sensitive to high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet and a suitable rodent model. Atherosclerosis can be induced in hamsters through dietary challenge with HFHC diet. Over the decades, coconut oil (CNO) was commonly used as the source of fat in the diet design of high saturated fatty acids (SFA) composition. In this review, we summarized published literature with designs involving CNO plus cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis or both. The factors that may influence the ability of CNO and cholesterol combination to induce hyperlipidemia such as the period of dietary intervention, hamster strains and the dietary amount were evaluated and summarized.
  10. Hussain A, Ibrahim MI, Baber ZU
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2012 Jun;20(3):183-90.
    PMID: 22554161 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00178.x
    The study evaluated the compliance of community pharmacies with legal requirements as laid down by the drug regulatory framework in Pakistan.
  11. Ahmad R, Abu-Hassan MI, Li Q, Swain MV
    Clin Oral Implants Res, 2013 Nov;24(11):1273-9.
    PMID: 22862429 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2012.02566.x
    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new method to quantify longitudinal mandibular bone remodeling three-dimensionally by superimposition of cone beam computed tomography images.
  12. Masood M, Yusof N, Hassan MI, Jaafar N
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2014 May;26(3):260-7.
    PMID: 22218936 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511420704
    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study.
  13. AL-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Prosthodont, 2009 Aug;18(6):484-8.
    PMID: 19694015
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the occlusal fracture resistance of Turkom-Cerafused alumina compared to Procera AllCeram and In-Ceram all-ceramic restorations.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixmaster dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Ten copings of 0.6 mm thickness were fabricated from each type of ceramic, for a total of thirty copings. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented with resin luting cement Panavia F according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.

    RESULTS: The results of the present study showed the following mean loads at fracture: Turkom-Cera (2184 +/- 164 N), In-Ceram (2042 +/- 200 N), and Procera AllCeram (1954 +/- 211 N). ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test showed that the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera was significantly different from Procera AllCeram (p < 0.05). Scheffe's post hoc test showed no significant difference between the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera and In-Ceram or between the mean load at fracture of In-Ceram and Procera AllCeram.

    CONCLUSION: Because Turkom-Cera demonstrated equal to or higher loads at fracture than currently accepted all-ceramic materials, it would seem to be acceptable for fabrication of anterior and posterior ceramic crowns.

  14. Al-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2008;9(2):33-40.
    PMID: 18264523
    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different luting agents on the fracture strength of Turkom-Cera all-ceramic copings.
  15. Hussein AS, Schroth RJ, Abu-Hassan MI
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP2326-38.
    PMID: 23420056 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513475645
    This survey evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Selangor regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention and the recommended timing of a child's first dental visit. A questionnaire was mailed to 521 licensed GDPs. Descriptive statistics were used, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 52.6%. Although 89.8% mentioned counseling parents and caregivers, only 44.2% were familiar with anticipatory guidance. Whereas 98.2% agreed that early examinations are important to prevent ECC, only 51.8% were aware of the recommendation for a first visit by 12 months of age. GDPs who recommended early dental visits were significantly more likely to be recent graduates, more familiar with professional guidelines, and less likely to be deterred by a child's crying or behavior. In conclusion, GDPs in Selangor are aware about the importance of early dental visits in ECC prevention. However, a considerable number of them are still not aware of the recommendation that children must first visit the dentist by 12 months of age. Furthermore, some of their current practices in ECC management and prevention do not match professional recommendations.
  16. Barmou MM, Hussain SF, Abu Hassan MI
    Int Orthod, 2018 06;16(2):314-327.
    PMID: 29673688 DOI: 10.1016/j.ortho.2018.03.005
    AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of cephalometric variables from MicroScribe-3DXL.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven cephalometric variables (facial angle, ANB, maxillary depth, U1/FH, FMA, IMPA, FMIA) were measured by a dentist in 60 Malay subjects (30 males and 30 females) with class I occlusion and balanced face. Two standard images were taken for each subject with conventional cephalometric radiography and MicroScribe-3DXL. All the images were traced and analysed. SPSS version 2.0 was used for statistical analysis with P-value was set at P<0.05.

    RESULTS: The results revealed a significant statistic difference in four measurements (U1/FH, FMA, IMPA, FMIA) with P-value range (0.00 to 0.03). The difference in the measurements was considered clinically acceptable. The overall reliability of MicroScribe-3DXL was 92.7% and its validity was 91.8%.

    CONCLUSION: The MicroScribe-3DXL is reliable and valid to most of the cephalometric variables with the advantages of saving time and cost. This is a promising device to assist in diverse areas in dental practice and research.

  17. Hassan MI, McSorley FR, Hotta K, Boddy CN
    J Vis Exp, 2017 06 27.
    PMID: 28715370 DOI: 10.3791/55187
    Co-expression of multiple proteins is increasingly essential for synthetic biology, studying protein-protein complexes, and characterizing and harnessing biosynthetic pathways. In this manuscript, the use of a highly effective system for the construction of multigene synthetic operons under the control of an inducible T7 RNA polymerase is described. This system allows many genes to be expressed simultaneously from one plasmid. Here, a set of four related vectors, pMGX-A, pMGX-hisA, pMGX-K, and pMGX-hisK, with either the ampicillin or kanamycin resistance selectable marker (A and K) and either possessing or lacking an N-terminal hexahistidine tag (his) are disclosed. Detailed protocols for the construction of synthetic operons using this vector system are provided along with the corresponding data, showing that a pMGX-based system containing five genes can be readily constructed and used to produce all five encoded proteins in Escherichia coli. This system and protocol enables researchers to routinely express complex multi-component modules and pathways in E. coli.
  18. Ibrahim N', Naina Mohamed I
    Life (Basel), 2021 Jan 29;11(2).
    PMID: 33573041 DOI: 10.3390/life11020103
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been recognized as the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 31% of global mortality. Among the risk factors of CVD, hyperlipidemia has been established as the most potent risk factor. Statins, a class of drug that reduces lower-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), are the preferred medical treatment. However, due to the development of statin-associated muscle symptoms, statins are associated with patients' discontinuation and nonadherence. Other statin-induced side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal upset, all contribute to patients choosing alternative medicines. Squalene (SQ), an unsaturated hydrocarbon naturally synthesized in plants and animals, could become the alternative treatment or supplementary agent for cardiovascular health. SQ has been shown to exert cardioprotective effect via its antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are closely related to each other, which proposes an interdependence relation between antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Therefore, this review explores the interdependence between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of SQ implicated on cardiovascular health.
  19. Othman F, M E AE, Mohamed I
    J Environ Monit, 2012 Dec;14(12):3164-73.
    PMID: 23128415 DOI: 10.1039/c2em30676j
    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as agricultural or urban runoff and commercial activity.
  20. Mohd Taib NA, Yip CH, Mohamed I
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2008 Apr-Jun;9(2):197-202.
    PMID: 18712958
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer amongst Malaysian women but local survival data are scarce. The present study was therefore conducted to assess overall survival and prognostic factors in Malaysian breast cancer patients.

    METHODS: The research sample was a prospective cohort of 413 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 to 1997. Survival data were obtained from the National Registry of Birth and Deaths in December 2000. The clinico-pathological variables studied were age, ethnic group, stage, tumour size, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor status and grade. The data were analysed utilizing Splus statistical software. The important prognostic factors were identified by fitting the Cox's proportional hazard model to the data set. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared by the log-rank test.

    RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival was 59.1%. The Cox's proportional hazard model identified stage, lymph node status, size and grade as factors that correlated with prognosis. Age was not a significant prognostic factor. The Cox regression model by stepwise selection showed stage, nodal status and grade of tumour to be independent prognostic factors, whereas ethnicity, age and ER status were not.

    INTERPRETATION: The overall survival in our centre was low. Recognizing factors that affect prognosis of breast cancer patients in Malaysia may improve delivery of health care to at-risk groups by strategizing interventions as survival depends on early detection and effective treatment.
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