Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Shariat A, Mohd Tamrin SB, Arumugam M, Danaee M, Ramasamy R
    Lower back, neck and shoulder pain are the most prevalent musculoskeletal problems affecting office workers worldwide, and they have both personal and socioeconomic consequences as well. Several hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms and the maintenance behind office work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been presented. There is some evidence, based on epidemiological studies as well as studies upon smaller groups of subjects, that individuals who sit and work for a long time not only show cognitive impairment at the workplace, but also suffer from poorer and fragmented daytime sleep, in addition to increased risks of developing various psychological, physiological and medical impairments and musculoskeletal disorders. The related physical mechanisms behind musculoskeletal disorders are discussed in the context of new findings. The main causes, as well as varying levels in severity of musculoskeletal disorders,not to mentionthe link between such disorders in the neck, shoulder and lower back regions and physical activity among office workers are also stated. The main objective of this review paper is to conduct a systematic review to identify musculoskeletal disorders and how these disorders are
    correlated with physical activity among office workers. The results of this review indicate that the musculoskeletal disorder is a critical issue among office workers and the main cause is related to the absence of physical activity as well as the subjects’ sedentary lifestyle. As a practical message, regular physical activity can be effective in the prevention and decrease of physical discomfort among office workers who suffer from musculoskeletal pain.
  2. Hamzah NA, Mohd Tamrin SB, Ismail NH
    Int J Occup Environ Health, 2016 07;22(3):224-232.
    PMID: 27392157 DOI: 10.1080/10773525.2016.1207040
    BACKGROUND: Metallic dust is a heterogeneous substance with respiratory sensitizing properties. Its long term exposure adversely affected lung function, thus may cause acute or chronic respiratory diseases.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a steel factory in Terengganu, Malaysia to assess the metal dust exposure and its relationship to lung function values among 184 workers. Metal dust concentrations values (Co, Cr, and Ni) for each worker were collected using air personal sampling. Lung function values (FEV1, FVC, and %FEV1/FVC) were determined using spirometer.

    RESULTS: Exposure to cobalt and chromium were 1-3 times higher than permissible exposure limit (PEL) while nickel was not exceeding the PEL. Cumulative of chromium was the predictor to all lung function values (FEV1, FVC, and %FEV1/FVC). Frequency of using mask was positively associated with FVC (Adj b = 0.263, P = 0.011) while past respiratory illnesses were negatively associated with %FEV1/FVC (Adj b = -1.452, P = 0.026). Only few workers (36.4%) were found to wear their masks all times during the working hours.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was an exposure-response relationship of cumulative metal dust exposure with the deterioration of lung function values. Improvement of control measures as well as proper and efficient use or personal protection equipment while at work could help to protect the respiratory health of workers.

  3. Shariat A, Mohd Tamrin SB, Arumugam M, Danaee M, Ramasamy R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jul;23(4):54-8.
    PMID: 27660545 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.4.7
    Pain in specific areas of the body (including the lower back, neck, and shoulders) due to extended periods of sitting and inactivity is the most widespread musculoskeletal disorder worldwide and has consequences that are both socio-economic and personal. This condition is particularly prevalent in industrialised countries, affecting roughly 70% to 80% of adults at some point in their lives; approximately 1% of the U.S. population is chronically disabled by this type of pain disorder. A practical way to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among office workers would have a significant positive impact. More work is required to develop a package of exercises designed to prevent and treat musculoskeletal pain in office workers. Such a package would be preferable to pharmacological treatments, which can have undesirable side effects. The main objective of this package would be to increase the flexibility and strength of trunk muscles in order to decrease the soreness, pain, and degree of discomfort. In this article, we introduce our proposed package of exercises, which are based on guidelines issued bythe American College of Sports Medicine.
  4. Shair EF, Ahmad SA, Marhaban MH, Mohd Tamrin SB, Abdullah AR
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:3937254.
    PMID: 28303251 DOI: 10.1155/2017/3937254
    Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG) signal is used to monitor the workers' muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird's eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications.
  5. Shariat A, Cardoso JR, Cleland JA, Danaee M, Ansari NN, Kargarfard M, et al.
    Work, 2018;60(2):191-199.
    PMID: 29865103 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182738
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian office workers often experience Musculoskeletal Discomfort (MSD) which is typically related to the low back, shoulders, and neck.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of lower back, shoulder, and neck pain among Malaysian office workers.

    METHODS: 752 subjects (478 women and 274 men) were randomly selected from the Malaysian office workers population of 10,000 individuals. The participants were aged between 20-50 years and had at least one year of work experience. All participants completed the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ). Instructions to complete the questinnaire were given to the participants under the researchers supervision in the morning before they started a day of work. The participants were then classified into four categories based on body mas index (BMI) (BMI:≤18.4, 18.5-24.99, 25-29.99, ≥30) and age (Age: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, ≥50).

    RESULTS: There was a significant association between pain severity in gender and right (p = 0.046) and left (p = 0.041) sides of the shoulders. There was also a significant association between BMI and severity of pain in the lower back area (p = 0.047). It was revealed that total pain score in the shoulders was significantly associated with age (p = 0.041).

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that a significant correlation existed between pain servity for gender in both right and left shoulder. These findings require further scientific investigation as do the identification of effective preventative stratgies.

  6. Mohd Shukoor NS, Mohd Tamrin SB, Guan NY, Mohd Suadi Nata DH
    Work, 2018;60(1):129-134.
    PMID: 29843301 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182741
    BACKGROUND: Hard hats are among the personal protective equipment (PPE) used in many industries to reduce the impact of any falling object on the skull and also to prevent head and brain injuries. However, the practice of wearing a safety helmet during working hours is still low. This is due to the physical discomfort perceived by safety helmet users.

    OBJECTIVE: Given the unpopularity of the current hard hat, the general perception of workers concerning its use and its measurements are the determining factors in the development of a new hard hat.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 132 male oil palm harvesters between 19 and 60 years of age were selected from among the employees of the same oil palm harvesting company. A set of questionnaires was developed to collect their socio-demographic information as well as their perceptions of comfort and the prevalence of head injury. In addition, a set of measuring instruments, including Martin's anthropometry set, was used for head measurement and data collection in respect of the current hard hat. In this research, six respondents were randomly selected to attend an interview session for qualitative assessment.RESULTSBased on the questionnaires, the unpopularity in the use of the hard hat was largely influenced by factors related to poor design, in general, and, specifically, poor ventilation (64%), load (67% ), and physical discomfort (42% ). The measurements of the anthropometric parameters and the dimensions of the hard hat also showed a significant mismatch.

    CONCLUSION: The unpopularity of the current hard hat among oil palm harvesters stemmed from the discomfort from wearing, which showed that the development of a new hard hat could lead to better usage and the greater likelihood of wearing a hard hat throughout the working day.

  7. Ng YG, Mohd Tamrin SB, Mohd Yusoff IS, Hashim Z, Deros BM, Abu Bakar S, et al.
    Ann Agric Environ Med, 2015;22(2):286-92.
    PMID: 26094525 DOI: 10.5604/12321966.1152101
    This cross-sectional study intends to investigate the associations of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among foreign labourers on a socio-economic background, occupational exposure, social lifestyle, and postures adopted during harvesting tasks. A total of 446 male respondents (263 FFB cutters; 183 FFB collectors) were studied using an interview-assisted questionnaire. OWAS was used to determine the severity of awkward posture based on videos of harvesting tasks recorded for each respondent. Analysis found that increasingly educated respondents had higher risk of developing MSDs. Shorter daily work duration and longer resting duration appear to increase the risk of neck and shoulder disorders among harvesters, which may be attributable to organizational work design. Awkward posture was a particularly significant risk factor of MSDs among FFB collectors. Among the results of the study, occupational exposure, postures and certain socio-demographic backgrounds explained some, but not all, the risk factor of MSDs among harvesters. An in-depth investigation, preferably a longitudinal study investigating the dynamic of work activities and other risk factors, such as psychosocial risk factors, are recommended.
  8. Mohammad Yusof NAD, Karupiah K, Mohd Tamrin SB, Rasdi I, How V, Sambasivam S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(10):e0258796.
    PMID: 34665845 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0258796
    Traffic police riders are exposed to prolonged static postures causing significant angular deviation of the musculoskeletal, including the lumbar angle (L1-L5). This postural alteration contributes to awkward posture, musculoskeletal disorders and spinal injury, especially in the lower back area, as it is one of the most severe modern diseases nowadays. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of lumbar support with a built-in massager system on spinal angle profiles among traffic police riders. A randomised controlled trial (pre-testpost-test control design) was used to assess spinal angle pattern while riding the high-powered motorcycle for 20 minutes. Twenty-four traffic police riders were randomly selected to participate and 12 riders were assigned to the control group and 12 riders to the experimental group. The pre-test and post-test were conducted at a one-week interval. Each participant was required to wear a TruPosture Smart Shirt (to monitor spinal posture). The TruPosture Apps recorded the spinal angle pattern. The data indicated that the police riders using motorcycle seat with lumbar support and built-in massager system showed a huge improvement in maintaining posture which only involves slight spinal angle deviation changes from the spinal reference angle throughout the 20 minutes ride. The data collected then were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed-ranked test to verify a statistically significant difference between and within the control and experimental groups. There were significant differences in all sensors between the control group and experimental groups (p<0.05) and within the experimental group. According to the findings, it can be said that the ergonomic intervention prototype (lumbar support with built-in massager system) successfully helps to maintain and improve the natural curve of the spinal posture. This indirectly would reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders and spinal injury among traffic police riders.
  9. Mohamad Jamil PAS, Karuppiah K, Rasdi I, How V, Mohd Tamrin SB, Mani KKC, et al.
    Rev Environ Health, 2021 Jun 25;36(2):167-176.
    PMID: 33594842 DOI: 10.1515/reveh-2020-0107
    This paper provides a specific deliberation on occupational hazards confronted daily by Malaysian Traffic Police. Traffic police is a high-risk occupation that involves a wide range of tasks and, indirectly, faced with an equally wide variety of hazards at work namely, physical, biological, psychosocial, chemical, and ergonomic hazards. Thereupon, occupational injuries, diseases, and even death are common in the field. The objective of this paper is to collate and explain the major hazards of working as Malaysian traffic police especially in Point Duty Unit, their health effects, and control measures. There are many ways in which these hazards can be minimised by ensuring that sufficient safety measures are taken such as a wireless outdoor individual exposure indicator system for the traffic police. By having this system, air monitoring among traffic police may potentially be easier and accurate. Other methods of mitigating these unfortunate events are incorporated and addressed in this paper according to the duty and needs of traffic police.
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