The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value.
PVD process as a thin film coating method is highly applicable for both metallic and ceramic materials, which is faced with the necessity of choosing the correct parameters to achieve optimal results. In the present study, a GEP-based model for the first time was proposed as a safe and accurate method to predict the adhesion strength and hardness of the Nb PVD coated aimed at growing the mixed oxide nanotubular arrays on Ti67. Here, the training and testing analysis were executed for both adhesion strength and hardness. The optimum parameter combination for the scratch adhesion strength and micro hardness was determined by the maximum mean S/N ratio, which was 350W, 20 sccm, and a DC bias of 90V. Results showed that the values calculated in the training and testing in GEP model were very close to the actual experiments designed by Taguchi. The as-sputtered Nb coating with highest adhesion strength and microhardness was electrochemically anodized at 20V for 4h. From the FESEM images and EDS results of the annealed sample, a thick layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the sample surface after soaking in SBF for 10 days, which can be connected to the development of a highly ordered nanotube arrays. This novel approach provides an outline for the future design of nanostructured coatings for a wide range of applications.
Recently, the robust optimization and prediction models have been highly noticed in district of surface engineering and coating techniques to obtain the highest possible output values through least trial and error experiments. Besides, due to necessity of finding the optimum value of dependent variables, the multi-objective metaheuristic models have been proposed to optimize various processes. Herein, oriented mixed oxide nanotubular arrays were grown on Ti-6Al-7Nb (Ti67) implant using physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering (PVDMS) designed by Taguchi and following electrochemical anodization. The obtained adhesion strength and hardness of Ti67/Nb were modeled by particle swarm optimization (PSO) to predict the outputs performance. According to developed models, multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) run aimed at finding PVDMS inputs to maximize current outputs simultaneously. The provided sputtering parameters were applied as validation experiment and resulted in higher adhesion strength and hardness of interfaced layer with Ti67. The as-deposited Nb layer before and after optimization were anodized in fluoride-base electrolyte for 300min. To crystallize the coatings, the anodically grown mixed oxide TiO2-Nb2O5-Al2O3 nanotubes were annealed at 440°C for 30min. From the FESEM observations, the optimized adhesive Nb interlayer led to further homogeneity of mixed nanotube arrays. As a result of this surface modification, the anodized sample after annealing showed the highest mechanical, tribological, corrosion resistant and in-vitro bioactivity properties, where a thick bone-like apatite layer was formed on the mixed oxide nanotubes surface within 10 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) after applied MOPSO. The novel results of this study can be effective in optimizing a variety of the surface properties of the nanostructured implants.
Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin-1. The surface topography and composition of the nanostructured coatings were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), to gather information about the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and bioactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). From the nanoindentation experiments, the Young's modulus and hardness of the 5min anodized sample were ~ 135 and 6GPa, but increased to ~ 160 and 7.5GPa, respectively, after annealing at 450°C. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of Ti64 plates with nanotubular surface modification was higher than that of the bare substrate, where the 450°C annealed specimen revealed the highest corrosion protection efficiency (99%). Results from the SBF tests showed that a bone-like apatite layer was formed on nanotubular array coating, as early as the first day of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating the importance of nanotubular configuration on the in-vitro bioactivity.
Nanomedicine has seen a significant rise in the development of new research tools and clinically functional devices. In this regard, significant advances and new commercial applications are expected in the pharmaceutical and orthopedic industries. For advanced orthopedic implant technologies, appropriate nanoscale surface modifications are highly effective strategies and are widely studied in the literature for improving implant performance. It is well-established that implants with nanotubular surfaces show a drastic improvement in new bone creation and gene expression compared to implants without nanotopography. Nevertheless, the scientific and clinical understanding of mixed oxide nanotubes (MONs) and their potential applications, especially in biomedical applications are still in the early stages of development. This review aims to establish a credible platform for the current and future roles of MONs in nanomedicine, particularly in advanced orthopedic implants. We first introduce the concept of MONs and then discuss the preparation strategies. This is followed by a review of the recent advancement of MONs in biomedical applications, including mineralization abilities, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, cell culture, and animal testing, as well as clinical possibilities. To conclude, we propose that the combination of nanotubular surface modification with incorporating sensor allows clinicians to precisely record patient data as a critical contributor to evidence-based medicine.