Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

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  1. Ng KT, Teoh WY
    Prehosp Disaster Med, 2019 Oct;34(5):532-539.
    PMID: 31455452 DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X19004758
    INTRODUCTION: Epinephrine has been recommended for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation for nearly one century, but its efficacy and safety remain unclear in the literature. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether epinephrine increases the return of spontaneous circulation in OHCA patients.

    METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, from their inception until October 2018. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Observational studies, case reports, case series, and non-systematic reviews were excluded.

    RESULTS: Two trials including 8,548 patients were eligible for inclusion in the data synthesis. In patients who received epinephrine during OHCA, the incidence of return of spontaneous circulation was increased, with an odds ratio (95%CI) of 4.25 (3.79-4.75), P

  2. Ng KT, Yap JLL
    Anaesthesia, 2018 Feb;73(2):238-247.
    PMID: 28940440 DOI: 10.1111/anae.14038
    Loop diuretics remain a fundamental pharmacological therapy to remove excess fluid and improve symptom control in acute decompensated heart failure. Several recent randomised controlled trials have examined the clinical benefit of continuous vs. bolus furosemide in acute decompensated heart failure, but have reported conflicting findings. The aim of this review was to compare the effects of continuous and bolus furosemide with regard to mortality, length of hospital stay and its efficacy profile in acute decompensated heart failure. All parallel-arm randomised controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until May 2017 were included. Cross-over randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case reports, case series and non-systematic reviews that involved children were excluded. Eight trials (n = 669) were eligible for inclusion. There was no difference between furosemide continuous infusion and bolus administration for all-cause mortality (four studies; n = 491; I2 = 0%; OR 1.65; 95%CI 0.93-2.91; p = 0.08) or duration of hospitalisation (six studies; n = 576; I2 = 71%; mean difference 0.27; 95%CI -1.35 to 1.89 days; p = 0.74). Continuous infusion of intravenous furosemide was associated with increased weight reduction (five studies; n = 516; I2 = 0%; mean difference 0.70; 95%CI 0.12-1.28 kg; p = 0.02); increased total urine output in 24 h (four studies; n = 390; I2 = 33%; mean difference 461.5; 95%CI 133.7-789.4 ml; p < 0.01); and reduced brain natriuretic peptide (two studies; n = 390; I2 = 0%; mean difference 399.5; 95%CI 152.7-646.3 ng.l-1 ; p < 0.01), compared with the bolus group. There was no difference in the incidence of raised creatinine and hypokalaemia between the two groups. In summary, there was no difference between continuous infusion and bolus of furosemide for all-cause mortality, length of hospital stay and electrolyte disturbance, but continuous infusion was superior to bolus administration with regard to diuretic effect and reduction in brain natriuretic peptide.
  3. Ng KT, Teoh WY, Khor AJ
    J Clin Anesth, 2020 Feb;59:74-81.
    PMID: 31279283 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2019.06.027
    OBJECTIVES: Melatonin is an endogenous hormone, which regulates circadian rhythms and promotes sleep. In recent years, several randomised controlled trials examining the prophylactic use of melatonin to prevent delirium were published with conflicting findings. The primary aim of this review was to determine the effect of melatonin on the incidence of delirium in hospitalised patients.

    DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched from their inception until December 2018.

    REVIEW METHODS: All randomised clinical trials were included.

    RESULTS: Sixteen trials (1634 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. Incidence of delirium was not significantly lower in patients who received melatonin, with an odd ratio, OR (95%Cl) of 0.55 (0.24-1.26); ρ = 0.16, certainty of evidence = low, trial sequential analysis = inconclusive. However, patients who randomised to melatonin had a significantly shorter length of stay in intensive care units, with a mean difference, MD (95%CI) of -1.84 days (-2.46, -1.21); ρ 

  4. Ng KT, Shubash CJ, Chong JS
    Anaesthesia, 2019 Mar;74(3):380-392.
    PMID: 30367689 DOI: 10.1111/anae.14472
    Delirium is common in intensive care patients. Dexmedetomidine is increasingly used for sedation in this setting, but its effect on delirium remains unclear. The primary aim of this review was to examine whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of delirium and agitation in intensive care patients. We sought randomised clinical trials in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CENTRAL from their inception until June 2018. Observational studies, case reports, case series and non-systematic reviews were excluded. Twenty-five trials including 3240 patients were eligible for inclusion in the data synthesis. In the patients who received dexmedetomidine (eight trials, 1425 patients), delirium was reduced, odds ratio (95%CI) 0.36 (0.26-0.51), p 
  5. Ng KT, Tsia AKV, Chong VYL
    World J Surg, 2019 Apr;43(4):1146-1161.
    PMID: 30610272 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-018-04896-7
    BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery has been considered as an alternative to open surgery by surgeons for colorectal cancer. However, the efficacy and safety profiles of robotic and conventional laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer remain unclear in the literature. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RAS) has better clinical outcomes for colorectal cancer patients than conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS).

    METHODS: All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies were systematically searched in the databases of CENTRAL, EMBASE and PubMed from their inception until January 2018. Case reports, case series and non-systematic reviews were excluded.

    RESULTS: Seventy-three studies (6 RCTs and 67 observational studies) were eligible (n = 169,236) for inclusion in the data synthesis. In comparison with the CLS arm, RAS cohort was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of conversion to open surgery (ρ 

  6. Ng KT, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    Arch Virol, 2021 Jan;166(1):225-229.
    PMID: 33084935 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-020-04855-5
    Genome sequences of members of a potential fourth rhinovirus (RV) species, provisionally denoted as rhinovirus A clade D, from patients with acute respiratory infection were determined. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that clade D emerged around the 1940s and diverged further around 2006-2007 into two distinctive sublineages (RV-A8-like and RV-A45-like) that harbored unique "clade-defining" substitutions. Similarity plots and bootscan mapping revealed a recombination breakpoint located in the 5'-UTR region of members of the RV-A8-like sublineage. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed the distribution of clade D viruses in the Asia Pacific region and in Europe, underlining its worldwide distribution.
  7. Ng KT, Yap JLL, Kwok PE
    J Clin Anesth, 2020 Aug;63:109782.
    PMID: 32193125 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109782
    BACKGROUND: Low level of fibrinogen is a risk factor of perioperative bleeding, which is a major complication in surgical patients. However, the safety and efficacy of fibrinogen supplementation with fibrinogen concentrate to minimize postoperative bleeding remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to investigate the effect of fibrinogen concentrate in postoperative blood loss in adult surgical patients.

    DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    DATA SOURCES: Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched from their start date until July 2019.

    ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: All randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous fibrinogen concentrate and placebo in adult surgical patients were included, regardless of type of surgery. Observational studies, case reports, case series and non-systematic reviews were excluded.

    RESULTS: Thirteen trials (n = 900) were included in this review. In comparison to placebo, fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the first 12-hour postoperative blood loss, with a mean difference of -134.6 ml (95% CI -181.9 to -87.4). It also significantly increased clot firmness in thromboelastometry (FIBTEM) with a mean difference of 2.5 mm (95%CI 1.1 to 3.8). No significant differences were demonstrated in the adverse events associated with fibrinogen concentrate use, namely incidence of thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and acute kidney injury.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis of 13 randomized trials, low level of evidence and substantial heterogeneity with small sample size limit strong recommendation on the use of fibrinogen concentrate in adult surgical patients. However, its use is tolerable without any notable adverse events.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42019149164.

  8. Tan TK, Ng KT, Lim HJ, Radic R
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2021 5 25;29(2):23094990211017352.
    PMID: 34027721 DOI: 10.1177/23094990211017352
    PURPOSE: Perioperative blood loss remains a major challenge to surgeons in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery, despite of the introduction of minimally invasive approach. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is believed to reduce blood loss, which may minimise the complication of postoperative haemarthrosis with insufficient evidence on its effectiveness in ACLR. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of TXA on postoperative blood loss and other secondary outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR surgery.

    METHOD: PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and CENTRAL database were systematically searched from its inception until November 2020. All randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing TXA (intravenous or intra-articular) versus placebo in the arthroscopic ACLR surgery were included. Case series, case report and editorials were excluded.

    RESULTS: Five RCTs comprising of a total of 580 patients (291 in TXA group, 289 in control group) were included for qualitative and quantitative meta-analysis. In comparison to placebo, TXA group was significantly associated with lower postoperative blood loss (mean difference (MD): -81.93 ml; 95% CI -141.80 to -22.05) and lower incidence of needing knee aspiration (odd ratio (OR): 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.44). Patients who randomised to TXA were also reported to have better range of movement (MD: 2.86; 95% CI 0.54 to 5.18), lower VAS Pain Score (MD: -1.39; 95% CI -2.54 to -0.25) and higher Lysholm Score (MD: 7.38; 95% CI 2.75 to 12.01).

    CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis, TXA reduced postoperative blood loss with lesser incidence of needing knee aspiration along with better range of knee movement and Lysholm score in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR surgery.

  9. Ng KT, Chan XL, Tan W, Wang CY
    J Clin Anesth, 2019 Feb;52:37-47.
    PMID: 30172838 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2018.08.019
    OBJECTIVES: Patients with preoperative low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are known to be associated with high morbidities and mortality in cardiac surgery. The primary aim of this review was to examine the clinical outcomes of levosimendan versus placebo in patients with preoperative low LVEF ≤ 50% undergoing cardiac surgery.

    DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CENTRAL were searched systematically from their inception until June 2018.

    REVIEW METHODS: All the randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included.

    RESULTS: Twelve trials were eligible (n = 1867) for inclusion in the data synthesis. In comparison to the placebo cohort, the levosimendan cohort showed a significant reduction in mortality (TSA = inconclusive; ρ = 0.002; I2 = 0%; FEM: OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.39, 0.80), especially in the subgroups of preoperative severe low LVEF ≤ 30% (ρ = 0.003; OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16, 0.69), preoperative administering of levosimendan (ρ = 0.001; OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.29, 0.74) and patients who had bolus followed by infusion of levosimendan (ρ = 0.005; OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.30, 0.81). However, the effect on mortality was not significant in the subgroup analysis of high quality trials (ρ = 0.14; OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.47, 1.12). The levosimendan cohort showed a significantly lower incidence of low-cardiac-output-syndrome (ρ 

  10. Ng KT, Tay HW, Namkabir S, Kovilpillai FJ
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2020 Oct;78(10):1766-1769.
    PMID: 32544473 DOI: 10.1016/j.joms.2020.05.013
    Pederin, a vesicant chemical and one of the most powerful animal toxins in the world, is produced by an endosymbiont bacteria (Pseudomonas spp) found on the beetle Paederus fuscipes. This small, red- and black-striped beetle is also commonly known as the Charlie or rove beetle. Accidental contact with skin causes Paederus dermatitis, with the clinical presentation ranging from mild dermatitis to more severe vesiculobullous lesions. We report a rare case of severe lip destruction caused by the Charlie beetle in a 24-year-old man. Treatment involved intravenous antibiotics in addition to local wound debridement. The thinner stratum corneum on the lips and close proximity to the oral cavity could have resulted in the severe tissue destruction encountered.
  11. Ng KT, Alston RP, Just G, McKenzie C
    Perfusion, 2018 03;33(2):148-155.
    PMID: 28985693 DOI: 10.1177/0267659117735883
    INTRODUCTION: Bispectral index (BIS) and monitoring of end-tidal concentration may be associated with a reduction in the incidence of awareness during volatile-based general anaesthesia. An analogue of end-tidal concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is measuring exhausted isoflurane concentration from the oxygenator as an estimate to blood and, so, brain concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between oxygenator exhaust and blood concentrations of isoflurane and the BIS score during CPB when administering isoflurane into the sweep gas supply to the oxygenator.

    METHODS: Seventeen patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery using CPB and isoflurane with BIS monitoring were recruited in a single-centre university hospital. Isoflurane gas was delivered via a calibrated vaporiser at the beginning of anaesthetic induction. Radial arterial blood samples were collected after the initiation of CPB and before aortic cross-clamping, which were analysed for isoflurane by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The BIS score and the concentration of exhausted isoflurane from the oxygenator membrane, as measured by an anaesthetic gas analyser, were recorded at the time of blood sampling.

    RESULTS: The mean duration of anaesthetic induction to arterial blood sampling was 90 min (95%CI: 80,100). On CPB, the median BIS was 39 (range, 7-43) and the mean oxygenator exhaust isoflurane concentration was 1.24 ± 0.21%. No significant correlation was demonstrated between BIS with arterial isoflurane concentration (r=-0.19, p=0.47) or oxygenator exhaust isoflurane concentration (r=0.07, p=0.80). Mixed-venous blood temperature was moderately correlated to BIS (r=0.50, p=0.04). Oxygenator exhaust isoflurane concentration was moderately, positively correlated with its arterial concentration (r=0.64, p<0.01).

    DISCUSSION: In conclusion, in patients undergoing heart surgery with CPB, the findings of this study indicate that, whilst oxygenator exhaust concentrations were significantly associated with arterial concentrations of isoflurane, neither had any association with the BIS scores, whereas body temperature has moderate positive correlation.

  12. Ng KT, Ng KY, Chen JH, Ng OT, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    Clin Infect Dis, 2014 Sep 15;59(6):910-1.
    PMID: 24944233 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu480
  13. Ng KT, Ong LY, Lim SH, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    PLoS One, 2013;8(6):e67286.
    PMID: 23840653 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067286
    HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9%) were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275) showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1) were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion.
  14. Ng KT, Ong LY, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    J Virol, 2012 Oct;86(20):11405-6.
    PMID: 22997423
    We report here the first novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 54_01B (CRF54_01B) isolated from three epidemiologically unlinked subjects of different risk groups in Malaysia. These recently sampled recombinants showed a complex genome organization composed of parental subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with identical recombination breakpoints observed in the gag, pol, and vif genes. Such a discovery highlights the ongoing active generation and spread of intersubtype recombinants involving the subtype B' and CRF01_AE lineages and indicates the potential of the new CRF in bridging HIV-1 transmission among different risk groups in Southeast Asia.
  15. Chan KG, Ng KT, Pang YK, Chong TM, Kamarulzaman A, Yin WF, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2015;3(3).
    PMID: 26021924 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00541-15
    Streptococcus parasanguinis causes invasive diseases. However, the mechanism by which it causes disease remains unclear. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of S. parasanguinis C1A, isolated from a patient diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several genes that might be associated with pathogenesis are also described.
  16. Chan KG, Ng KT, Chong TM, Pang YK, Kamarulzaman A, Yin WF, et al.
    J Genomics, 2015;3:72-4.
    PMID: 26157506 DOI: 10.7150/jgen.12574
    Staphylococcus haemolyticus is one of the pathogens that harbor a high level of antibiotic resistance. Here, we highlighted the potential determinants for multidrug resistance and virulence from the draft genome of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain C10A, isolated from a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation.
  17. Ng KT, Sarode D, Lai YS, Teoh WY, Wang CY
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2019 12;29(12):1163-1172.
    PMID: 31587414 DOI: 10.1111/pan.13752
    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is believed to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or procedure. However, recent randomized controlled trials reported conflicting findings.

    AIMS: To investigate the effect of ketamine on emergence agitation in children.

    METHODS: Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systematically searched from their start date until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous ketamine and placebo in children were sought. The primary outcome was the incidence of emergence agitation. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain score, duration of discharge time, and the adverse effects associated with the use of ketamine, namely postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm.

    RESULTS: Thirteen studies (1125 patients) were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. The incidence of emergence agitation was 14.7% in the ketamine group and 33.3% in the placebo group. Children receiving ketamine had a lower incidence of emergence agitation, with an odds ratio being 0.23 (95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.46), certainty of evidence: low. In comparison with the placebo, ketamine group achieved a lower postoperative pain score (odds ratio: -2.42, 95% confidence interval: -4.23 to -0.62, certainty of evidence: very low) and lower pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale at 5 minutes after operation (odds ratio: -3.99, 95% confidence interval: -5.03 to -2.95; certainty of evidence: moderate). However, no evidence was observed in terms of incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm.

    CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials, high degree of heterogeneity and low certainty of evidence limit the recommendations of ketamine for the prevention of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or imaging procedures. However, the use of ketamine is well-tolerated without any notable adverse effects across all the included trials.

    PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42019131865.

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