Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan kandungan makronutrien dalam tiga jenis kuih manis tempatan iaitu kuih seri muka (SM), kuih bakar (B) dan kuih wajik (W) yang mana resepinya telah dibentuk secara pengiraan nutrien yang berdasarkan Jadual Komposisi Makanan Malaysia (JKMMM) dengan kaedah analisis secara proksimat. Penentuan kandungan makronutrien secara spesifik ditentukan menggunakan kaedah analisis proksimat manakala penentuan tenaga dan karbohidrat total dijalankan melalui pengiraan. Hasil analisis proksimat menunjukkan W mengandungi karbohidrat total tertinggi (61.5 ± 1.6%) secara signifikan (p < 0.05), berbanding B (39.3 ± 1.5%) dan SM (38.7 ± 1.5%). SM mempunyai kandungan air yang lebih tinggi (46.7 ± 1.6%) secara signifikan (p < 0.05) berbanding B (42.5 ± 6.6 %) dan W (30.2 ± 0.4%). B mengandungi kandungan protein tertinggi (6.1 ± 0.9%) secara signifikan berbanding dengan W (3.0 ± 0.3%). Tiada perbezaan yang signifikan bagi kandungan lemak di antara B (12.8 ± 1.8%), SM (9.9 ± 0.2%) dan W (8.2 ± 2.6%). Jumlah kalori untuk W adalah tertinggi (332 kcal/100g) diikuti oleh B (299 kcal/100g) dan SM (262 kcal/100g). Secara umumnya, nilai kandungan makronutrien dari analisis proksimat adalah lebih rendah berbanding secara pengiraan kandungan makronutrien menggunakan JKMMM. Ini disebabkan pengiraan berdasarkan JKMMM adalah berdasarkan bahan mentah manakala analisis proksimat berdasarkan sampel kuih yang telah disediakan.
This paper reports the nutrition knowledge of Malaysian elderly, as part of a nationwide study to evaluate the status of nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of food and nutrition among various communities in Malaysia. A total of 906 elderly, age ranging between 60 to 96 years old, with mean age 67.4 ± 6.7 years representing all states in Malaysia participated in the study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to assess the nutrition knowledge and to collect demographic data of the elderly. Subjects were in the 60-65 years (51%) and more than 65 years (49%) age category. There were 46% Malays, 32% Chinese, 6% Indians while the remaining 16% comprised of other minority groups in Malaysia such as Iban, Kadazan, Melanau, Orang Asli and others. More than half of the elderly (54%) had no formal education, 36% completed primary schooling and only 9% finished secondary education. Overall 73% elderly were categorized as having poor nutrition knowledge, 18% moderate and only 9% good. The minority groups had the highest percentage of poor nutrition knowledge (91%) while the Chinese had the highest percentage of good nutrition knowledge (11%). More female (78%) than male (67%) had poor nutrition knowledge, in contrast to more male (10%) than female (8%) with good nutrition knowledge. Chi square test showed that there was a significant correlation between educational status and nutrition knowledge. This was reflected in the results which showed that 81% elderly with no formal education were categorized in the poor nutrition knowledge group. Majority of the elderly did not know about foods to be consumed most (88%), or to be eaten least (87%). Only a quarter to a third of the elderly responded correctly to questions on nutrient function and content. The question on foods with high salt was well responded by the elderly (65%). It is quite discouraging to show that a majority of Malaysian elderly had poor nutrition knowledge. This study indicated that appropriate nutrition education interventions need to be implemented to improve the shortcomings of nutrition knowledge among the Malaysian elderly.
This study aims to assess the acceptance and effectiveness of an exercise board game in improving knowledge of physical activity among overweight and obese children. A quasi-experimental research design was carried out. This study was conducted among 68 overweight and obese children aged 7-11 years old from four primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Children in the intervention group (n=34) played the exercise board game, while those in the control group (n=34) were given explanations using the Ministry of Heath Malaysia’s physical activity pyramid. Both groups were tested on their knowledge of physical activity using a pre-tested questionnaire before and after the study. The results showed a significant increase in the knowledge of physical activity among both the intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, the total scores before and after intervention were respectively: median (25th – 75th percentile), 8 .0 (6.0 - 9.0) and 8.0 (8.0 – 10.0), p=0.005. In the control group, the total scores before and after intervention were respectively: median (25th – 75th percentile), 9.0 (7.0 – 10.0) and 10.0 (8.8 – 10.0), p=0.005. Overall, the acceptance score of children on the exercise board game was high [7.0 (6.0 – 8.0)] from total score of 8.0. In conclusion, both groups improved their knowledge of physical activity after the intervention sessions. This study confirms the acceptance of the exercise board game among overweight and obese children in primary schools. Further research is needed to evaluate the attitudes and practices of children towards physical activity after playing the exercise board game.
The assessment of exclusive breastfeeding is important to invest the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding practices. Hence this study was carried out to compare breastfeeding practices among mothers using deuterium dose to mother technique with maternal recall breastfeeding practice. A total of 30 mother-infant pairs from a university hospital and government health clinics in Klang Valley participated and completed the study. Mother-infant pairs were recruited into the study when infants were aged 3 months ± 1 week. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference for mother; length and weight for infant) were carried out. Socio-demographic questionnaire was self-administered while breastfeeding practices were interview administered using maternal recall breastfeeding practice questionnaire (MRBF). This was followed by baseline saliva collection of mother-infant pairs before dose and 6 days after mothers were given 30 ± 0.01 g of D2 O. The post dose saliva sample of mother-infant pairs were collected 6 times at day 1,2,3,4,13 and 14.The results showed that majority of mothers (57%) were university graduates but majority were stay at home mothers. Meanwhile, mothers had BMI with mean 25 ± 4 kg/m2 . The results from MRBF questionnaire showed that all mothers were practicing exclusive breastfeeding and their infant never received any water sources other than their breast milk. However, the deuterium dose to mother technique revealed only 3% of mothers were actually practicing exclusive breastfeeding. From the isotopic data, the calculated mean intake of milk was 721 ± 243 g/day while the mean non-milk oral intake of 122 ± 22 g/ day. In contrast exclusive breastfeeding infants received only 10 g/day non milk oral intake, demonstrating exclusive breastfeeding practice of mothers. There were different breastfeeding practice reported from mother using deuterium oxide dose to mother technique with maternal recall breastfeeding practice.
The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has increased rapidly in the recent decades, including in Malaysia. Thus, development of effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity in Malaysia is urgently needed. This paper describes the study design of a 12-week multi-component, school-based nutrition education programme aimed at managing childhood obesity. The objective of Juara Sihat™ is to determine the effectiveness of a nutrition education programme in improving anthropometric status, knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nutrition, eating habits and physical activity level among overweight and obese children. This quasi-experimental study involves two primary schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar demographic characteristics. Eligibility criteria of research participants are overweight and obese children aged 9 to 11 years. The main components of the Juara Sihat™ intervention are nutrition education classes on healthy eating and active lifestyle; physical activity sessions; and active involvements of parents and teachers. The control school does not receive any interventions. The primary outcome is BMI-for-age z-score, while other outcomes include waist circumference, body fat percentage, KAP of nutrition score, dietary intake, physical activity level, sedentary behaviour and biochemical profile. Outcome measures will be assessed at three intervals: baseline, post-intervention 1 (3-month follow-up), and post-intervention 2 (6-month follow-up). The Juara Sihat™ programme represents a promising approach to examining the effectiveness of a school-based childhood obesity intervention with strong empowerment of Parents’ and Teachers’ Association (PTA). We anticipate that this study may provide insights towards the development of more effective strategies in formulating childhood obesity interventions.
Introduction: Sugar is widely consumed and excessive intake has been associated
with increased risk of weight gain, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases,
leading to metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). However, the association between sugar
intake and MetSyn has seldom been studied among multi-ethnic Malaysian older
Methods: A total of 1,057 respondents aged ≥60 years were recruited through
multistage random sampling from selected states. Anthropometric parameters, blood
pressure, blood test for sugar and lipid profile were determined. Dietary intake was
derived using a 7-day dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) and a semi-quantitative
food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for added sugar intake.
Results: Prevalence of
MetSyn was 39.9%, 30.9% and 42.2% using the harmonised definition, International
Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult
Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions respectively. Mean total sugar intake
was 40.5±32.0 g (8 tsp) and added sugar intake was 33.0±31.0 g (6 tsp). Excessive
added sugar consumption at 100th percentile increased risks of high total cholesterol
by two-fold (p
The use of electronics or technology, to improve the subjects’ knowledge,
attitude, and practice (KAP) in nutrition or their compliance in recording their
diet, for general primary care is not uncommon. However, there are more to
be explored to improve sports nutrition KAP. The objective of this study was
to develop a web app tool for athletes to increases their KAP in sports
nutrition and to test on their acceptance towards the web app tool. This study
was divided into 3 phases. Phase I involves the development of the web app.
In Phase II, a focus group of 20 people was recruited to test the web app tool.
Phase III was to evaluate the effectiveness of the web app in increasing
athletes’ sports nutrition KAP and their acceptance of the web app. 30 athletes
were recruited to use this web app for a week, a PRE- and POST-intervention
KAP questionnaire were given. There was a strong correlation between
athletes’ attitude towards this tool and intention to use in the future (r = 0.675).
The more this web app tool was perceived as useful, the more likely they will
visit the web app (r = 0.589). Although the web app was well-accepted among
the athletes, their KAP score was significantly reduced after the intervention
(p= 0.011). The reduction of scores was due to the lack of consistent usage on the web app. In conclusion, it requires more facilitating support from the
coach, longer training time, reminders, and entertainment features for
consistent usage, to improve the athletes’ KAP in sports nutrition via the web
The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.
The present study aimed to report the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) and to explore the associations among socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status and inflammation status in the occurrence of anaemia and ID in a nationally representative sample of Malaysian primary schoolchildren. Using data from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS), 544 Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years were included in this secondary analysis. Blood samples were drawn for haemoglobin and serum ferritin analysis while C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured to detect inflammation. Prevalence of anaemia and ID were 4.0% and 5.2%, respectively. There were significantly more anaemic indigenous bumiputra children (9.9%) than Chinese children (0.6%). Correction for inflammation did not change the prevalence of ID. More overweight/obese children than thin/normal weight children were found to have elevated acute phase protein (APP). Children with elevated inflammatory markers had significantly higher ferritin level than children without inflammation. Periodic health assessments of anaemia and ID at the population level to monitor and clarify the epidemiology of health problems are required to inform public health policies and strategies.