Accumulation of reactive oxygen species leads to oxidative stress condition that can accelerate ovarian aging. Ovarian aging caused a reduction in plasma estradiol levels, quality of embryo and eventually will lead to infertility. Tocotrienol has been proven to possess antioxidant properties by protecting the cellular membrane from free radicals damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of tocotrienol supplementation on the plasma estradiol levels, quality and development of embryos in aging mice. Female mice (Mus musculus) used in this study were divided into six groups. Six weeks old mice (young group) were used as negative control while eight months old mice (aging group) were used as age-matched (positive control) group. Group 1 (6 months old mice) were given corn oil as control, group 2, 3 and 4 (6 months old mice) were supplemented orally for two months with tocotrienol (TCT) at the dose of 90, 120 and 150 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively. Subsequently, after two months the mice were superovulated, euthanized and 2- cell stage embryos were harvested and cultured in vitro to monitor the embryonic development. Plasma was analysed using enzyme-like immunosorbent assay. The results of this study showed that there was no significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and the quality of embryo between young and aging group. Similarly, no significant change on plasma estradiol levels were noted in all TCT supplemented groups as compared to its vehicle control. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction on the percentage of normal embryo in all aging groups including TCT supplemented groups as compared to young group. Conversely, TCT supplementation at the dose of 150 mg/kg BW was able to increase the percentage of embryos that developed to blastocyst stage as compared to control. This finding proposed that TCT supplementations for two months are not able to cause a significant change in plasma estradiol levels and quality of embryo but it can delay the consequence of aging in embryonic development.
On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused death and destruction in twelve countries including India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. One of the authors was a volunteer with FELDA WAJA AMAN MALAYSIA medical relief team that served the Aceh victims from 16th February to 24th February 2005 (8 weeks post tsunami). A study to determine the pattern of health ailments was conducted among children aged 18 years and below based at Seuneubok Camp, 30 km from Banda Aceh. All respondents were from Pulau Aceh and the total number of children seen and examined was 60. About 18% had lost their fathers, 10 % had lost their mothers and 27% had lost one or more of their siblings. 77% suffered some form of health ailments. The common health ailments were diarrhea (61%), respiratory complaints (59%) and fever (20%). About 38 % of preschoolers had loss of appetite and 28% had sleep disturbances. About 35% of the elementary school children suffered from sleep disturbances, 29% of the young adolescents suffered from headaches and 24% had sleep disturbances. Nearly a quarter (24%) of all the children felt fearful and anxious about the disaster. Nevertheless, 56% of the respondents wanted to return back to Pulau Aceh, although 14 % did not want to go back. Interestingly, 73% of the children voiced their gratitude to God for having been saved from death.
This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to assess patient's satisfaction by evaluating the waiting time experienced by 27 (54%) inpatients and 23 (46%) outpatients who sought treatment at a private hospital in Selangor from 15th of May 2006 until 3rd of]une 2006. Majority of the patients (78%) were in the range between Z 1 - 40 years old and well»educated. Almost half (48%) were in the human resources employment category, 20% were in administration and marketing and 10% were professionals. Majority of them earned from RM1000-1999 (34%) and RMZ000-3999 (32%). Almost all of them (96%) agreed that the medical care that they had been receiving in the hospital was just about perfect. 98% agreed that the doctors treated them in a very friendly and courteous manner and 96% rated the care given by nurses as g0od/ excellent. 88% to 92% said that their communication with the doctors, nurses and other staff were good/ excellent. 80% waited less than 15 minutes at the registration counter, 52% waited less than 15 minutes to see the doctor and 44% waited less than 15 minutes at other places such as pharmacy and x-ray. Overall, 94% rated the level of services in the hospital as good/ excellent, Almost all (90%) would like to recommend the hospital to their friends and relatives. Our study demonstrated that the majority of the patients were satisfied with the doctors, nurses and environment of the private hospital. The average waiting time of patient before being attended to by a doctor was less than 30 minutes.
Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
A cross sectional study to determine general health and body composition was conducted for comparison between rural samples (Teluk Intan, Perak) and urban samples (Klang Valley, Selangor). Systematic random sampling was used in Z health clinics in Klang Valky and 4 health clinics in Telult Intan, Perak The results showed that urban population was more heterogeneous (Malay 63.7%, Indian 19.8%, Chinese 14.9%) compared with the rural population (Malay 75%, Indian 22.1%, Chinese 2.9%). Mean age for urban population was 44 2 1.6 years and for rural was 50 i 14.4 years. There was significant difference in the BMI (p < 0.05) between urban and rural populations where more people in the urban areas had higher BMI. There was a significant difference in the waist hip ratio (p < 0.05) between urban and rural areas where more people in the urban areas had above normal waist hip ratio. There was no significant difference in chronic diseases suffered and family medical history of the rural and urban samples.
This study was conducted to determine the patterns of disease and treatment at two disaster sites. Studies prior to this have shown that all natural disasters are unique in that each affected region of the world have different social, economic and health backgrounds. However, similarities exist among the health effects of different disasters which if recognized can ensure that health and emergency medical relief and limited resources are well managed. This study found that although Aceh and Balakot were two totally different areas with reference to locality and climate it was noticed that the patterns of disease two months post disaster are similar the commonest being respiratory conditions followed by musculoskeletal conditions and gastrointestinal conditions. For the treatment patterns it was observed that the two areas prescribed almost similar, types of medicine mainly for gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. However in Aceh, there were more skin treatment and in Balakot there was more usage of musculoskeletal drugs.
This study was conducted to investigate mitochondrial, nuclear chromatin and cytoskeletal organisation of vitrified embryos based on timing of the first zygotic cleavage. Embryos were retrieved from superovulated ICR mice, 28 hours after hCG injection. Two-cell stage embryos were categorised as earlycleaving (EC), while zygotes with 2-pronuclei as late-cleaving (LC) embryos. Embryos were cultured overnight in M16 medium supplemented with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in carbon dioxide incubator. After 20 hours, the embryos were vitrified for one hour and warmed to room temperature. They were then fixed and immunostained to visualise distribution and intensity of mitochondria, nuclear chromatin and cytoskeleton. Finally, the embryos were mounted on glass slides and examined under a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Fluorescence intensities were analysed using LAS-AF-Lite Software. Results showed that EC embryos had significantly higher mitochondria (39.22 ± 12.50 versus 35.42 ± 14.61 pixel, p