Tuberculosis (TB) remains a very common disease in most of the low- and middle-income countries. As a result of high disease burden, TB control measures in these countries are usually concentrated on intensifying active disease case-finding and early treatment of infectious TB. On the contrary, in countries with low disease burden, the focus is on contact investigation to identify latently infected individuals and prophylactically treating them to prevent disease reactivation and transmission. These two strategies are deemed important for the effective TB control. Nonetheless, WHO cautions that targeted contact investigation and latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment should only be undertaken by countries that have the operational capacity/ resources and have achieved ≥ 85% treatment success rate of active TB. The screening of LTBI is further challenged by the lack of a “gold standard” test to identify and validate individuals with this condition. Tuberculin skin test (TST) is still the preferred investigation as it is cheap, widely available and validated in many trials. The sensitivity and specificity of the newer test—interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) for LTBI screening has been encouraging in low prevalence countries. However, the evidence supporting such usage remains uncertain in high burden settings. Diagnosis of LTBI should adhere to the strict criteria outlined in the guidelines to avoid misdiagnosing active TB as LTBI. The treatment of the latter involved only one or two anti-TB drugs. It has been demonstrated that in the properly conducted contact screening and LTBI treatment, chances of the emergence of multi-drug-resistant TB is very low.
We report a case of a 21-year-old university student with underlying lupus nephritis who presented with recurrent symptoms of fever, haemoptysis, and pleuritic chest pain. CT pulmonary angiogram confirmed pulmonary embolism in the right subsegmental pulmonary arteries. One week later, she developed left renal vein and left common iliac vein thromboses, with new emboli in the left subsegmental pulmonary arteries. We hereforth discuss the diagnostic issues of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on corticosteroids therapy, and also treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome.
The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalization in Malaysia, and to define the clinical features of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) that distinguish it from non-TB CAP.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Malaysian patients' satisfaction levels and asthma control with Symbicort SMART® in the primary care setting.
METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, multicentre study involving adult patients with persistent asthma who were prescribed only Symbicort SMART in the preceding one month prior to recruitment. Patients' satisfaction with Symbicort SMART and asthma control were evaluated using the self-administered Satisfaction with Asthma Treatment Questionnaire (SATQ) and the Asthma Control Test (ACT).
RESULTS: Asthma was controlled (ACT score >20) in 189 (83%) of 228 patients. The mean overall SATQ score for patients with controlled asthma was 5.65 indicating a high satisfaction level, which was positively correlated with high ACT scores. There were differences in asthma control based on ethnicity, number of unscheduled visits and treatment compliance.
CONCLUSIONS: Symbicort SMART resulted in a high satisfaction level and asthma control among Malaysian patients treated in the primary care setting and it is an effective and appealing treatment for asthmatic patients.
Study site: General practice clinics, Malaysia
We report a man presenting with dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis due to left lung collapse from an endobronchial tumor obstructing the left main bronchus. Endobronchial biopsy of the tumor showed renal cell carcinoma, identical to a previous specimen of renal cell carcinoma removed by a radical left nephrectomy five years ago. The endobronchial tumor was removed by snare diathermy through a flexible bronchoscope, following which his symptoms resolved and the left lung re-expanded. Endobronchial metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is rare and can mimic obstruction from other endobronchial etiologies, such as bronchogenic carcinoma. Total lung collapse as a result is even more uncommon, although atelectasis is well described. Endobronchial techniques, such as snare diathermy, can relieve obstruction, providing symptom palliation even in advanced disease.
A patient with Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease was mistaken to have pulmonary tuberculosis with airway colonization by the non-tuberculous mycobacterium. Appropriate antibiotics were only given when the patient's signs and symptoms worsened while on anti-tuberculosis therapy. Despite treatment with a combination of antibiotics showing in vitro susceptibility, the pathogen persisted in the respiratory secretions for longer than 6 months and the patient suffered a spontaneous pneumothorax 14 months into treatment. This case illustrates the chronic course of M. abscessus lung infection, the tendency for flare-ups, the inadequacy of current treatment regimens, and the necessity for prolonged patient follow-up.
During normal sleep the tone of the pharyngeal airway dilator muscles is decreased resulting in upper airway narrowing and increased resistance to airflow. Nasal obstruction may result from a variety of anatomical abnormalities such as septal deviation, nasal polyps, adenoid hypertrophy and rhinitis such as allergic rhinitis, acute viral rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis with nasal eosinophilia syndrome. Disordered breathing during sleep can both result from and be worsened by nasal obstruction. In children, nasal obstruction due to enlarged tonsils and adenoids results in a switch to oral breathing which may lead to the adenoid faces because of changes in the craniofacial structures during growth that predispose to disordered breathing during sleep.
Many studies have shown that tracheobronchial stenting is effective in relieving respiratory distress secondary to major airway obstruction due to lung or oesophageal cancer. A retrospective review on the benefits and complications of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion through flexible bronchoscopy for the palliative treatment of upper airway obstruction in University Malaya Medical Centre was performed. Ten patients underwent this procedure. Relief of dyspnoea was immediate following stent insertion in all patients. Stent migration occurred in one patient and three patients had restenosis of the central airway. We conclude that tracheobronchial stenting via flexible bronchoscopy is feasible and safe.
To evaluate the response and progression-free survival (PFS) of Malaysian patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and unknown epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status treated with gefitinib.
We report a woman presenting with respiratory failure due to a right-sided pleural effusion, lung metastases and lymphangitis carcinomatosis from advanced lung adenocarcinoma in the third trimester of pregnancy, who showed good response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
A comparison of patients with lung cancer diagnosed at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from October 1991 to September 1999 with another group of lung cancer patients diagnosed at the same hospital during an earlier period of 1967-1976 was undertaken to determine whether there had been a change in the distribution of lung cancer cell types and patient demography. The number of histologically and/or cytologically proven lung cancer cases was 583 from October 1991 to September 1999 and 278 from 1967 to 1976. The mean (S.D.) age of the patients during the period 1991-1999, 60.1 (12.0) years was similar to that of patients during the period 1967-1976, 60.3 (12.2) years. There was no shift of the peak age distribution of lung cancer (i.e., the 7th decade) between the two periods. In the recent period, the percentage of patients with adenocarcinoma had increased significantly to 43.2% from 25.2% while that of large cell carcinoma had decreased to 3.3% from 11.9%. The percentages of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and small cell lung cancer remained stable. In the period 1967-1976, SCC was the commonest cell type in men and in smokers while adenocarcinoma was the commonest cell type in women and in never smokers. In the period 1991-1999, adenocarcinoma was the commonest cell type in both men and women as well as in smokers and never smokers.
Staphylococcus haemolyticus is one of the pathogens that harbor a high level of antibiotic resistance. Here, we highlighted the potential determinants for multidrug resistance and virulence from the draft genome of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain C10A, isolated from a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation.
Breast metastases from non-small cell lung carcinoma are rarely reported. We report a case of a female patient with primary adenocarcinoma of the lower lobe of her right lung presenting with a massive right-sided malignant pleural effusion. The tumor harbored an epidermal growth factor receptor insertion mutation in exon 20 but was anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation negative. She did not respond to treatment with erlotinib. First- and second-line cytotoxic chemotherapy resulted in stable disease as the best responses. She developed right breast metastasis 20 months after her initial presentation. The rarity of the condition and the likely mechanism of the breast metastasis are discussed.
Streptococcus parasanguinis causes invasive diseases. However, the mechanism by which it causes disease remains unclear. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of S. parasanguinis C1A, isolated from a patient diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several genes that might be associated with pathogenesis are also described.