METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was used to distinguish associated current smoking characteristics. Five-year predictive risks of CVD, CHD and MI and the impact of simulated interventions were calculated utilizing the Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs Study (D:A:D) algorithm.
RESULTS: Smoking status data were collected from 4274 participants and 1496 of these had sufficient data for simulated intervention calculations. Current smoking prevalence in these two groups was similar (23.2% vs. 19.9%, respectively). Characteristics associated with current smoking included age > 50 years compared with 30-39 years [odds ratio (OR) 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.83], HIV exposure through injecting drug use compared with heterosexual exposure (OR 3.03; 95% CI 2.25-4.07), and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at study sites in Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Japan and Vietnam in comparison to Thailand (all OR > 2). Women were less likely to smoke than men (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.08-0.14). In simulated interventions, smoking cessation demonstrated the greatest impact in reducing CVD and CHD risk and closely approximated the impact of switching from abacavir to an alternate antiretroviral in the reduction of 5-year MI risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple interventions could reduce CVD, CHD and MI risk in Asian HIV-positive patients, with smoking cessation potentially being the most influential.
METHODS: Patients initiating cART between 2006 and 2013 were included. TI was defined as stopping cART for >1 day. Treatment failure was defined as confirmed virological, immunological or clinical failure. Time to treatment failure during cART was analysed using Cox regression, not including periods off treatment. Covariables with P < 0.10 in univariable analyses were included in multivariable analyses, where P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Of 4549 patients from 13 countries in Asia, 3176 (69.8%) were male and the median age was 34 years. A total of 111 (2.4%) had TIs due to AEs and 135 (3.0%) had TIs for other reasons. Median interruption times were 22 days for AE and 148 days for non-AE TIs. In multivariable analyses, interruptions >30 days were associated with failure (31-180 days HR = 2.66, 95%CI (1.70-4.16); 181-365 days HR = 6.22, 95%CI (3.26-11.86); and >365 days HR = 9.10, 95% CI (4.27-19.38), all P < 0.001, compared to 0-14 days). Reasons for previous TI were not statistically significant (P = 0.158).
CONCLUSIONS: Duration of interruptions of more than 30 days was the key factor associated with large increases in subsequent risk of treatment failure. If TI is unavoidable, its duration should be minimised to reduce the risk of failure after treatment resumption.
METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.
RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.
CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.
METHODS: We investigated serum creatinine (S-Cr) monitoring rates before and during ART and the incidence and prevalence of renal dysfunction after starting TDF by using data from a regional cohort of HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific. Time to renal dysfunction was defined as time from TDF initiation to the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 ml/min/1.73m2 with >30% reduction from baseline using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or the decision to stop TDF for reported TDF-nephrotoxicity. Predictors of S-Cr monitoring rates were assessed by Poisson regression and risk factors for developing renal dysfunction were assessed by Cox regression.
RESULTS: Among 2,425 patients who received TDF, S-Cr monitoring rates increased from 1.01 to 1.84 per person per year after starting TDF (incidence rate ratio 1.68, 95%CI 1.62-1.74, p <0.001). Renal dysfunction on TDF occurred in 103 patients over 5,368 person-years of TDF use (4.2%; incidence 1.75 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for developing renal dysfunction included older age (>50 vs. ≤30, hazard ratio [HR] 5.39, 95%CI 2.52-11.50, p <0.001; and using PI-based regimen (HR 1.93, 95%CI 1.22-3.07, p = 0.005). Having an eGFR prior to TDF (pre-TDF eGFR) of ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 showed a protective effect (HR 0.38, 95%CI, 0.17-0.85, p = 0.018).
CONCLUSIONS: Renal dysfunction on commencing TDF use was not common, however, older age, lower baseline eGFR and PI-based ART were associated with higher risk of renal dysfunction during TDF use in adult HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific region.