Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Chia SE, Wang YT, Chan OY, Poh SC
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1993 Nov;22(6):878-84.
    PMID: 8129348
    Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), single-breath diffusion capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume (VA), carbon monoxide transfer factor (DLCO) and transfer coefficient (KCO)) were determined in 452 healthy Singaporean adults (277 males and 175 females) aged 20-70 years. The ratio of Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects was 5:2:3 in both sexes. Age, height and weight in the males were all significantly correlated with FEV1, FVC, DLCO, VA and PEFR. However, for females, only age and height were significantly correlated with the studied lung function parameters. Significant ethnic differences were observed for most of the pulmonary functions (except KCO and PEFR) among the Chinese, Malays and Indians for both males and females. The predicted FEV1 and FVC values (specific age and height) for both sexes were highest among the Chinese followed by the Malays than Indians, in that order. Regression equations, with age and height as independent variables, were derived for males and females in each ethnic group to predict normal pulmonary function for the Singapore Chinese, Malay and Indian populations. The predicted values of various pulmonary function measurements obtained from these regression equations for subjects of specified age (30 years) and height (165 cm for men, 155 cm for women) were compared with those reported in other studies. Differences were observed among the different races.
  2. Poh SC, Ng NCW, Suratman S, Mathew D, Mohd Tahir N
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Dec 04;191(1):3.
    PMID: 30515582 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-7128-y
    The objective of this study was to identify the spatial and temporal variabilities of selected nutrients in the Setiu Wetlands Lagoon (SWL), Malaysia. Water samples were collected quarterly at ten monitoring sites. This study presents results from a 10-year field investigation (2003 to 2010 and 2014 to 2015) of water quality in the SWL. For the spatial pattern, four clusters were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis. Analysis of the temporal trend shows that the high total suspended solid loading in 2010 was due to large-scale land clearing upstream of the SWL. The enrichment of ammonium after 2010 could plausibly be due to land-based aquaculture diffuse discharges. In 2005-2007, expansion of oil palm plantations within the Setiu catchment had doubled the phosphorus concentration in the SWL. The natural and anthropogenic alterations of the lagoon inlets profoundly influenced the spatial distribution patterns of nutrients in the SWL. These results suggest that intense anthropogenic disturbances close to the SWL accounted for the water quality deterioration.
  3. Wong WW, Cartwright I, Poh SC, Cook P
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Feb 01;806(Pt 1):150408.
    PMID: 34571224 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150408
    The identification of nitrogen sources and cycling processes is critical to the management of nitrogen pollution. Here, we used both stable (δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, δ15N-NH4+) and radiogenic (222Rn) isotopes together with nitrogen concentrations to evaluate the relative importance of point (i.e. sewage) and diffuse sources (i.e. agricultural-derived NO3- from groundwater, drains and creeks) in driving nitrogen dynamic in a shallow coastal embayment, Port Phillip Bay (PPB) in Victoria, Australia. This study is an exemplar of nitrogen-limited coastal systems around the world where nitrogen contamination is prevalent and where constraining it may be challenging. In addition to surrounding land use, we found that the distributions of NO3- and NH4+ in the bay were closely linked to the presence of drift algae. Highest NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were 315 μmol L-1 and 2140 μmol L-1, respectively. Based on the isotopic signatures of NO3- (δ15N: 0.17 to 21‰; δ18O: 3 to 26‰) and NH4+ (δ15N: 30 to 39‰) in PPB, the high nitrogen concentrations were attributed to three major sources which varied between winter and summer; (1) nitrified sewage effluent and drift algae derived NH4+ mainly during winter, (2) NO3- mixture from atmospheric deposition, drains and creeks predominantly observed during summer and (3) groundwater and sewage derived NO3- during both surveys. The isotopic composition of NO3- also suggested the removal of agriculture-derived NO3- through denitrification was prevalent during transport. This study highlights the role of terrestrial-coastal interactions on nitrogen dynamics and illustrates the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a prominent pathway of diffuse NO3- inputs. Quantifying the relative contributions of multiple NO3- input pathways, however, require more extensive efforts and is an important avenue for future research.
  4. Mohd Tahir N, Poh SC, Suratman S, Ariffin MM, Shazali NA, Yunus K
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2009 Aug;83(2):199-203.
    PMID: 19436928 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-009-9751-3
    Results from the present study in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia indicated a significant spatial variation but generally the total suspended particulate concentrations (mean = 17.2-148 microg/m(3)) recorded were below the recommended Malaysia guideline for total suspended particulate (mean of 24-h measurement = 260 microg/m(3)). Some of the elemental composition of particulate aerosol is clearly affected by non crustal sources, e.g. vehicular emission sources. Based on correlation and enrichment analyses, the elements could be grouped into two i.e. Pb, Cd and Zn group with sources from vehicular emission (r > 0.6; enrichment factor > 10) and Al, Fe, Mn and Cr group that appears to be of crustal origin (r > 0.6; enrichment factor < 10). It can also be concluded that the mean levels of Pb (1 ng/m(3)), Cd (0.02 ng/m(3)) and Zn (2 ng/m(3)) in the study area are generally lower than other urban areas in Malaysia (Pb < 181 ng/m(3); Cd < 6 ng/m(3); Zn < 192 ng/m(3)).
  5. Mhd Haniffa MAC, Ching YC, Abdullah LC, Poh SC, Chuah CH
    Polymers (Basel), 2016 Jun 29;8(7).
    PMID: 30974522 DOI: 10.3390/polym8070246
    The properties of a composite material depend on its constituent materials such as natural biopolymers or synthetic biodegradable polymers and inorganic or organic nanomaterials or nano-scale minerals. The significance of bio-based and synthetic polymers and their drawbacks on coating film application is currently being discussed in research papers and articles. Properties and applications vary for each novel synthetic bio-based material, and a number of such materials have been fabricated in recent years. This review provides an in-depth discussion on the properties and applications of biopolymer-based nanocomposite coating films. Recent works and articles are cited in this paper. These citations are ubiquitous in the development of novel bionanocomposites and their applications.
  6. Wei L, Bee MY, Poh SC, Garg A, Lin F, Gao J
    Environ Monit Assess, 2022 Dec 27;195(1):231.
    PMID: 36572829 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-022-10822-1
    The marine aquaculture industry has caused a suite of adverse environmental consequences, including offshore eutrophication. However, little is known about the extent to which aquaculture effluents affect nearby wetland ecosystems. We carried out a field experiment in a mangrove stand located between two effluent-receiving creeks to estimate the extent to which marine aquaculture affects the soil nutrient distribution and plant nutrient status of adjacent mangroves. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents and C isotopic signatures were determined seasonally in creeks, pore water, surface soils, and in the leaves of the dominant mangrove species Kandelia obovata. The creeks exhibited nutrient enrichment (2.44 mg N L-1 and 0.09 mg P L-1 on average). The soils had N (from 1.40 to 2.70 g kg-1) and P (from 0.58 to 2.76 g kg-1) much greater than those of pristine mangrove forests. Combined analyses of the N:P ratio, nutrient resorption efficiency, and proficiency indicated that soil P met plant demands, but plants in most plots showed N limitation, suggesting that soil nutrient accumulation did not fundamentally impact the plant nutrient status. Collectively, this case study shows that marine aquaculture farms can affect adjacent mangrove stands even though their effluents are not directly discharged into the mangrove stands, but mangrove forests may have substantial buffering capabilities for long-term nutrient loading.
  7. Wong WW, Greening C, Shelley G, Lappan R, Leung PM, Kessler A, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Oct 10;790:147749.
    PMID: 34091344 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147749
    The permeable (sandy) sediments that dominate the world's coastlines and continental shelves are highly exposed to nitrogen pollution, predominantly due to increased urbanisation and inefficient agricultural practices. This leads to eutrophication, accumulation of drift algae and changes in the reactions of nitrogen, including the potential to produce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Nitrogen pollution in coastal systems has been identified as a global environmental issue, but it remains unclear how this nitrogen is stored and processed by permeable sediments. We investigated the interaction of drift algae biomass and nitrate (NO3-) exposure on nitrogen cycling in permeable sediments that were impacted by high nitrogen loading. We treated permeable sediments with increasing quantities of added macroalgal material and NO3- and measured denitrification, dissimilatory NO3- reduction to ammonium (DNRA), anammox, and nitrous oxide (N2O) production, alongside abundance of marker genes for nitrogen cycling and microbial community composition by metagenomics. We found that the presence of macroalgae dramatically increased DNRA and N2O production in sediments without NO3- treatment, concomitant with increased abundance of nitrate-ammonifying bacteria (e.g. Shewanella and Arcobacter). Following NO3- treatment, DNRA and N2O production dropped substantially while denitrification increased. This is explained by a shift in the relative abundance of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms under different NO3- exposure scenarios. Decreases in both DNRA and N2O production coincided with increases in the marker genes for each step of the denitrification pathway (narG, nirS, norB, nosZ) and a decrease in the DNRA marker gene nrfA. These shifts were accompanied by an increased abundance of facultative denitrifying lineages (e.g. Pseudomonas and Marinobacter) with NO3- treatment. These findings identify new feedbacks between eutrophication and greenhouse gas emissions, and in turn have potential to inform biogeochemical models and mitigation strategies for marine eutrophication.
  8. Chen M, Carrasco G, Zhao N, Wang X, Lee JN, Tanzil JTI, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2023 Feb 07;120(6):e2213163120.
    PMID: 36716377 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2213163120
    Material fluxes at the land-ocean interface impact seawater composition and global cycling of elements. However, most attention has been focused on the fluvial dissolved fluxes. For elements like lead (Pb), whose fluvial particulate flux into the ocean is two orders of magnitude higher than the dissolved counterpart, the role of particulates in elemental cycling is potentially important but currently less appreciated. Using both chemical analyses on samples collected from around equatorial Southeast Asia and model simulations, we show that particulate-dissolved exchange is an important mechanism controlling the concentration and isotopic composition of dissolved Pb in the ocean. Our model indicates that Pb contributed from particulate-dissolved exchange at ocean boundaries is larger than, or at least comparable to, other major Pb sources to the seawater before the Anthropocene, when the anthropogenic Pb was absent. Our work highlights the importance of boundary exchange in understanding marine element cycling and weathering-climate feedback.
  9. Latif MT, Abd Hamid HH, Ahamad F, Khan MF, Mohd Nadzir MS, Othman M, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2019 Dec;237:124451.
    PMID: 31394440 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124451
    This study aims to determine the composition of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) and assess the risk to health at different sites in Malaysia. Continuous monitoring of BTEX in Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Kuala Terengganu, Kota Kinabalu and Fraser Hill were conducted using Online Gas Chromatograph. For comparison, BTEX at selected hotspot locations were determined by active sampling method using sorbent tubes and Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic and the life-time cancer risk (LTCR) of BTEX were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) health risk assessment (HRA) methods. The results showed that the highest total BTEX concentrations using continuous monitoring were recorded in the Kuala Lumpur City Centre (49.56 ± 23.71 μg/m3). Toluene was the most dominant among the BTEX compounds. The average concentrations of benzene ranged from 0.69 ± 0.45 μg/m3 to 6.20 ± 3.51 μg/m3. Measurements using active sampling showed that BTEX concentrations dominated at the roadside (193.11 ± 114.57 μg/m3) in comparison to petrol station (73.08 ± 30.41 μg/m3), petrochemical industry (32.10 ± 13.13 μg/m3) and airport (25.30 ± 6.17 μg/m3). Strong correlations among BTEX compounds (p<0.01, r>0.7) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre showed that BTEX compounds originated from similar sources. The values of HQ at all stations were <1 indicating the non-carcinogenic risk are negligible and do not pose threats to human health. The LTCR value based on benzene inhalation (1.59 × 10-5) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre were between 1 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-5, representing a probable carcinogenic risk.
  10. de Carvalho LP, Tan SH, Ow GS, Tang Z, Ching J, Kovalik JP, et al.
    JACC Basic Transl Sci, 2018 Apr;3(2):163-175.
    PMID: 30062203 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2017.12.005
    We identified a plasma signature of 11 C14 to C26 ceramides and 1 C16 dihydroceramide predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, those with recent AMI, compared with those without recent AMI, showed a significant increase in 5 of the signature's 12 ceramides in plasma but not simultaneously-biopsied aortic tissue. In contrast, a rat AMI model, compared with sham control, showed a significant increase in myocardial concentrations of all 12 ceramides and up-regulation of 3 ceramide-producing enzymes, suggesting ischemic myocardium as a possible source of this ceramide signature.
  11. de Carvalho LP, Fong A, Troughton R, Yan BP, Chin CT, Poh SC, et al.
    Thromb. Haemost., 2018 02;118(2):415-426.
    PMID: 29443374 DOI: 10.1160/TH17-08-0564
    Studies on platelet reactivity (PR) testing commonly test PR only after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been performed. There are few data on pre- and post-PCI testing. Data on simultaneous testing of aspirin and adenosine diphosphate antagonist response are conflicting. We investigated the prognostic value of combined serial assessments of high on-aspirin PR (HASPR) and high on-adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist PR (HADPR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). HASPR and HADPR were assessed in 928 ACS patients before (initial test) and 24 hours after (final test) coronary angiography, with or without revascularization. Patients with HASPR on the initial test, compared with those without, had significantly higher intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) (8.6 vs. 1.2%, p ≤ 0.001) and higher 30-day major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; 5.2 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.05), but not 12-month MACCE (13.0 vs. 15.1%, p = 0.50). Patients with initial HADPR, compared with those without, had significantly higher IPTE (4.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.004), but not 30-day (3.5 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.32) or 12-month MACCE (14.0 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.54). The c-statistic of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score alone, GRACE score + ASPR test and GRACE score + ADPR test for discriminating 30-day MACCE was 0.649, 0.803 and 0.757, respectively. Final ADPR was associated with 30-day MACCE among patients with intermediate-to-high GRACE score (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-17.66), but not low GRACE score (adjusted OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.13-10.79). In conclusion, both HASPR and HADPR predict ischaemic events in ACS. This predictive utility is time-dependent and risk-dependent.
  12. Munksgaard NC, Kurita N, Sánchez-Murillo R, Ahmed N, Araguas L, Balachew DL, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 10 08;9(1):14419.
    PMID: 31595004 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50973-9
    We present precipitation isotope data (δ2H and δ18O values) from 19 stations across the tropics collected from 2012 to 2017 under the Coordinated Research Project F31004 sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Rainfall samples were collected daily and analysed for stable isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen by participating laboratories following a common analytical framework. We also calculated daily mean stratiform rainfall area fractions around each station over an area of 5° x 5° longitude/latitude based on TRMM/GPM satellite data. Isotope time series, along with information on rainfall amount and stratiform/convective proportions provide a valuable tool for rainfall characterisation and to improve the ability of isotope-enabled Global Circulation Models to predict variability and availability of inputs to fresh water resources across the tropics.
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