Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Rendana M, Idris WMR, Rahim SA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2022 Dec 17;195(1):205.
    PMID: 36527450 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-022-10833-y
    Mining activities in the Chini Lake catchment area have been extensive for several years, contributing to acid mine drainage (AMD) events with high concentrations of iron (Fe) and other heavy metals impacting the surface water. However, during the restriction period due to the COVID-19 outbreak, anthropogenic activities have been suspended, which clearly shows a good opportunity for a better environment. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the variation of AMD-associated water pollution in three main zones of the Chini Lake catchment area using Sentinel-2 data for the periods pre-movement control order (MCO), during MCO, and post-MCO from 2019 to 2021. These three zones were chosen due to their proximity to mining areas: zone 1 in the northeastern part, zone 2 in the southeastern part, and zone 3 in the southern part of the Chini Lake area. The acid mine water index (AMWI) was a specific index used to estimate acid mine water. The AMWI values from Sentinel-2 images exhibited that the mean AMWI values in all zones during the MCO period decreased by 14% compared with the pre-MCO period. The spatiotemporal analysis found that the highest polluted zones were recorded in zone 1, followed by zone 3 and zone 2. As compared with during the MCO period, the maximum percentage of increment during post-MCO in all zones was up to 25%. The loosened restriction policy has resulted in more AMD flowing into surface water and increased pollution in Chini Lake. As a whole, our outputs revealed that Sentinel-2 data had a major potential for assessing the AMD-associated pollution of water.
  2. Mutalip SSM, Rajikin MH, Rahim SA, Khan NMN
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2018 Feb;88(1-2):16-26.
    PMID: 30907699 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000492
    Protective action by annatto-derived delta-tocotrienol (δ-TCT) and soy-derived alpha-tocopherol (α-TOC) through the regulation of PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 pathway against the nicotine-induced DNA damages is the focus of the present study. Nicotine, which has been widely reported to have numerous adverse effects on the reproductive system, was used as reproductive toxicant. 48 female balb/c mice (6-8 weeks) (23-25 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups (G1-G8; n = 6) and treated with either nicotine or/and annatto δ-TCT/soy α-TOC for 7 consecutive days. On Day 8, the females were superovulated and mated before euthanized for embryo collection (46 hours post-coitum). Fifty 2-cell embryos from each group were used in gene expression analysis using Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex2.0 assay. Findings indicated that nicotine (G2) significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the number of produced 2-cell embryos compared to control (G1). Intervention with mixed annatto δ-TCT (G3) and pure annatto δ-TCT (G4) significantly increased the number of produced 2-cell embryos by 127 % and 79 % respectively compared to G2, but these were lower than G1. Concurrent treatment with soy α-TOC (G5) decreased embryo production by 7 %. Supplementations with δ-TCT and α-TOC alone (G6-G8) significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of produced 2-cell embryos by 50 %, 36 % and 41 % respectively, compared to control (G1). These results were found to be associated with the alterations in the PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 gene expressions, indicating the inhibitory effects of annatto δ-TCT and soy α-TOC against the nicotinic embryonic damages. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt on studying the benefits of annatto δ-TCT on murine preimplantation 2-cell embryos.
  3. Mohamed N, Mohd Yusoff MF, Isah N, Othman I, Syed Rahim SA, Paiman N
    Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot, 2011 Mar;18(1):3-10.
    PMID: 20496187 DOI: 10.1080/17457300.2010.487153
    A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 793 rear passengers in Malaysia. Logistic regression was performed to analyse the association of rear seatbelt wearing with 12 independent variables. Seven factors were significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing. Experience of being stopped by an enforcement officer for not wearing rear seatbelt yielded the highest odds ratio 2.3 (p = 0.002) followed by self-consciousness (odds ratio 1.7; p = 0.004), attitude (odds ratio 1.5, p = 0.001), and knowledge (odds ratio 1.4, p = 0.004). Age of participants and their perception of being caught by an enforcement officer were also significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing, odds ratios were 1.03 (p = 0.004) and 1.1 (p = 0.004), respectively. In contrast, level of education was negatively associated with rear seatbelt wearing (odds ratio 0.59, p = 0.003). It was concluded that enforcement activities, knowledge and attitude on seatbelt wearing play a very important role in improving the rate of rear seatbelt wearing. Thus, efforts to increase these factors should be the special focus in designing education and social marketing activities to advocate rear seatbelt wearing.
  4. Morni WZ, Rahim SA, Rumpet R, Musel J, Hassan R
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):117-129.
    PMID: 28228920 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.8
    This study provides the first marine gastropod checklist from the Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Gastropod samples were collected from selected stations in the Sarawak EEZ using an otter trawl net with a stretched mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. The trawling operations were conducted more than 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata: I) 20-50 m, II) 50-100 m and III) 100-200 m. A total of 23 gastropod species were identified during the two-month sampling period from 16 August until 6 October 2015, representing 8 superfamilies, 15 families and 20 genera. Superfamily Tonnoidea was represented by 7 species, followed by Muricoidea (5 species), Cypraeoidea (4 species), and Buccinoidea and Conoidea (both with 2 species). Other superfamilies were represented by a single species. Only 3 species were obtained in 2 depth strata, namely Melo melo, Murex aduncospinosus and Tonna galea. In addition, 9, 13 and 4 species of gastropods were found in strata I, II and III, respectively. The information on gastropod distributions at different depth strata in the Sarawak EEZ could be useful in updating the Malaysian species diversity database.
  5. Rahim SA, Goh BS, Zainor S, Rahman RA, Abdullah A
    PMID: 29456939 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-017-1193-3
    The cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Malaysia from August 2012 to December 2013. All patients implanted with in UKMMC from December 2001 until December 2012 was included. Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaires and UKMMC questionnaires were used as part of the assessment tool. The GBI is a scoring which measures the change in health status produced by surgical interventions. UKMMC questionnaires was invented by our department to assess questions related to social and life style of patients and also the cosmetic perspective Baha implant and other daily related activities. The audiological assessment was assessed using hearing aid gain threshold. Complication with regards to skin reaction was graded using Holger Skin Classification. A total of 40 patients underwent Baha implant were recruited but only 35 patients fulfilled the criteria and included in this study for analysis. Age of patients ranged from 5 year old to 38 year old, with median of 13 years old. There were 22 patients (62.8%) were male and 13 patients (37.1%) were females. Almost all cases were canal atresia except one adult patient was a case of bilateral chronic discharging ear with chronic irritation with ear mould. Majority of patients 21 (60%) have hearing level of moderate to severe hearing loss (40-89 dB) and 14 patients (40%) have mild to moderate hearing loss (20-39 dB). The level of hearing was retested post operatively. All of the patients have improvement in their aided hearing with the range of 10-25 dBL which is statistically significant at p value of <0.05. The GBI was scored positively in all subscales. Majority of patients (91.4%) used BAHA more than 4 h per day and 88.6% agreed that BAHA is cosmetically acceptable. All patients experienced some form of skin irritation (Holger grade 1-2) however only 20% required surgical intervention. All our patients have range of 10-25 dB improvement of their aided hearing which is statistically significant at p value of <0.05. BAHA has been proven to show significant benefit in audiological improvement and quality of life.
  6. Rendana M, Idris WMR, Rahim SA, Rahman ZA, Lihan T
    Geosci Lett, 2023;10(1):1.
    PMID: 36619610 DOI: 10.1186/s40562-022-00254-7
    Climate change and soil erosion are very associated with environmental defiance which affects the life sustainability of humans. However, the potency effects of both events in tropical regions are arduous to be estimated due to atmospheric conditions and unsustainable land use management. Therefore, several models can be used to predict the impacts of distinct climate scenarios on human and environmental relationships. In this study, we aimed to predict current and future soil erosion potential in the Chini Lake Basin, Malaysia under different Climate Model Intercomparison Project-6 (CMIP6) scenarios (e.g., SSP2.6, SSP4.5, and SSP8.5). Our results found the predicted mean soil erosion values for the baseline scenario (2019-2021) was around 50.42 t/ha year. The mining areas recorded the highest soil erosion values located in the southeastern part. The high future soil erosion values (36.15 t/ha year) were obtained for SSP4.5 during 2060-2080. Whilst, the lowest values (33.30 t/ha year) were obtained for SSP2.6 during 2040-2060. According to CMIP6, the future soil erosion potential in the study area would reduce by approximately 33.9% compared to the baseline year (2019-2021). The rainfall erosivity factor majorly affected soil erosion potential in the study area. The output of the study will contribute to achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  7. Nadhirah Md Rahim SA, Lee CS, Abnisa F, Ashri Wan Daud WM, Aroua MK, Cognet P, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Feb 11.
    PMID: 35157890 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133949
    Redox mediators supply an effective way to promote electrons (and protons) transport between the electrode and substrate without being in direct physical contact with the electrode. Here, the carbon-based electrodes with Amberlyst-15 as the redox mediator were used in the electrocatalytic reduction to investigate their ability to indirectly convert glycerol into 1,2-propanediol. The process aims to study the influence of different activated carbon compositions (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% of total weight) in the activated carbon composite (ACC) electrodes on the electrochemical properties, reaction mechanisms, and selectivity of the yielded products. Their electrochemical behavior and physicochemical properties were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), followed by FESEM-EDX for the selected ACC electrode. Electroactive surface area (EASA) plays a role in glycerol mass transport and electrons transfer. EASA of 60ACC, 70ACC, 80ACC, and 90ACC (geometrical surface area of 0.50 cm2) were 19.62, 24.50, 36.74 and 30.83 cm2, respectively. With the highest EASA, 80ACC enhanced the mass transport and electrons transfer process that eventually improved its electrocatalytic activity. It outperformed other ACC electrodes by generating Amberlyst-15 radicals (A-15•-) with high current density at low potential (-0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl). A-15•- served as the electron-donor for the homogeneous redox reaction with glycerol in delivering highly reactive glycerol radical for further intermediates development and generated 1,2-propanediol at -2.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl (current density of -0.2018 A cm-2). High activated carbon content portrayed a dominant role in controlling EASA and favored consecutive acetol-1,2-propanediol production through the C-O bond breakage. From the galvanostatic electrolysis, 1,2-propanediol selectivity was higher on 80ACC (88.6%) compared to 60ACC (61.4%), 70ACC (70.4%) and 90ACC (72.5%). Diethylene glycol formation was found to be the side reaction but preferred low activated carbon percentage in 60ACC and 70ACC.
  8. Godman B, Haque M, Kumar S, Islam S, Charan J, Akter F, et al.
    Curr Med Res Opin, 2021 09;37(9):1529-1545.
    PMID: 34166174 DOI: 10.1080/03007995.2021.1946024
    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus continue to rise, which, coupled with increasing costs of complications, has appreciably increased expenditure in recent years. Poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia enhances complication rates and associated morbidity, mortality and costs. Consequently, this needs to be addressed. Whilst the majority of patients with diabetes have type-2 diabetes, a considerable number of patients with diabetes require insulin to help control their diabetes. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia associated with insulin and help improve adherence, which can be a concern. However, their considerably higher costs have impacted on their funding and use, especially in countries with affordability issues. Biosimilars can help reduce the costs of long-acting insulin analogues thereby increasing available choices. However, the availability and use of long-acting insulin analogues can be affected by limited price reductions versus originators and limited demand-side initiatives to encourage their use. Consequently, we wanted to assess current utilisation rates for long-acting insulin analogues, especially biosimilars, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple Asian countries ranging from Japan (high-income) to Pakistan (lower-income) to inform future strategies.

    METHODOLOGY: Multiple approaches including assessing utilization and prices of insulins including biosimilars among six Asian countries and comparing the findings especially with other middle-income countries.

    RESULTS: Typically, there was increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues among the selected Asian countries. This was especially the case enhanced by biosimilars in Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia reflecting their perceived benefits. However, there was limited use in Pakistan due to issues of affordability similar to a number of African countries. The high use of biosimilars in Bangladesh, India and Malaysia was helped by issues of affordability and local production. The limited use of biosimilars in Japan and Korea reflects limited price reductions and demand-side initiatives similar to a number of European countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues across countries is welcomed, adding to the range of insulins available, which increasingly includes biosimilars. A number of activities are needed to enhance the use of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars in Japan, Korea and Pakistan.

  9. Godman B, Haque M, Leong T, Allocati E, Kumar S, Islam S, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:671961.
    PMID: 34249838 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.671961
    Background: Diabetes mellitus rates continue to rise, which coupled with increasing costs of associated complications has appreciably increased global expenditure in recent years. The risk of complications are enhanced by poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia and improve adherence. Their considerably higher costs though have impacted their funding and use. Biosimilars can help reduce medicine costs. However, their introduction has been affected by a number of factors. These include the originator company dropping its price as well as promoting patented higher strength 300 IU/ml insulin glargine. There can also be concerns with different devices between the manufacturers. Objective: To assess current utilisation rates for insulins, especially long-acting insulin analogues, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple countries to inform strategies to enhance future utilisation of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars to benefit all key stakeholders. Our approach: Multiple approaches including assessing the utilisation, expenditure and prices of insulins, including biosimilar insulin glargine, across multiple continents and countries. Results: There was considerable variation in the use of long-acting insulin analogues as a percentage of all insulins prescribed and dispensed across countries and continents. This ranged from limited use of long-acting insulin analogues among African countries compared to routine funding and use across Europe in view of their perceived benefits. Increasing use was also seen among Asian countries including Bangladesh and India for similar reasons. However, concerns with costs and value limited their use across Africa, Brazil and Pakistan. There was though limited use of biosimilar insulin glargine 100 IU/ml compared with other recent biosimilars especially among European countries and Korea. This was principally driven by small price differences in reality between the originator and biosimilars coupled with increasing use of the patented 300 IU/ml formulation. A number of activities were identified to enhance future biosimilar use. These included only reimbursing biosimilar long-acting insulin analogues, introducing prescribing targets and increasing competition among manufacturers including stimulating local production. Conclusions: There are concerns with the availability and use of insulin glargine biosimilars despite lower costs. This can be addressed by multiple activities.
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