This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the outcome of posterior cruciate ligament
reconstruction in chronic injuries using ipsilateral Bone-patella tendon-Bone graft in nine patients, between January 2000 and January 2003 at our institution.
A case of traumatic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fracture presenting with unusual radiographic findings is described. CT scan of the right knee showed features suggestive of combined ACL and PCL avulsion fractures. Arthroscopic findings showed that the injury was in fact a PCL avulsion fracture that was displaced anteriorly so as to mimic an ACL avulsion fracture on CT scan.
Monolayer culture expansion remains as a fundamental step to acquire sufficient number of cells for 3D constructs formation. It has been well-documented that cell expansion is however accompanied by cellular dedifferentiation. In order to promote cell growth and circumvent cellular dedifferentiation, we evaluated the effects of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 (TGF-β2), Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) combination on articular chondrocytes culture and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct formation. Chondrocytes were serially cultured in: (1) F12:DMEM+10% Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS) with growth factors (FD10GFs), (2) F12:DMEM+2%FBS with the growth factors (FD2GFs) and, (3) F12:DMEM+10%FBS without growth factors (FD) as control. Cultured chondrocytes were evaluated by means of growth kinetics parameters, cell cycle analysis, quantitative phenotypic expression of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein sox-9 and collagen type I and, immunochemistry technique. Harvested chondrocytes were incorporated with plasma-derived fibrin and were polymerized to form the 3D constructs and implanted subcutaneously at the dorsum of athymic nude mice for eight (8) weeks. Resulted constructs were assigned for gross inspections and microscopic evaluation using standard histochemicals staining, immunochemistry technique and, quantitative phenotypic expression of cartilage markers to reassure cartilaginous tissue formation. Growth kinetics performance of chondrocytes cultured in three (3) types of culture media from the most to least was in the following order: FD10GFs>FD2GFs>FD. Following growth kinetics analysis, we decided to use FD10GFs and FD (control) for further evaluation and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs formation. Chondrocytes cultured in FD10GFs preserved the normal diploid state (2c) with no evidence of aneuploidy, haploidy or tetraploidy. Expression of cartilage-specific markers namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9 were significantly higher in FD10GFs when compared to control. After implantation, 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs exhibited firm, white, smooth and glistening cartilage-like properties. FD10GFs constructs formed better quality cartilage-like tissue than FD constructs in term of overall cartilaginous tissue formation, cells organization and extracellular matrix distribution in the specimens. Cartilaginous tissue formation was confirmed by the presence of lacunae and cartilage-isolated cells embedded within basophilic ground substance. Presence of proteoglycan was confirmed by positive Safranin O staining. Collagen type II exhibited immunopositivity at the pericellular and inter-territorial matrix area. Chondrogenic properties of the construct were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox9. In conclusion, FD10GFs promotes the proliferation of chondrocytes and formation of good quality 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs which may have potential use of matrix-induced cell implantation.
We are reporting a case of a patient with a symptomatic intra-articular ganglion of the knee arising from infrapatellar fat pad. Plain radiograph and Magnetic Resonance (MR) images were correlated with arthroscopic examination and histological findings. The cyst was removed and post operatively patient regained full extension.
To evaluate the effect of autologous human serum (AHS) versus pooled human serum (PHS) versus foetal bovine serum (FBS) for growth of articular chondrocytes and formation of chondrocytefibrin constructs.
Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage biopsy and were cultivated in vitro. Approximately 30 million of cultured chondrocytes per ml were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted either with the autologous 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blank (AF). Sheep were euthanized after 12 weeks. The gross morphology of all defects treated with ACFC implantation, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly normal appearance according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. ACFC significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF in accordance with the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale. The relative sulphated glycosaminoglycans content (%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ACFC when compared to control groups; ACI vs. fibrin only vs. untreated (blank). Results showed that ACFC implantation exhibited superior cartilage-like tissue regeneration compared to ACI. If the result is applicable to the human, it possibly will improve the existing treatment approaches for cartilage restoration in orthopaedic surgery.
Ovine articular chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsy and culture expanded in vitro. Approximately 30 million cells per ml of cultured chondrocytes were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form a three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in the lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted with either an autologous 'chondrocyte-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blanks (AF) as controls. Animals were killed after 12 weeks. The gross appearance of the treated defects was inspected and photographed. The repaired tissues were studied histologically and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. All defects were assessed using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. Those treated with ACFC, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly-normal appearance. On the basis of the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale, ACFC implantation significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF. Using scanning electron microscopy, ACFC and ACI showed characteristic organisation of chondrocytes and matrices, which were relatively similar to the surrounding adjacent cartilage. Implantation of ACFC resulted in superior hyaline-like cartilage regeneration when compared with ACI. If this result is applicable to humans, a better outcome would be obtained than by using conventional ACI.
Animal serum is commonly used in chondrocytes culture expansion to promote cell proliferation and shorten the time lag before new tissue reconstruction is possible. However, animal serum is not suitable for regeneration of clinical tissue because it has potential risk of viral and prion related disease transmission particularly mad cow disease and foreign protein contamination that can stimulate immune reaction leading to graft rejection. In this context, human serum as homologous supplement has a greater potential as growth promoting agents for human chondrocytes culture.
Culture media supplemented with animal serum e.g. fetal bovine serum; FBS is commonly used for human culture expansion. However, for clinical application, FBS is restricted as its carry a risk of viral or prion transmission. Engineering autologous cartilage with autologous human serum supplementation is seen as a better solution to reduce the risk of transmitting infectious diseases and immune rejection during cartilage transplantation. The purpose of this study is to establish and compare the effects of 10% autologous human serum (AHS) and 10% FBS on the growth of chondrocytes and the formation of tissue engineered human articular cartilage.
Treatment of articular cartilage lesions remains a clinical challenge. The uses of prosthetic joint replace allograft and/or autograft transplant carry a risk of complications due to infection, loosening of its component, immunological rejection and morbidity at the donor site. There has been an increasing interest in the management of cartilage damages, owing to the introduction of new therapeutic options. Tissue engineering as a method for tissue restoration begins to provide a potential alternative therapy for autologous grafts transplantations. We aimed to evaluate how well a tissue engineered neocartilage implant, consist of human articular chondrocytes cultured with the presence of autologous serum and mixed in a fresh fibrin derived from patient, would perform in subcutaneous implantation in athymic mice.