We identified two novel circoviruses, HK02976 and HK00220, in oral swabs from bats. The size of their full genome was 2,010 nucleotides (nt). The full-genome sequence of our strains shared 96.1% nucleotide sequence identity with each other, and 39.9%-69.5% identity with bat-associated circoviruses (BatACVs)1-9. Based on the species demarcation threshold for viruses of the family Circoviridae, which is 80% genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity, we have tentatively named this group of viruses "bat-associated circovirus 10" (BatACV10).
An estuarine species of Nereididae (Annelida), Neanthesglandicincta (Southern, 1921) has been newly recorded on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia located in the South China Sea based on 23 specimens collected from three estuaries (Tumpat, Kelantan Delta, Kelantan; Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu; Kuala Ibai, Terengganu). The morphological characteristics of the Malaysian specimens agree well with those of the previous original description and the redescription of N.glandicincta based on Indian, Myanmar and Singapore specimens. The number of paragnaths in all groups on the proboscis of our Malaysian specimens is within the range of the intraspecific variation of N.glandicincta as shown in the previous descriptions. An identification key to species of the Neanthesglandicincta species complex, which includes two morphologically similar species, is provided.
Subplate (SP) neurons are among the earliest-born neurons in the cerebral cortex and heterogeneous in terms of gene expression. SP neurons consist mainly of projection neurons, which begin to extend their axons to specific target areas very early during development. However, the relationships between axon projection and gene expression patterns of the SP neurons, and their remnant layer 6b (L6b) neurons, are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the corticocortical projections of L6b/SP neurons in the mouse cortex and searched for a marker gene expressed in L6b/SP neurons that have ipsilateral inter-areal projections. Retrograde tracing experiments demonstrated that L6b/SP neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) projected to the primary motor cortex (M1) within the same cortical hemisphere at postnatal day (PD) 2 but did not show any callosal projection. This unilateral projection pattern persisted into adulthood. Our microarray analysis identified the gene encoding a β subunit of voltage-gated potassium channel (Kcnab1) as being expressed in L6b/SP. Double labeling with retrograde tracing and in situ hybridization demonstrated that Kcnab1 was expressed in the unilaterally-projecting neurons in L6b/SP. Embryonic expression was specifically detected in the SP as early as embryonic day (E) 14.5, shortly after the emergence of SP. Double immunostaining experiments revealed different degrees of co-expression of the protein product Kvβ1 with L6b/SP markers Ctgf (88%), Cplx3 (79%), and Nurr1 (58%), suggesting molecular subdivision of unilaterally-projecting L6b/SP neurons. In addition to expression in L6b/SP, scattered expression of Kcnab1 was observed during postnatal stages without layer specificity. Among splicing variants with three alternative first exons, the variant 1.1 explained all the cortical expression mentioned in this study. Together, our data suggest that L6b/SP neurons have corticocortical projections and Kcnab1 expression defines a subpopulation of L6b/SP neurons with a unilateral inter-areal projection.
Understanding enzymatic Diels-Alder (DA) reactions that can form complex natural product scaffolds is of considerable interest. Sch 210972 1, a potential anti-HIV fungal natural product, contains a decalin core that is proposed to form through a DA reaction. We identified the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 and heterologously reconstituted the biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus nidulans to characterize the enzymes involved. Most notably, deletion of cghA resulted in a loss of stereoselective decalin core formation, yielding both an endo (1) and a diastereomeric exo adduct of the proposed DA reaction. Complementation with cghA restored the sole formation of 1. Density functional theory computation of the proposed DA reaction provided a plausible explanation of the observed pattern of product formation. Based on our study, we propose that lipocalin-like CghA is responsible for the stereoselective intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition that forms the decalin core of 1.