Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

  1. Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 1998;5(1):-.
    This study was undertaken to investigate the number and types (fluoride or non-fluoride) of toothpaste products available in the Malaysian market based on the label. Thirty-five brands of toothpaste were identified, of which ten (29%) were specifically recommended for children. Two of the children's toothpaste recommended that children below seven years old use a pea size amount of toothpaste. One (3%) was recommended for both children and adult. The remaining 24 (69%) did not state if they were recommended for either children or adults. To improve the flavour of the toothpastes, a variety of flavours had been added especially in children's toothpaste. Almost half of the toothpastes were for prevention of tooth decay and gum disease. Other indications were for tooth sensitivity, tooth whitening and stain removal. Twentyseven (77%) of the toothpastes were imported, while eight (23%) were made in Malaysia. Twenty-six (74%) of the toothpaste contained fluoride and the most common type of fluoride used was sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP). The fluoride concentration was not labeled in more than half (63%) of the fluoridated toothpaste. Of those that were fluoridated, different units of measurement were used. As there is no uniformity in the labelling of these products, it is recommended that the responsible authorities should take more action in enforcing proper labelling of the fluoride concentration in the toothpaste using standardized units.
  2. Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2001;8(1):-.
    The habit of chewing betel quid has been practised since ancient times. Although the world has gone through modernization, a significant proportion of people still practices this habit. Substantial evidence has shown that betel quid chewing is associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and precancerous lesions, which has a tremendous psychosocial impact on an individual's life. Thus it becomes significantly important to dentistry to look into this matter. Since betel quid chewing is one of the causes of oral cancer, effort in cha~ging this habit is essential. This article addresses this issue.
  3. Asma’, M., Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2010;17(1):15-20.
    The aim of the present study is to determine the “community indicator” for dental caries among secondary school children within the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (FTKL). School factors were investigated for their ability to be used as community indicators. The components encompassing school factors include: type of school, school’s examination performances at the Peperiksaan Menengah Rendah (PMR) level, in the subjects of Mathematics, Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language), Science and English, school’s socioeconomic circumstances and school’s material deprivation. The study design is ecological in nature where schools were the unit of analysis. It used aggregated data for caries experiences acquired from the Oral Health Management Information System and the school factors which were extracted from the schools’ database. The subjects involved in this study were all the (75) day type secondary schools in FTKL. However, only 55 schools had complete information both for the dental caries factor and the school factors which were available for analysis. The use of bivariate analysis suggested that the school mean DMFT was significantly associated with the schools’ performance in English (p= 0.02) and the schools’ socioeconomic code (p= 0.005). The schools’ performance in English and socioeconomic code were able to explain about 10 percent and 14 percent of the variation in the school mean DMFT respectively. The final model that included both variables together explained about 17 percent of the variation in school mean DMFT. As a conclusion, this study suggests that the schools’ performance in English at the PMR level and the schools’ socioeconomic code could be used as community indicator to identify secondary schools with higher caries level in FTKL. Nevertheless, further
    improvement of the model is needed in order to create a more reliable indicator.
  4. Jaafar, N., Saub, R., Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 1997;4(1):9-12.
    A pilot study was conducted on 135 sixteen-year-old students from three rural schools in Kelantan to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and discomfort. About 44% reported to have experienced some oro-facial pain in the preceding four weeks. About 27% of those with pain, still experienced the pain at the time of clinical examination but only 8% have consulted professional help. Most of the pain encountered were only mild or moderate in nature. Only 7% and 10% respectively, reported that the pain affected their sleep and concentration to study. The main cause was toothache and sensitivity. The prevalence of discomfort was 22%, the most common causes being recurrent oral ulcers and bleeding gums. The impacts of orofacial pain was mainly manifested at the personal level, and very few affecting social functioning. However, untreated decay and missing teeth were very low (mean DT 0.47, mean MT 0.27), while filled teeth (mean Ff 2.9) was the main component of the DMFf (mean 3.66, sd ± 2.6). Severe periodontal disease and the prevalence of traumatised teeth was not a major public health problem. The high prevalence of pain merit further research. Therefore a larger study involving other age-groups in other states is planned.
  5. Azrina, A.N., Norzuliza, G., R. Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2007;14(1):1-6.
    The purpose of this study was to gather information on the oral hygiene behaviour among the visually impaired adolescents. Interview and observation methods were used to collect data. A total of 114 visually impaired adolescents were interviewed and 10 of the interviewees were selected for observation on the actual oral hygiene practices. The mean age of the sample was 16 years old. The sample comprised of 53.5% female, majority were Malays (86.8%) and most of them were from the lower income group. Fifty four percent of the sample had low vision and 45.6% were blind. All of the participants reported that they brushed their teeth daily and most of them brushed twice a day or more. Flossing (6.1%) was not common practice among this group. It was observed that they encountered some difficulties, especially when putting the toothpaste on the toothbrush and also the way that they brushed their teeth could cause detrimental effect to the oral cavity. Thus, they need to be taught on proper oral hygiene care so that they can practice safe oral hygiene care and maintain their own oral health.
  6. Law, C.H., Razak, I.A., Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2000;7(1):-.
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between parental oral health perception on the importance of the deciduous dentition and the dental caries status of their preschool children. Clinical oral examination of the preschool children was performed and self-administered questionnaires were given to the parents to be completed. Four hundred and eight preschool children were examined and 390 of their parents responded to the self-administered questionnaire. Those parents who brought their children for regular dental check-up at least once a year; favoured restorative treatment and practised tooth brushing habit before bedtime were more likely to have children with significantly lower mean 'dft' as well as higher proportions of caries free mouth (> 50 %). Those children who started early in practising tooth brushing also had better dental caries status but the differences were not significant. However, there were no significant and appreciable differences in their mean 'dft' with respect to the frequencies of tooth brushing per day. It was concluded that parents with better oral health perception as reflected by those parents who (a) practiced regular dental check-up for their children; (b) favoured restorative treatment for their children's decayed deciduous teeth; (c) ensured their children brushed their teeth before bedtime are associated with better dental caries status of their preschool children.
  7. Saub R, Locker D
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Oct;61(4):438-46.
    PMID: 17243521
    The aim of this paper is to describe the impact of oral conditions on the quality of life of the adult population of Malaysia. The adapted Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (L-OHIP-M) questionnaire was used. A total of two hundred and twenty respondents completed the L-OHIP(M). Overall, slightly more than 50% of the sample had at least one impact reported as either "very often" or "often". The younger age group, Indian ethnic and those who had tertiary education reported more impacts. The preliminary results revealed that a substantial proportion of the sample included in this study experienced frequent psychosocial impacts associated with oral conditions.
  8. Saub R, Jaafar N
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Dec;56(4):401-7.
    PMID: 12014757
    This observational study investigates and describes the oral health beliefs and illness behaviour in the Semai tribe of Orang Asli community. Data was obtained from a "Key informant interview" method i.e. the village Tok Halaq (Traditional healer). Information about common oral diseases and conditions were illustrated with enlarged pictures of dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer and cleft. The most common oral problem was toothache. This is treated by self-medication. However if the pain still persist, the Tok Halaq was consulted to start traditional methods. He will identify the cause. If "germs" were thought to be the cause, he will ask the person to see a doctor. Otherwise, he attempts traditional treatment. If the effort failed after a few days, the person will be advised to see a doctor. It appears that the Tok Halaq plays an influential role in prevention, promotion and the healing process in this community. Hence any effort to promote oral health and prevent oral disease must seek their cooperation. Their beliefs on causes of common oral diseases are described in the text.
  9. Abdullah, N.S., Radzali, N.F.M., Saub, R., R.D. Vaithilingam,
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(2):16-23.
    To assess the oral health related quality of life
    (OHQoL) of a selected population of Malaysian adults and to compare the OHQoL by periodontal status. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study comprises a convenient sampling of fifty subjects from the Primary Care Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. OHQoL was assessed using the Malaysian version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Basic periodontal examination (BPE) was performed on all subjects to determine their periodontal status. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed.
    Results: Psychological discomfort, physical pain and psychological disability domains were the most affected dimensions in this population. Subjects with income levels >RM2,500 had higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those from other income levels (p0.05).
    Conclusion: Subjects with high income levels had high impacts on their OHQoL. Those with periodontitis experienced higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those who had a healthy periodontium or gingivitis and affected a wide range of domains of quality of life.
  10. Nor Azman, A.R., Saub, R., Raja Latifah, R.J.
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2015;37(1):24-29.
    This study was conducted on Royal Malaysian Navy submariners who were having training in France. It was designed to compare the oral health experiences and practices while under water and on land. Methods Eightysix Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) submariners, who had undergone at least one cycle (288 hours) of under water training, were selected to participate in a self-administered questionnaire survey. Results Seven percent of the respondents reported oro-facial pain and discomfort; 9.3% reported bleeding gums and 12.8% experienced halitosis while under water. Of those experience oral problems, 82% reported disruption of their daily activities while under water. The study showed that 82.5% of them brush their teeth at least twice a day and 94.2% rinse after meals when there were under water. Meanwhile studies on land showed that 90.7% of them brush their teeth at least twice a day and 96.5% rinse after meals. Flossing was not practiced by most of the respondents. Conclusion It is concluded that brushing and rinsing are practiced regularly by submariners regardless whether they are on land or under water but flossing is not a common practice both on land and under water. Dental emergencies, such as toothache, TMJ pain and discomfort do occur during submarine operations and disrupt their daily activities. This might poses a threat to submarine operations.
  11. Saub R, Locker D, Allison P
    Community Dent Health, 2008 Sep;25(3):132-6.
    PMID: 18839717
    To compare two methods of developing short forms of the Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-M) measure.
  12. Saub R, Locker D, Allison P, Disman M
    Community Dent Health, 2007 Sep;24(3):166-75.
    PMID: 17958078
    The aim of this project was to develop an oral health related-quality of life measure for the Malaysian adult population aged 18 and above by the cross-cultural adaption the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP).
  13. Saub R, Evans RW
    Aust Dent J, 2001 Sep;46(3):198-202.
    PMID: 11695159
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of elderly hostel residents in Melbourne.

    METHOD: One hundred and seventy-five subjects aged 65+ were selected from 20 hostels within a 10 km radius of Melbourne's central business district.

    RESULTS: Subjects were clinically examined and interviewed using a standard questionnaire. In the course of the clinical examination, coronal caries, root caries, periodontal disease, denture status and related treatment needs were assessed. The mean age of the subjects was 83.7, the majority of whom were female (80 per cent). About 35 per cent of the sample were dentate. The mean number of teeth present among dentate persons was 13.8, the mean coronal caries experience was 24.9 DMFT and mean root caries was 2.3 R-DF. Of the dentate subjects, 46 per cent required at least one restoration for coronal caries and 30 per cent required at least one restoration for root caries. Most dentate subjects had calculus and none had deep pockets, therefore, indications for periodontal treatment did not include complex care. More than 50 per cent of lower full dentures were retained unsatisfactorily and about half of the total number of subjects required prosthetic treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a high number of treatment needs, most requirements involved simple technologies that could be delivered by auxiliaries.

  14. Rapeah, M.Y., Munirah, Y., Latifah, K., Faizah, K., Norsimah, S., Maryana, M., et al.
    Ann Dent, 2008;15(2):77-81.
    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and factors that influenced smoking behaviours among male adolescents in Kuantan, Pahang. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the form four male students in Kuantan District. Three hundred and twenty three students were randomly selected from eight secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all the respondents. Almost half of the sample was smokers (45.8%) and half of them were Malays (53.1%). Students whose parents had lower level of occupation were more likely to smoke (58.8%). Among smokers, 34.5% of them smoked since primary school and a majority (91.7%) smoked 10 or less cigarettes per day. Half of them (53.4%) reported that they bought loose cigarettes and most of them used their school pocket money to purchase the cigarettes (81.7%). From the multivariate analysis, it was found that Non-Science Stream classes (OR=3.92, 95% CI= 2.10, 7.32), peers' smoking (OR=6.07, 95% CI= 2.32, 15.92), and attitude towards smoking (OR= 21.93, 95% CI= 9.71,49.51) were significantly associated with smoking habit. The prevalence of smoking among male adolescents was considerably high'in this population. It is recommended that antismoking activities in school be carried out regularly and should involve an active participation from the adolescents themselves since peers have great influence on smoking habits.
  15. Rajesh, S.M., Muirhead, V., Mohd Dom, T.N., Ismail, N.M., Jamaludin, M., Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(1):1-7.
    To explore the association between social
    support and stress levels in preclinical and clinical dental
    students in Malaysia. Method: A cross sectional survey
    of dental undergraduate students was conducted at the
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Universiti
    Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    Stress was measured using the Dental Environment Stress
    (DES) questionnaire. A DES-32 item was used to measure
    stress for the clinical students and DES-16 item for the
    preclinical students. Four questions were used to measure
    social support. The total stress scores were standardized
    for comparison purposes. Results: A total of 357 (79.7%)
    preclinical and 417 (71.8%) clinical undergraduate dental
    students responded to the questionnaires. The clinical
    students experienced higher stress [mean standardized
    DES score = 72.63, SD = 10.64] than preclinical students
    [mean standardized DES score = 70.19, SD=12.01]. The
    two most stressful items reported by preclinical students
    were “fear of failing” and “examination and grades”.
    Among clinical students, the two most stressful items related
    to academic were “completing course requirement” and
    “fear of failing course” and items related to clinical session
    were “fear of being barred due to the clinical schedule”
    and “patients late or absent”. Multiple regression analyses
    revealed that low stress levels among preclinical students
    were significantly associated to a lot of contact with
    students of the same course. Conclusion: To some extent,
    social support does play a role in explaining differences in
    perceived stress, in particular among preclinical students.
  16. Khoo SP, Primasari A, Saub R
    J Oral Sci, 2001 Sep;43(3):151-7.
    PMID: 11732734
    There is presently no line of distinction between oral lichen planus and other oral lichenoid lesions. The aim of this study is to determine using histomorphometry, the differences between these lesions. Paraffin sections from 7 normal buccal epithelium, 19 oral lichen planus (LP), 14 oral lichenoid lesions (LL) and 7 discoid lupus erythematosus-like lesions (DLE-ll) were selected. The nuclear volume (V(N)) and cellular-volume (V(CELL)) of the epithelium were assessed using an image analyser. The V(N) and V(CELL), derived for both basal and spinal strata in LP and DLE-ll were 2.3 times more than that of normal tissues. There was a significant difference between LP and LL (P < 0.005) and between LL and DLE-ll (P < 0.001), but not between LP and DLE-ll. In conclusion, there appears to be a difference between LP, LL and DLE-ll and V(N) and V(CELL) may serve as potential discriminators between these groups of lesions.
  17. Othman SA, Mansor N, Saub R
    Korean J Orthod, 2014 Jul;44(4):168-76.
    PMID: 25133131 DOI: 10.4041/kjod.2014.44.4.168
    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients treated with conventional, active self-ligating (ASL), and passive self-ligating (PSL) brackets in different therapeutic phases.
  18. Mansor N, Saub R, Othman SA
    J Orthod Sci, 2012 Oct;1(4):98-102.
    PMID: 24987635 DOI: 10.4103/2278-0203.105880
    The objective of this study was to assess changes in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances 24 h after insertion.
  19. Othman AA, Yusof Z, Saub R
    Gerodontology, 2014 Jun;31(2):136-44.
    PMID: 23173906 DOI: 10.1111/ger.12023
    To assess Malaysian government dentists' experience, willingness and barriers in providing domiciliary care for elderly people.
  20. Saub R, Locker D, Allison P
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005 Oct;33(5):378-83.
    PMID: 16128798
    This paper describes the development of a short version of the Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile.
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