SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The bacteria isolated from unusual dwellings such as the cockroaches' gut are a useful source of antibacterial and antiamoebal molecules. These are remarkable findings that will open several avenues in our search for novel antimicrobials from unique sources. Furthermore studies will lead to the identification of molecules to develop future antibacterials from insects.
METHOD: We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature and also summarized our published results in this field.
RESULTS: The present review focuses on novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in details which can provide access to management and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. This coupled with the recently available genome sequence information together with high throughput genomics technology and innovative approaches should stimulate interest in the rational design of preventative and therapeutic measures. Current treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis is problematic and often leads to infection recurrence. Better understanding of diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathophysiology and therapeutic regimens, would lead to novel strategies in treatment and prophylaxis.
KEY FINDINGS: Majority of antimicrobials have been discovered from prokaryotes and those which are of eukaryotic origin are derived mainly from fungal and plant sources. With this in mind, it is important to note that pests, such as cockroaches come across pathogenic bacteria routinely, yet thrive in polluted environments. Other animals, such as snakes thrive from feeding on germ-infested rodents. Logically, such species must have developed an approach to protect themselves from these pathogens, yet they have largely been ignored as a potential source of antimicrobials despite their remarkable capability to fight disease-causing organisms.
SUMMARY: Animals living in polluted environments are an underutilized source for potential antimicrobials, hence it is believed that several novel bioactive molecule(s) will be identified from these sources to counter increasingly resistant bacterial infections. Further research will be necessary in the development of novel antimicrobial(s) from these unusual sources which will have huge clinical impact worldwide.
METHODS: Using purified compounds, assays were performed to determine their effects against cancer cell lines using growth inhibition assays, cytotoxicity assays, and cell survival assays against HeLa, PC3 and MCF7 cells.
RESULTS: The results showed that the selected small molecules L-Methionine, Rofecoxib, and Artocarpin suppressed the growth of more than 90% PC3 cells at 40µM. Similarly, Valdecoxib alone and in combination with other molecules exhibited potent growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against cancer cells tested. Peptide from the serum of M. reticulatus, demonstrated selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells without inhibiting the growth of normal cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings are significant and provide a basis for the rational development of therapeutic anticancer agents, however intensive research is needed to determine in vivo effects of the identified molecules together with their mode of action to realize these expectations.