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  1. Singam P, Thanabalan J, Mohammed Z
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2011 01 01;7(1):e3.
    PMID: 21655112 MyJurnal DOI: 10.2349/biij.7.1.e3
    Traumatic intractable epistaxis following fractures of the facial and base of skull rarely may be life-threatening. Common sites of injury are the internal carotid and maxillary artery. When conventional methods of arresting haemorrhage fail, the choices are then an open arterial ligation or superselective embolisation. This paper presents a patient with life-threatening epistaxis from a Le Fort type II fracture. Angiography revealed a maxillary artery injury in which superselective embolisation was performed and the haemorrhage was successfully arrested. A literature review of this technique is discussed, including its advantages and the relationship of the internal maxillary artery to facial fractures.
  2. Ho CC, Singam P, Hong GE, Zainuddin ZM
    Asian J. Androl., 2011 Jul;13(4):537-42.
    PMID: 21643001 DOI: 10.1038/aja.2010.135
    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.
  3. Singam P, Suriyani L, Ho C, Eng Hong G, Zainuddin Z
    Libyan J Med, 2010 Oct 04;5.
    PMID: 21483560 DOI: 10.3402/ljm.v5i0.5524
    Sclerosing lipogranuloma (SLG) of the male external genitalia is a rare benign condition presenting as subcutaneous masses. The underlying pathological process is a granulomatous reaction of fatty tissue in this area. The cause of this is unclear but hypothesis stems around the pathogenesis of exogenous lipid degeneration from injection of foreign bodies such as paraffin for penile augmentation. However, endogenous lipid degeneration from other various causes such as infection, trauma, and allergic mechanisms has also been reported. We present the case of a 40-year-old man with primary SLG of the external genitalia. Literature review on the treatment strategies are addressed and discussed.
  4. Singam P, Wei KT, Ruffey A, Lee J, Chou TG
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jul;19(3):81-4.
    PMID: 23610554
    Fournier's gangrene is a severe life-threatening infection involving the perianal area, perineum, and external genitalia. It demands prompt recognition, critical care therapy, surgical therapy, and a combination of antibiotics. The infection commonly spreads via the fascial planes and causes superficial vascular thrombosis within the Colles' fascia around the external genitalia. It can extend cephalad to involve the Scarpa's fascia and Camper's fascia in the abdominal wall. The treatment would include multiple debridements, which would result in disfiguring scars of the perineum and might lead to significant physical and psychological complications. We describe a case of a 58-years-old man presenting with Fournier's gangrene resulting from an infection of an impacted urethral stone. The patient previously had obstructive voiding symptoms for 1 month but chose to neglect them. The resultant infection was severe and caused penile and right testicular gangrene. He underwent multiple wound debridements, which included a total penectomy and right orchiectomy. Psychological and rehabilitative support was necessary for him to overcome his loss and disfigurement.
  5. Mahendran HA, Singam P, Ho C, Goh EH, Tan GH, Zuklifli MZ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):169-72.
    PMID: 22822637 MyJurnal
    Iatrogenic ureteric injuries are rare complications of abdomino-pelvic surgery but associated with high morbidity from infection and possible loss of renal function. A successful repair is related to the timing of diagnosis, site of injury and method of repair. This study was a retrospective review of outcomes of iatrogenic ureteric injury and factors contributing to successful operative repair. Twenty consecutive cases referred to the Urology Unit of the UKM Medical Center during an 11-year period from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. Thirteen patients were diagnosed intraoperatively and underwent immediate repair. Seven patients had delayed diagnosis but also underwent immediate repair. In our series, there was no significant difference in outcome between injuries diagnosed intraoperatively versus injuries with delayed diagnosis. There was significant difference in the outcomes between methods of ureteric repair where ureter reimplantation via psoas hitch or Boari flap yielded better results than primary end-to-end anastomosis Three patients suffered loss of renal function from unsuccessful ureter repair. We conclude that all iatrogenic ureteric injury should be repaired immediately in the absence of overt sepsis. Ureter reimplantation using a Boari flap or psoas hitch is preferred to the end-to-end anastomosis especially when there is delayed diagnosis
  6. Ho CC, Khor TW, Singam P, Goh EH, Tan GH, Bahadzor B, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2012;163(3):211-4.
    PMID: 22964693
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate power doppler ultrasonography (PDU)-directed prostate biopsy in patients with elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men with serum total PSA levels of more than 4 ng/ml undergoing biopsy for the first time were included. Grey-scale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and PDU were performed. PDU signal on vascularity accumulation and perfusion characteristics were recorded and graded as normal or abnormal in the peripheral zone of the prostate. Abnormalities were defined on transverse image as radial or arc hypervascularities. A biopsy regime based on Vienna-normogram was performed in all patients.
    RESULTS: Overall, prostate adenocarcinoma detection rate was 21.4% and abnormal accumulation on PDU signal was identified in 96.7% of those patients (p = 0.01). PDU directed prostate biopsies were positive in 66.7% of the patients with prostate cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PDU signal alone for prostate cancer detection was 96.7%, 24.5% and 96.4% respectively, and PDU guided biopsies were 66.7%, 24.5%, 19.4% and 73% respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: The high sensitivity and negative predictive value of PDU makes it useful as an aid for TRUS biopsy in selected patient with previous negative biopsies at risk of harbouring prostate cancer.
  7. Hong GE, Kong CH, Singam P, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM, Azrif M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1351-3.
    PMID: 21198291
    INTRODUCTION: Analysis of epidemiological as well as survival differences among the multiethnic population of Malaysia with prostate cancer is important.

    METHODS: Patients confirmed by transrectal-ultrasonographic-guided-biopsy performed from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled and analysed according to ethnicity, age, PSA level, Gleason score, stage of disease and survival.

    RESULTS: Among 83 patients, there were 38 Malay, 40 Chinese, 3 Indians and 2 others. Median age at diagnosis was 69.9 (range: 59-93), 43 patients (51.8%) being diagnosed before the age of 70. The median PSA level upon diagnosis was 574 ng/ml (range: 1-8632) and the median Gleason score was 7 (range: 2-10). Over half were already in Stage 4 when diagnosed. The most common site of metastasis was the bone. As a result the commonest prescribed treatment was hormonal manipulation. Five patients underwent radical prostatectomy and a further thirteen patients had radical radiotherapy (stage I: 1 patient, stage II: 7 patients and stage III: 5 patients). Ten patients defaulted follow-up. The median disease-specific survival was 21.9 months (range: 1-53).

    CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic carcinoma is a disease of the elderly and it is frequently diagnosed late in Malaysia. Greater efforts should be made to educate Malaysians regarding prostate cancer.

  8. Ho CC, Jamaludin WJ, Goh EH, Singam P, Zainuddin ZM
    PMID: 21842723
    Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are associated with multiple complications. Among them are disconnection and migration of the tubing into the peritoneal cavity. Here we describe a case of a fractured ventriculoperitoneal shunt which migrated and coiled in the scrotum, masquerading as a scrotal swelling. Removal of the shunt via a scrotal incision was performed concomitantly with repair of the hernia sac.
  9. Kong CH, Ali SA, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2010 Sep;14 Suppl 3:e250-2.
    PMID: 20117032 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2009.10.006
    Spontaneous bladder perforation secondary to tuberculosis (TB) is very rare. Only three cases have been reported so far in the literature. Due to its rarity, the diagnosis of spontaneous bladder perforation is often missed. Confirmation of TB via culture takes a long time and starting empirical treatment for TB is necessary. We relate our experience with a young woman who presented with clinical features of a perforated appendix and was only diagnosed with bladder perforation during laparotomy. She also had distal right ureteral stricture and left infundibular stenosis. The provisional diagnosis of TB was attained via typical histopathological features and a positive Mantoux test. She was started empirically on anti-TB treatment and recovered without any complications. Urine culture after 6 weeks confirmed the diagnosis of TB.
  10. Singam P, Ho C, Hong GE, Mohd A, Tamil AM, Cheok LB, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):503-6.
    PMID: 20843141
    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies.
  11. Kong CH, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Azrif M, Tamil AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(1):149-52.
    PMID: 20593947
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features of bladder tumours encountered over a five year period in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    METHODS: Medical records of bladder tumour cases from 2005 till 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and tabulated.

    RESULTS: A total of 83 cases were recorded. The incidence was highest among the Chinese (56.6%), followed by Malays (34.9%), Indians (6%) and other races (2.4%). The male-to-female ratio was 9.4:1. The median age was 65 years (range 30-91 years) and median duration of follow up was 17.2 months (range 2-60 months). The main histopathology was transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (90.4%), followed by adenocarcinoma (6%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.2%), leiomyoma (1.2%) and myeloid sarcoma (1.2%). For the TCCs, 58.6% were superficial while 41.4% were muscle invasive, and 13.3% had nodal metastasis with distant metastasis in 8%. Of the total, 5.3% were papillary urothelial tumours of low malignant potential, 33.3% pTa, 20% pT1, 10.7% pT2, 12.0% pT3 and 18.7% pT4. Of the superficial tumours, 32.5% were high grade tumours. There were ten radical cystectomies performed for transitional cell carcinomas; two had neobladder reconstruction whereas the other eight had ileal conduits. All the adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were treated by radiotherapy due to the advanced stage of the disease while the myeloid sarcoma received chemotherapy. Mean survival of patients with muscle invasive cancer was 33+/-5 months. By the end of the study, 18.1% of patients had died of their cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of bladder tumours is highest among the Chinese. When compared to other studies, the incidence of muscle invasive and high-grade superficial tumours was greater.

  12. Ho CC, Khandasamy Y, Singam P, Hong Goh E, Zainuddin ZM
    Libyan J Med, 2010 Nov 25;5.
    PMID: 21483557 DOI: 10.3402/ljm.v5i0.5686
    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here another technique of dealing with a stuck and encrustated catheter, via direct crushing of the encrustations with a rigid cystoscope inserted through a suprapubic cystostomy tract.
  13. Ho CC, Hee TG, Hong GE, Singam P, Bahadzor B, Md Zainuddin Z
    Nephrourol Mon, 2012;4(2):454-7.
    PMID: 23573465 DOI: 10.5812/numonthly.2211
    Retrograde intra-renal surgery (RIRS) has been used to remove stones of less than 2 cm in the kidney. However, its role is not well defined.
  14. Tan GH, Shah SA, Ali NM, Goh EH, Singam P, Ho CCK, et al.
    Investig Clin Urol, 2017 05;58(3):186-191.
    PMID: 28480344 DOI: 10.4111/icu.2017.58.3.186
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the urethral stricture (US) rate and identify clinical and surgical risk factors associated with US occurrence after transurethral resection of the prostate using the bipolar Gyrus PlasmaKinetic Tissue Management System (PK-TURP).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an age-matched case-control study of US occurrence after PK-TURP. Retrospective data were collected from the hospital records of patients who had a minimum of 36 months of follow-up information. Among the data collected for analysis were prostate-specific antigen level, estimated prostate weight, the amount of prostate resected, operative time, history of urinary tract infection, previous transurethral resection of the prostate, and whether the PK-TURP was combined with other endourological procedures. The resection rate was calculated from the collected data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinical and surgical risk factors related to US formation.

    RESULTS: A total of 373 patients underwent PK-TURP between 2003 and 2009. There were 13 cases of US (3.5%), and most of them (10 of 13, 76.9%) presented within 24 months of surgery. Most of the US cases (11 of 13, 84.6%) occurred at the bulbar urethra. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified slow resection rate as the only risk factor significantly associated with US occurrence.

    CONCLUSIONS: The US rate of 3.5% after PK-TURP in this study is comparable to contemporary series. A slow resection rate seems to be related to US occurrence. This should be confirmed by further studies; meanwhile, we must be mindful of this possibility when operating with the PK-TURP system.

  15. Singam P, Hong GE, Ho C, Hee TG, Jasman H, Inn FX, et al.
    Aging Male, 2015 Jun;18(2):112-7.
    PMID: 25690022 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2015.1011614
    The aim of study was to evaluate the influence of ageing, lifestyle, and co morbid illnesses on treatment outcome of nocturia among men with BPH.
  16. Fam XI, Singam P, Ho CC, Sridharan R, Hod R, Bahadzor B, et al.
    Korean J Urol, 2015 Jan;56(1):63-7.
    PMID: 25598938 DOI: 10.4111/kju.2015.56.1.63
    Urinary calculi is a familiar disease. A well-known complication of endourological treatment for impacted ureteral stones is the formation of ureteral strictures, which has been reported to occur in 14.2% to 24% of cases.
  17. Hee TG, Shah SA, Ann HS, Hemdan SN, Shen LC, Al-Fahmi Abdul Galib N, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6327-30.
    PMID: 24377526
    Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross- sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low risk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.
  18. Taguchi K, Cho SY, Ng AC, Usawachintachit M, Tan YK, Deng YL, et al.
    Int. J. Urol., 2019 Jul;26(7):688-709.
    PMID: 31016804 DOI: 10.1111/iju.13957
    The Urological Association of Asia, consisting of 25 member associations and one affiliated member since its foundation in 1990, has planned to develop Asian guidelines for all urological fields. The field of stone diseases is the third of its guideline projects. Because of the different climates, and social, economic and ethnic environments, the clinical practice for urinary stone diseases widely varies among the Asian countries. The committee members of the Urological Association of Asia on the clinical guidelines for urinary stone disease carried out a surveillance study to better understand the diversity of the treatment strategy among different regions and subsequent systematic literature review through PubMed and MEDLINE database between 1966 and 2017. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for each management were decided according to the relevant strategy. Each clinical question and answer were thoroughly reviewed and discussed by all committee members and their colleagues, with suggestions from expert representatives of the American Urological Association and European Association of Urology. However, we focused on the pragmatic care of patients and our own evidence throughout Asia, which included recent surgical trends, such as miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy and endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery. This guideline covers all fields of stone diseases, from etiology to recurrence prevention. Here, we present a short summary of the first version of the guideline - consisting 43 clinical questions - and overview its key practical issues.
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