Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Srinivasan V, Eswaran C, Sriraam N
    J Med Syst, 2005 Dec;29(6):647-60.
    PMID: 16235818
    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. The long-term EEG recordings of an epileptic patient obtained from the ambulatory recording systems contain a large volume of EEG data. Detection of the epileptic activity requires a time consuming analysis of the entire length of the EEG data by an expert. The traditional methods of analysis being tedious, many automated diagnostic systems for epilepsy have emerged in recent years. This paper discusses an automated diagnostic method for epileptic detection using a special type of recurrent neural network known as Elman network. The experiments are carried out by using time-domain as well as frequency-domain features of the EEG signal. Experimental results show that Elman network yields epileptic detection accuracy rates as high as 99.6% with a single input feature which is better than the results obtained by using other types of neural networks with two and more input features.
  2. Banu M, Krishnamurthy KS, Srinivasan V, Kandiannan K, Surendran U
    J Sci Food Agric, 2024 May;104(7):4176-4188.
    PMID: 38385763 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.13299
    BACKGROUND: Turmeric cultivation primarily thrives in India, followed by Bangladesh, Cambodia, Thailand, China, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. India leads globally in both area and production of turmeric. Despite this, there is a recognized gap in research regarding the impact of climate change on site suitability of turmeric. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate both the present and future suitability of turmeric cultivation within the humid tropical region of Kerala, India, by employing advanced geospatial techniques. The research utilized meteorological data from the Indian Meteorological Department for the period of 1986-2020 as historical data and projected future data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). Four climatic scenarios of shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR6 model of MIROC6 for the year 2050 (SSP 1-2.6, SSP 2-4.5, SSP 3-7.0 and SSP 5-8.5) were used.

    RESULTS: The results showed that suitable area for turmeric cultivation is declining in future scenario and this decline can be primarily attributed to fluctuations in temperature and an anticipated increase in rainfall in the year 2050. Notable changes in the spatial distribution of suitable areas over time were observed through the application of geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Importantly, as per the suitability criteria provided by ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR-NBSS & LUP), all the districts in Kerala exhibited moderately suitable conditions for turmeric cultivation. With the GIS tools, the study identified highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable and not suitable areas of turmeric cultivation in Kerala. Presently 28% of area falls under highly suitable, 41% of area falls under moderately suitable and 11% falls under not suitable for turmeric cultivation. However, considering the projected scenarios for 2050 under the SSP framework, there will be a significant decrease in highly suitable area by 19% under SSP 5-8.5. This reduction in area will have an impact on the productivity of the crop as a result of changes in temperature and rainfall patterns.

    CONCLUSION: The outcome of the present research suggests that the state of Kerala needs to implement suitable climate change adaptation and management strategies for sustaining the turmeric cultivation. Additionally, the present study includes a discussion on potential management strategies to address the challenges posed by changing climatic conditions for optimizing turmeric production in the region. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Srinivasan V, Mohamed M, Zakaria R, Ahmad AH
    Infect Disord Drug Targets, 2012 Oct;12(5):371-9.
    PMID: 23082960
    Malaria, one of the most deadly diseases of our time affects more than 200 million people across the globe and is responsible for about one million deaths annually. Until recently Plasmodium falciparum has been the main cause for malarial infection in human beings but now Plasmodium knowlesi from Malaysia remains as one of the most virulent parasite spreading fast not only in Malaysia but in different parts of the world. Hence there is urgent need for the global fight to control malaria. Global malaria eradication program by use of insecticide spraying has resulted in good response in the past. Treatment of malaria infected patients with anti-malarial drugs has helped to eliminate malarial infections successfully but with increased resistance displayed by malarial parasites to these drugs there is resurgence of malaria caused both by drug resistance as well as by infection caused by new malarial species like Plasmodium knowlesi. With recent advances on molecular studies on malarial parasites it is now clear that the pineal hormone melatonin acts as a cue for growth and development of Plasmodium falciparum. Same may be true for Plasmodium knowlesi also. Hence treatment modalities that can effectively block the action of melatonin on Plasmodium species during night time by way of using either bright light therapy or use of melatonin receptor blocking can be considered as useful approaches for eliminating malarial infection in man.
  4. Srinivasan V, Ahmad AH, Mohamed M, Zakaria R
    PMID: 22537380
    Malaria remains a global health problem affecting more than 515 million people all over the world including Malaysia. It is on the rise, even within unknown regions that previous to this were free of malaria. Although malaria eradication programs carried out by vector control programs are still effective, anti-malarial drugs are also used extensively for curtailing this disease. But resistance to the use of anti-malarial drugs is also increasing on a daily basis. With an increased understanding of mechanisms that cause growth, differentiation and development of malarial parasites in rodents and humans, new avenues of therapeutic approaches for controlling the growth, synchronization and development of malarial parasites are essential. Within this context, the recent discoveries related to IP3 interconnected signalling pathways, the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores of Plasmodium, ubiquitin protease systems as a signalling pathway, and melatonin influencing the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites by its effects on these signalling pathways have opened new therapeutic avenues for arresting the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. Indeed, the use of melatonin antagonist, luzindole, has inhibited the melatonin's effect on these signalling pathways and thereby has effectively reduced the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. As Plasmodium has effective sensors which detect the nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, suppression of plasma melatonin levels with the use of bright light during the night or by anti-melatonergic drugs and by using anti-kinase drugs will help in eradicating malaria on a global level. A number of patients have been admitted with regards to the control and management of malarial growth. Patents related to the discovery of serpentine receptors on Plasmodium, essential for modulating intra parasitic melatonin levels, procedures for effective delivery of bright light to suppress plasma melatonin levels and thereby arresting the growth and elimination of malarial parasites from the blood of the host are all cited in the paper. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of melatonin acting as a cue for Plasmodium faciparum growth and to discuss the ways of curbing the effects of melatonin on Plasmodium growth and for arresting its life cycle, as a method of eliminating the parasite from the host.
  5. Srinivasan V, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP, Poeggeler B, Hardeland R
    Behav Brain Funct, 2006 May 04;2:15.
    PMID: 16674804
    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been identified as common pathophysiological phenomena associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). As the age-related decline in the production of melatonin may contribute to increased levels of oxidative stress in the elderly, the role of this neuroprotective agent is attracting increasing attention. Melatonin has multiple actions as a regulator of antioxidant and prooxidant enzymes, radical scavenger and antagonist of mitochondrial radical formation. The ability of melatonin and its kynuramine metabolites to interact directly with the electron transport chain by increasing the electron flow and reducing electron leakage are unique features by which melatonin is able to increase the survival of neurons under enhanced oxidative stress. Moreover, antifibrillogenic actions have been demonstrated in vitro, also in the presence of profibrillogenic apoE4 or apoE3, and in vivo, in a transgenic mouse model. Amyloid-beta toxicity is antagonized by melatonin and one of its kynuramine metabolites. Cytoskeletal disorganization and protein hyperphosphorylation, as induced in several cell-line models, have been attenuated by melatonin, effects comprising stress kinase downregulation and extending to neurotrophin expression. Various experimental models of AD, PD and HD indicate the usefulness of melatonin in antagonizing disease progression and/or mitigating some of the symptoms. Melatonin secretion has been found to be altered in AD and PD. Attempts to compensate for age- and disease-dependent melatonin deficiency have shown that administration of this compound can improve sleep efficiency in AD and PD and, to some extent, cognitive function in AD patients. Exogenous melatonin has also been reported to alleviate behavioral symptoms such as sundowning. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin, its analogues and kynuric metabolites may have potential value in prevention and treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders.
  6. Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Pandi-Perumal SR, Trakht I, Cardinali DP
    Integr Cancer Ther, 2008 Sep;7(3):189-203.
    PMID: 18815150 DOI: 10.1177/1534735408322846
    Melatonin is a phylogenetically well-preserved molecule with diverse physiological functions. In addition to its well-known regulatory control of the sleep/wake cycle, as well as circadian rhythms generally, melatonin is involved in immunomodulation, hematopoiesis, and antioxidative processes. Recent human and animal studies have now shown that melatonin also has important oncostatic properties. Both at physiological and pharmacological doses melatonin exerts growth inhibitory effects on breast cancer cell lines. In hepatomas, through its activation of MT1 and MT2 receptors, melatonin inhibits linoleic acid uptake, thereby preventing the formation of the mitogenic metabolite 1,3-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. In animal model studies, melatonin has been shown to have preventative action against nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver cancer. Melatonin also inhibits the growth of prostate tumors via activation of MT1 receptors thereby inducing translocation of the androgen receptor to the cytoplasm and inhibition of the effect of endogenous androgens. There is abundant evidence indicating that melatonin is involved in preventing tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. The anticarcinogenic effect of melatonin on neoplastic cells relies on its antioxidant, immunostimulating, and apoptotic properties. Melatonin's oncostatic actions include the direct augmentation of natural killer (NK) cell activity, which increases immunosurveillance, as well as the stimulation of cytokine production, for example, of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In addition to its direct oncostatic action, melatonin protects hematopoietic precursors from the toxic effect of anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Melatonin secretion is impaired in patients suffering from breast cancer, endometrial cancer, or colorectal cancer. The increased incidence of breast cancer and colorectal cancer seen in nurses and other night shift workers suggests a possible link between diminished secretion of melatonin and increased exposure to light during nighttime. The physiological surge of melatonin at night is thus considered a "natural restraint" on tumor initiation, promotion, and progression.
  7. Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Trakht I, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP, Maestroni GJ
    Neuroimmunomodulation, 2008;15(2):93-101.
    PMID: 18679047 DOI: 10.1159/000148191
    Melatonin is not only synthesized by the pineal gland but also in many other organs and tissues of the body, particularly by lymphoid organs such as the bone marrow, thymus and lymphocytes. Melatonin participates in various functions of the body, among which its immunomodulatory role has assumed considerable significance in recent years. Melatonin has been shown to be involved in the regulation of both cellular and humoral immunity. Melatonin not only stimulates the production of natural killer cells, monocytes and leukocytes, but also alters the balance of T helper (Th)-1 and Th-2 cells mainly towards Th-1 responses and increases the production of relevant cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-gamma. The regulatory function of melatonin on immune mechanisms is seasonally dependent. This fact may in part account for the cyclic pattern of symptom expression shown by certain infectious diseases, which become more pronounced at particular times of the year. Moreover, melatonin-induced seasonal changes in immune function have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder and rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical significance of the seasonally changing immunomodulatory role of melatonin is discussed in this review.
  8. Srinivasan V, Pandi-Perumal SR, Trakht I, Spence DW, Hardeland R, Poeggeler B, et al.
    Psychiatry Res, 2009 Feb 28;165(3):201-14.
    PMID: 19181389 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.11.020
    Profound disturbances in sleep architecture occur in major depressive disorders (MDD) and in bipolar affective disorders. Reduction in slow wave sleep, decreased latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and abnormalities in the timing of REM/non-REM sleep cycles have all been documented in patients with MDD. It is thus evident that an understanding of the basic mechanisms of sleep regulation is essential for an analysis of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which functions as the body's master circadian clock, plays a major role in the regulation of the sleep/wakefulness rhythm and interacts actively with the homeostatic processes that regulate sleep. The control of melatonin secretion by the SCN, the occurrence of high concentrations of melatonin receptors in the SCN, and the suppression of electrical activity in the SCN by melatonin all underscore the major influence which this neurohormone has in regulating the sleep/wake cycle. The transition from wakefulness to high sleep propensity is associated with the nocturnal rise of endogenous melatonin secretion. Various lines of evidence show that depressed patients exhibit disturbances in both the amplitude and shape of the melatonin secretion rhythm and that melatonin can improve the quality of sleep in these patients. The choice of a suitable antidepressant that improves sleep quality is thus important while treating a depressive disorder. The novel antidepressant agomelatine, which combines the properties of a 5-HT(2C) antagonist and a melatonergic MT(1)/MT(2) receptor agonist, has been found very effective for resetting the disturbed sleep/wake cycle and in improving the clinical status of MDD. Agomelatine has also been found useful in treating sleep problems and improving the clinical status of patients suffering from seasonal affective disorder.
  9. Srinivasan V, Maestroni GJ, Cardinali DP, Esquifino AI, Perumal SR, Miller SC
    Immun Ageing, 2005;2:17.
    PMID: 16316470
    Aging is associated with a decline in immune function (immunosenescence), a situation known to correlate with increased incidence of cancer, infectious and degenerative diseases. Innate, cellular and humoral immunity all exhibit increased deterioration with age. A decrease in functional competence of individual natural killer (NK) cells is found with advancing age. Macrophages and granulocytes show functional decline in aging as evidenced by their diminished phagocytic activity and impairment of superoxide generation. There is also marked shift in cytokine profile as age advances, e.g., CD3+ and CD4+ cells decline in number whereas CD8+ cells increase in elderly individuals. A decline in organ specific antibodies occurs causing reduced humoral responsiveness. Circulating melatonin decreases with age and in recent years much interest has been focused on its immunomodulatory effect. Melatonin stimulates the production of progenitor cells for granulocytes-macrophages. It also stimulates the production of NK cells and CD4+ cells and inhibits CD8+ cells. The production and release of various cytokines from NK cells and T-helper lymphocytes also are enhanced by melatonin. Melatonin presumably regulates immune function by acting on the immune-opioid network, by affecting G protein-cAMP signal pathway and by regulating intracellular glutathione levels. Melatonin has the potential therapeutic value to enhance immune function in aged individuals and in patients in an immunocompromised state.
  10. Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Pandi-Perumal SR, Trakht I, Cardinali DP
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2008 Jan-Mar;6(1-2):17-28.
    PMID: 18342269 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2007.12.002
    Each year millions of travelers undertake long distance flights over one or more continents. These multiple time zone flights produce a constellation of symptoms known as jet lag. Familiar to almost every intercontinental traveler is the experience of fatigue upon arrival in a new time zone, but almost as problematic are a number of other jet lag symptoms. These include reduced alertness, nighttime insomnia, loss of appetite, depressed mood, poor psychomotor coordination and reduced cognitive skills, all symptoms which are closely affected by both the length and direction of travel. The most important jet lag symptoms are due to disruptions to the body's sleep/wake cycle. Clinical and pathophysiological studies also indicate that jet lag can exacerbate existing affective disorders. It has been suggested that dysregulation of melatonin secretion and occurrence of circadian rhythm disturbances may be the common links which underlie jet lag and affective disorders. Largely because of its regulatory effects on the circadian system, melatonin has proven to be highly effective for treating the range of symptoms that accompany transmeridian air travel. Additionally, it has been found to be of value in treating mood disorders like seasonal affective disorder. Melatonin acts on MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei, the site of the body's master circadian clock. Melatonin resets disturbed circadian rhythms and promotes sleep in jet lag and other circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including delayed sleep phase syndrome and shift-work disorder. Although post-flight melatonin administration works efficiently in transmeridian flights across less than 7-8 times zones, in the case longer distances, melatonin should be given by 2-3 days in advance to the flight. To deal with the unwanted side effects which usually accompany this pre-departure treatment (acute soporific and sedative effects in times that may not be wanted), the suppression of circadian rhythmicity by covering symmetrically the phase delay and the phase advance portions of the phase response curve for light, together with the administration of melatonin at local bedtime to resynchronize the circadian oscillator, have been proposed. The current view that sleep loss is a major cause of jet lag has focused interest on two recently developed pharmacological agents. Ramelteon and agomelatine are melatonin receptor agonists which, compared to melatonin itself, have a longer half-life and greater affinity for melatonin receptors and consequently are thought to hold promise for treating a variety of circadian disruptions.
  11. Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Pandi-Perumal SR, Trakht I, Esquifino AI, Cardinali DP, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2008 Apr;108(3):339-50.
    PMID: 17541739
    Although many factors have been suggested as causes for breast cancer, the increased incidence of the disease seen in women working in night shifts led to the hypothesis that the suppression of melatonin by light or melatonin deficiency plays a major role in cancer development. Studies on the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea experimental models of human breast cancer indicate that melatonin is effective in reducing cancer development. In vitro studies in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line have shown that melatonin exerts its anticarcinogenic actions through a variety of mechanisms, and that it is most effective in estrogen receptor (ER) alpha-positive breast cancer cells. Melatonin suppresses ER gene, modulates several estrogen dependent regulatory proteins and pro-oncogenes, inhibits cell proliferation, and impairs the metastatic capacity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The anticarcinogenic action on MCF-7 cells has been demonstrated at the physiological concentrations of melatonin attained at night, suggesting thereby that melatonin acts like an endogenous antiestrogen. Melatonin also decreases the formation of estrogens from androgens via aromatase inhibition. Circulating melatonin levels are abnormally low in ER-positive breast cancer patients thereby supporting the melatonin hypothesis for breast cancer in shift working women. It has been postulated that enhanced endogenous melatonin secretion is responsible for the beneficial effects of meditation as a form of psychosocial intervention that helps breast cancer patients.
  12. Cardinali DP, Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Trakht I
    Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab, 2008 Mar;3(2):269-279.
    PMID: 30764095 DOI: 10.1586/17446651.3.2.269
    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, has been successfully employed to improve sleep in both normal patients and insomniacs, and for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Melatonergic MT1 and MT2 receptors exist in high concentrations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and have been shown to be instrumental for the sleep-promoting and circadian rhythm-regulating effects of melatonin. A lack of consistency among reports on the therapeutic efficacy of melatonin has been attributed to differences in melatonin's bioavailability and the short half-life of the hormone. In view of the need for longer acting melatonergic agonists that improve sleep efficiency without causing drug abuse or dependency, ramelteon (Rozerem™, Takeda) was developed. Ramelteon, which acts via MT1/MT2 melatonergic agonism, has been found clinically effective for improving total sleep time and sleep efficiency in insomniacs. Agomelatine (Valdoxan™, Servier) is another MT1/MT2 melatonergic agonist that also displays antagonist activity at 5-HT2C serotonin receptors. Agomelatine has been found effective in treating depression and sleep disorders in patients with major depressive disorder. A slow-release preparation of melatonin (Circadin™, Neurim) has been shown to be effective in treating sleep disorders in the elderly population.
  13. Deepa S, Kumaresan A, Suganthirabab P, Srinivasan V, Vishnuram S, Alagesan J, et al.
    Work, 2023;75(2):413-421.
    PMID: 36872818 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-220063
    BACKGROUND: The entire education industry switched from offline to online modes as a result of the coronavirus outbreak. Numerous teachers who were diagnosed with musculoskeletal, psychological, and other neurodegenerative diseases have reported increased exhaustion, lack of sleep, a decline in quality of life (QoL), a decrease in physical activity, and excessive stress from online classes during the COVID-19 lockdown, especially women.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of three-modal exercise on fatigue, sleep, QoL as well as to determine the relationship between age, disease severity, disease stage and working years with women diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD).

    METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 44 female educators in stages I-II with PD who were between the ages of 40 and 60 volunteered. For a total of 36 sessions over the course of six weeks, Group A received a three-modal fitness program through online video sessions, whereas Group B received Nordic walking. The outcome measures included the Fatigue Severity Scale, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale, and Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire-39.

    RESULTS: Age, Hoehn and Yahr scale, working years, and PD in years did not correlate with each other (p > 0.50). The three-modal exercise experimental Group A showed statistically significant improvement in QoL (p 0.001), sleep (p 0.001), and fatigue (p 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Women in the field of education who participated in a three-modal exercise programme for PD reported a significant improvement in their level of exhaustion, sleep patterns, and quality of life.

  14. Srinivasan V, Pandi-Perumal SR, Maestroni GJ, Esquifino AI, Hardeland R, Cardinali DP
    Neurotox Res, 2005;7(4):293-318.
    PMID: 16179266
    The pineal product melatonin has remarkable antioxidant properties. It scavenges hydroxyl, carbonate and various organic radicals, peroxynitrite and other reactive nitrogen species. Melatonyl radicals formed by scavenging combine with and, thereby, detoxify superoxide anions in processes terminating the radical reaction chains. Melatonin also enhances the antioxidant potential of the cell by stimulating the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and by augmenting glutathione levels. The decline in melatonin production in aged individuals has been suggested as one of the primary contributing factors for the development of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. Melatonin has been shown to be effective in arresting neurodegenerative phenomena seen in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism and ischemic stroke. Melatonin preserves mitochondrial homeostasis, reduces free radical generation, e.g., by enhancing mitochondrial glutathione levels, and safeguards proton potential and ATP synthesis by stimulating complex I and IV activities. Therapeutic trials with melatonin have been effective in slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease but not of Parkinson's disease. Melatonin's efficacy in combating free radical damage in the brain suggests that it may be a valuable therapeutic agent in the treatment of cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury.
  15. Dhanusia S, Santhana Lakshmi S, Kumar A, Prabhu R, Srinivasan V, Suganthirababu P, et al.
    Work, 2024 Jan 22.
    PMID: 38277326 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-230161
    BACKGROUND: Smartphones are a technical marvel that rapidly evolved to play an important role in our lives. One downside to smartphone use is that it significantly worsens posture. It is believed that using a smartphone while walking increases the risk of cognitive decline and the loss of dynamic balance needed to perform functional tasks.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the impact of smartphone usage on dynamic postural control among South Indian college students.

    METHODS: The study was carried out in a private college with 400 invited students through online social media platforms. The four-square step test and SAS-SV were used to determine the impact of smartphone usage on dynamic postural control. The students were informed about the study process. A total of 250 participants were included based on the inclusion criteria.

    RESULTS: There was a high percentage of agreement on smartphone usage on dynamic postural control measured with SAS-SV, revealing statistical significance with a mean value of 41.532 and SD of 10.010886. The four-square step test with a mean value of 22.5 and SD of 1.8995878 also proved significant impact. A positive correlation was found between smartphone usage and dynamic postural control, which was analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.90130.

    CONCLUSION: A significant correlation was noted between mobile usage and dynamic balance. Smartphones can have a negative impact on dynamic balance by distracting users from their surroundings and increase the risk of falls.

  16. Srinivasan V, Abathsagayam K, Suganthirababu P, Alagesan J, Vishnuram S, Vasanthi RK
    Work, 2023 Dec 22.
    PMID: 38143418 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-231362
    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have been significantly impacted by the pandemic. Elderly health care workers carry out a variety of duties at work and have years of clinical expertise. Anxiety and insomnia are among the more commonly encountered problems in senior physicians and other geriatric medical professional populations.

    OBJECTIVE: The study aims to determine the effect of vagal nerve stimulation on anxiety and sleep disturbances among geriatric medical professionals.

    METHOD: 42 Participants were enrolled in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The participants were divided into two groups using the closed envelope approach, and they took part in therapy sessions lasting 30 minutes, three times per week for a period of four weeks. The Experimental group A received non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation(taVNS) and Control group A received Jacobson's progressive muscle relaxation technique.

    RESULTS: With a p value of 0.001, transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve (taVNS) stimulation significantly improved sleep quality and reduced anxiety after 4 weeks.The post-intervention assessment revealed a highly significant improvement in Group A, with a T value of 251 (p 

  17. Srinivasan V, Abathsagayam K, Suganthirababu P, Alagesan J, Vishnuram S, Vasanthi RK
    Work, 2023 Dec 22.
    PMID: 38143408 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-230144
    BACKGROUND: In the working population especially among older adults, anxiety problems have grown dramatically. This element has a significant impact on employee absenteeism and problems with physical and mental health. It was widely known that security personnel had several physical and mental difficulties during their various work hours. It is important to investigate the effects of anxiety on them.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to provide insights into the prevalence of anxiety disorders and explore the correlations between anxiety symptoms, sleep, and memory during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    METHODS: To conduct a cross-sectional study, 42 older adult participants between the ages of sixty to seventy years were chosen and the procedure was explained.Data were gathered by giving instructions on how to complete the self-reported Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment -7 (GAD-7), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: A total of 36 out of 42 participants (85.71%) experienced moderate to severe anxiety. Anxiety and sleep had a correlation of 0.8, while anxiety and memory had a correlation of 0.87 with a positive EMQ-R relationship. Moreover, there was a statistically significant association between sleep and memory, with a positive correlation of 0.73.

    CONCLUSION: The study concludes that, there is a substantial prevalence of anxiety accompanied by notable insomnia and memory problems in elderly security officers. Our findings indicate a clear relationship between sleep disturbances, memory issues, and most prevalent anxiety symptoms. These results emphasize the importance of incorporating mental health assessments and addressing an effective treatment for anxiety.

  18. Srinivasan V, Smits M, Spence W, Lowe AD, Kayumov L, Pandi-Perumal SR, et al.
    World J. Biol. Psychiatry, 2006;7(3):138-51.
    PMID: 16861139
    The cyclic nature of depressive illness, the diurnal variations in its symptomatology and the existence of disturbed sleep-wake and core body temperature rhythms, all suggest that dysfunction of the circadian time keeping system may underlie the pathophysiology of depression. As a rhythm-regulating factor, the study of melatonin in various depressive illnesses has gained attention. Melatonin can be both a 'state marker' and a 'trait marker' of mood disorders. Measurement of melatonin either in saliva or plasma, or of its main metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine, have documented significant alterations in melatonin secretion in depressive patients during the acute phase of illness. Not only the levels but also the timing of melatonin secretion is altered in bipolar affective disorder and in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). A phase delay of melatonin secretion takes place in SAD, as well as changes in the onset, duration and offset of melatonin secretion. Bright light treatment, that suppresses melatonin production, is effective in treating bipolar affective disorder and SAD, winter type. This review discusses the role of melatonin in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and SAD.
  19. Manojkumar U, Kaliannan D, Srinivasan V, Balasubramanian B, Kamyab H, Mussa ZH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 May;323:138263.
    PMID: 36858116 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138263
    Green synthesis of nanomaterials has emerged as an ecofriendly sustainable technology for the removal of dyes in the last few decades. Especially, plant leaf extracts have been considered as inexpensive and effective materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were prepared using leaves extract of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (BO) by co-precipitation and applied for photocatalytic/antibacterial activity. The synthesized BO-ZnO NPs was characterized by different instrumental techniques. The UV-vis Spectrum of the synthesized material showed maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 311 nm, which confirmed the formation of BO-ZnO NPs. The XRD pattern of BO-ZnO NPs represents a hexagonal wurtzite structure and the average size of particles was about 52 nm. FT-IR spectrum analysis confirms the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxylic, and phenol groups. SEM images exhibited a flower like morphology and EDX spectrum confirming the presence of the elements Zn and O. Photo-catalytic activity of BO-ZnO NPs was tested against thiazine dye (methylene blue-MB) degradation under direct sunlight irradiation. Around 80% of the MB dye got degraded at pH 8 under 75 min of sunlight irradiation. Further, the study examined that the antimicrobial and larvicidal activity of BO-ZnO NPs obtained through green synthesis. The antimicrobial study results showed that the BO-ZnO NPs formed zones against bacterial pathogens. The results showed the formation of an inhibition zone against B. subtills (16 mm), S.aureus (13 mm), K. pneumonia (13 mm), and E. coli (9 mm) respectively at a concentration of 100 μg/mL of BO-ZnO NPs. The larvicidal activity of the BO-ZnO NPs was tested against the fourth instar of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae The LC50 and LC90 values estimated through the larvicidal activity of BO-ZnO NPs were 76.03, 190.03 ppm respectively. Hence the above findings propose the synthesized BO-ZnO NPs by the ecofriendly method can be used for various environmental and antipathogenic applications.
  20. Srinivasan V, Ruthuvalan V, Raja S, Jayaraj V, Sridhar S, Kothandaraman M, et al.
    Work, 2024 Mar 15.
    PMID: 38489208 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-230356
    BACKGROUND: Excessive fear, worry and behavioral disturbances define anxiety, with particular significance attributed to vagal nerve, a crucial transmitter of information to the brain regions governing anxiety. Highlighting the importance of vagal nerve, transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (TaVNS) emerges as a tolerable and safe technique. The success of non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation in alleviating anxiety underscores the pivotal role of the vagal nerve.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in mitigating anxiety among retired teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic, emphasizing the relevance of targeting the vagal nerve for improved mental well-being.

    METHODS: 60 retired teachers diagnosed with anxiety were chosen through random allocation. Participants were divided into two groups: Group A (Experimental group) received transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (TaVNS), and Group B (Control group) underwent the Jacobson relaxation technique. Intervention period spanned 4 weeks, with four sessions per week, lasting 30 minutes. The outcome measures included Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire and salivary cortisol levels.

    RESULTS: Following the 4-week intervention, both groups exhibited a significant reduction in Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scores and salivary cortisol levels (P <  0.001). Notably, Group A demonstrated a significantly higher effectiveness rate compared to Group B.

    CONCLUSION: The study concludes that transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (TaVNS) is effective in reducing anxiety among retired teachers. Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (TaVNS) proves to be a powerful and effective intervention in alleviating anxiety among retired teachers, emphasizing its potential significance in enhancing mental well-being.

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