DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative interviews.
SETTINGS: A teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 healthcare professionals aged 23-43 years, 82% women.
RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed five themes that represent HCPs' perceptions in relation to the usage of PEG feeding: 1) knowledge of HCPs, 2) communication, 3) understanding among patients, and 4) financial and affordability.
CONCLUSION: The rationale for reluctance towards PEG feeding observed in this regions was explained by lack of education, knowledge, communication, team work, and financial support. Future studies should assess the effects of educational programmes among HCPs and changes in policies to promote affordability on the utilization of PEG feeding in this region.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected using questionnaires (demographic questionnaire, Medical characteristics, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) and Brief COPE scales and analyzed for demographic, and disease-related variable effects on symptom prevalence, severity, distress and coping strategies.
RESULTS: Symptom prevalence was relatively high and ranged from 14.9% for swelling of arms and legs to 88.1% for lack of energy. This latter was the highest rated symptom in the study. The level of distress was found to be low in three domains. Problem-focused coping strategies were found to be more commonly employed compared to emotion-focused strategies, demonstrating significant associations with sex, age group, educational levels and race. However, there was a positive correlation between emotion-focused strategies and physical and psychological distress, indicating that patients would choose emotion-focused strategies when symptom distress increased.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that high symptom prevalence rates and coping strategies used render an improvement in current nursing management. Therefore development of symptoms management groups, encouraging the use of self-care diaries and enhancing the quality of psycho- oncology services provided are to be recommended.
BACKGROUND: Often, dying patients and their families receive their care from general nurses. The quality of end-of-life care in hospital wards is inadequate.
METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 553 nurses working in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.
RESULTS: The barrier with the highest mean score was "dealing with distressed family members." The facilitator with the highest mean score was "providing a peaceful and dignified bedside scene for the family once the patient has died." With regard to barrier and facilitator categories, the barrier category with the highest total mean score was patient-related barriers and the facilitator category with the highest total mean score concerned facilitators related to healthcare professionals. In the multivariate analysis, age, patient family-related barriers and healthcare professional-related facilitators significantly predict the quality of end-of-life care.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that there is an urgent need to overcome barriers related to the patient and family members that hinder the quality of care provided for dying patients, as well as to enhance and implement the facilitators related to healthcare providers. In addition, there is also a need to enhance the quality of end-of-life care provided by younger nurses through end-of-life care courses and training.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Helping nurses overcome barriers and implement facilitators may lead to enhanced quality of care provided for dying patients.
BACKGROUND: With increasing demand for hospitals to provide end-of-life care, the low quality of palliative care provided in hospital settings is an issue of growing concern in developing countries. Most dying patients receive their care from general nurses, irrespective of the nurses' specialty or level of training.
METHOD: A structured cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted of 553 nurses working at a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
RESULTS: The mean scores for nurses' knowledge about end-of-life care, their attitudes towards end-of-life care and the perceived quality of end-of-life care were low. The factors identified as significantly associated with the quality of end-of-life care were nurses' levels of knowledge and their attitudes towards end-of-life care.
DISCUSSION: Factors that contributed to the low quality of end-of-life care were inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes. These findings may reflect that end-of-life care education is not well integrated into nursing education.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that there is a need to increase the nurses' level of knowledge and improve their attitude towards end-of-life care in order to enhance the quality of care provided to dying patients.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND HEALTH POLICY: Nurse managers and hospital policymakers should develop strategies to enhance nurses' level of knowledge, as well as providing adequate emotional support for nurses who care for dying patients and their families. Nurses should be proactive in increasing their knowledge and adopting more positive attitudes towards end-of-life care.
METHODS: By adding Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) as a precipitation inhibitor to conventional SNEDDS, a supersaturable system was prepared. Firstly, the prepared SNEDDS played an important role in increasing the aqueous solubility and hence oral absorption due to nano-range size. Secondly, the S-SNEDDS found to be advantageous over SNEDDS for having a higher drug load and inhibition of dilution precipitation of Dutasteride. Formulated S-SNEDDS (F1-F9) ranged from 37.42 ± 1.02 to 68.92 ± 0.09 nm with PDI 0.219-0.34 and drug loading of over 95 percent.
RESULTS: The study of in-vitro dissolution revealed higher dissolution for S-SNEDDS compared to SNEDDS and Avodart soft gelatin capsule as a commercial product. In addition, higher absorption was observed for S-SNEDDS showing approximately 1.28 and 1.27 fold AUC (0-24h) and Cmax compared to commercial products. Therefore, S-SNEDDS has proven as a novel drug delivery system with a higher drug load, higher self-emulsification efficiency, higher stability, higher dissolution and pronounced absorption.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, S-SNEDDS could be a newly emerging approach to enhance aqueous solubility in many folds for drugs belonging to BCS Class II and IV and thus absorption and oral bioavailability.
METHODS: In this study, the chronotherapeutic effect of fisetin on ammonium chloride (AC)-induced hyperammonaemic rats was investigated, to ascertain the time point at which the maximum drug effect is achieved. The anti-hyperammonaemic potential of fisetin (50mg/kg b.w. oral) was analysed when administered to AC treated (100mg/kg b.w. i.p.) rats at 06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 00:00h. Amelioration of pathophysiological conditions by fisetin at different time points was measured by analysing the levels of expression of liver urea cycle enzymes (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-I (CPS-I), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC) and argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS)), nuclear transcription factor kappaB (NF-κB p65), brain glutamine synthetase (GS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Fisetin increased the expression of CPS-I, OTC, ASS and GS and decreased iNOS and NF-κB p65 in hyperammonaemic rats. Fisetin administration at 00:00h showed more significant effects on the expression of liver and brain markers, compared with other time points.
CONCLUSIONS: Fisetin could exhibit anti-hyperammonaemic effect owing to its anti-oxidant and cytoprotective influences. The temporal variation in the effect of fisetin could be due to the (i) chronopharmacological, chronopharmacokinetic properties of fisetin and (ii) modulations in the endogenous circadian rhythms of urea cycle enzymes, brain markers, redox enzymes and renal clearance during hyperammonaemia by fisetin. However, future studies in these lines are necessitated.
BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is currently considered as an essential component of nurses' professional judgement and clinical decision-making. If confirmed, nursing curricula may be revised emphasising on critical thinking with the expectation to improve clinical decision-making and thus better health care.
DESIGN: Integrated literature review.
METHODS: The integrative review was carried out after a comprehensive literature search using electronic databases Ovid, EBESCO MEDLINE, EBESCO CINAHL, PROQuest and Internet search engine Google Scholar. Two hundred and 22 articles from January 1980 to end of 2015 were retrieved. All studies evaluating the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making, published in English language with nurses or nursing students as the study population, were included. No qualitative studies were found investigating the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making, while 10 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria and were further evaluated using the Quality Assessment and Validity Tool. As a result, one study was excluded due to a low-quality score, with the remaining nine accepted for this review.
RESULTS: Four of nine studies established a positive relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making. Another five studies did not demonstrate a significant correlation. The lack of refinement in studies' design and instrumentation were arguably the main reasons for the inconsistent results.
CONCLUSIONS: Research studies yielded contradictory results as regard to the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making; therefore, the evidence is not convincing. Future quantitative studies should have representative sample size, use critical thinking measurement tools related to the healthcare sector and evaluate the predisposition of test takers towards their willingness and ability to think. There is also a need for qualitative studies to provide a fresh approach in exploring the relationship between these variables uncovering currently unknown contributing factors.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This review confirmed that evidence to support the existence of relationships between critical thinking and clinical decision-making is still unsubstantiated. Therefore, it serves as a call for nurse leaders and nursing academics to produce quality studies in order to firmly support or reject the hypothesis that there is a statistically significant correlation between critical thinking and clinical decision-making.