Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gammaherpesvirus is intimately associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), with the incidence of the virus detected in malignant tissues being close to 100% in NPC endemic areas. The viral latent gene, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), has all the typical characteristics of an oncogene and extensive studies have shown beyond doubt its abilities in cellular transformation giving rise to malignant phenotypes. The present study compares the gene sequence and biological properties of LMP1 gene derived from two patients with different stages of NPC--one presented with dysplastic, pre-malignant lesion and the other with malignant lesion.
In an attempt to discover how the phenomenon of amok is viewed within its indigenous culture, the authors studied and interviewed 21 subjects in West Malaysia who were labeled as amok. This investigation showed that both the subjects and the Malay culture view amok as psychopathology, that amok cases are disposed of in line with this view, and that the behavior of the amok person conforms to social expectations of the phenomenon. Despite cultural proscriptions, however, the act is purposive and motivated and is subtly sanctioned by Malay society.
The authors present evidence of an indigenous diagnostic system by which Malay culture defines Amok, and of the disparate relations between individual conceptualization, behavior, and tradition which contributes to the labeling process. Amok is viewed as a cultural prescription for violent behavior in response to a given set of conditions. It is not a disease but rather a behavioral sequence, perceived as illness, that may be precipitated by various etiological factors. Finally, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that traditional forms of Amok are being replaced by new variants in which psychopathology is increasingly evident.
Behavioural self-analysis projects were introduced into the second year medical curriculum in behavioural sciences at the University of Malaya. Students performance and evaluation of the experience were compared with those of American medical students. It was concluded that receptivity of medical students to principles of behaviour therapy is relatively similar in the two societies.
Deregulation of microRNA has been associated with cancer progression and the modification of cancer phenotypes could be achieved by targeting microRNA expression. This study aimed to determine the effects of miR-372 on cell progression and gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, TW01.
Total talus dislocation is a rare injury and is commonly accompanied by associated fractures. Common worrisome sequelae are infection, avascular necrosis and post-traumatic arthritis. We report here on a patient who sustained an open total talus dislocation with an ipsilateral medial malleolus fracture. Following early debridement, reduction and a combination of internal and external fixations, early recovery was good with no evidence of avascular necrosis.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an important cancer in Malaysia and is one of the major causes of cancer mortality in this country. This study evaluates the diagnostic and prognostic values in the quantitative relationship between the cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load and the tumour burden.
From October 13 to October 21, 1999, a total of 46 males, aged 8 to 19 years, were admitted to Beaufort Hospital after swimming in the creek near an oil palm plantation in Kampung (Kg) Kebatu, Beaufort. Thirty (30) presented with symptoms including fever, vomiting, bodyache, giddiness, headache, chest pain and cough, while 16 others, were asymptomatic. One, a 15 year old boy, died from haemorrhagic shock secondary to pulmonary haemorrhage. The onset of the illness was from 11 October to 19 October 1999. A case-control study found that the outbreak was associated with swimming in the creek (p<0.0001). A total of 44 paired sera samples were sent for microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 5 pairs showed sero-conversion, 3 pairs had 4 fold rise in titre and 18 pairs were positive at >320. The findings indicated that Leptospirosis was the cause of the outbreak of this illness and the contaminated creek water was the source of the infection. The occurrence of flooding and stagnation in the creek following the heavy rainfall during the first week of October 1999 could have contributed to the timing of the outbreak.
Dysphagia is a known adverse effect of botulinum toxin injection into the cervical region for dystonia. We present an unusual case of dysphagia arising from injection into the orbicularis oculi muscle, which has hitherto not been described. We postulate that her dysphagia was caused by distant side effects of botulinum toxin due to repeated injections. We recommend that clinicians should restrict the frequency of injections to as few life-time doses of the toxin as possible for adequate management of spasm. The practice of re-injecting patients routinely every three months, or at the first return of mild spasms should be discouraged.
1. The effect of flavonoids on coumarin 7-hydroxylation, an activity marker of an important human liver cytochrome P450 isoform, cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), was investigated in this study. 2. Coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity was measured fluorometrically in reaction mixtures containing cDNA-expressed CYP2A6, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate generating system and 10 uM coumarin, at various concentrations of flavonoids. 3. Among the 23 compounds tested, most of the active members were from flavonol group of hydroxylated flavonoids, with myricetin being the most potent inhibitor followed by quercetin, galangin, and kaempferol. 4. Further exploration of the inhibition mechanism of these compounds revealed that myricetin, galangin, and kaempferol exhibited mixed-type of inhibition pattern while quercetin was observed to exhibit competitive mode of inhibition. 5. Structure-function analyses revealed that degree of inhibition was closely related to the number and location of hydroxyl groups, glycosylation of the free hydroxyl groups, degree of saturation of the flavane nucleus as well as the presence of the alkoxylated function.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the second most common cancer among Malaysian Chinese males. We determined the frequencies of 17 human leukocyte antigens (HLA), HLA-A and HLA-B, alleles in 88 Malaysian Chinese with NPC.