The cell membrane is a protective layer that strictly controls the passage of molecules restricting the delivery of biomolecules such as drugs, oligonucleotides, peptides, and siRNA into the cells. This shortcoming has been overcome by the discovery of Cell-Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) that has undergone 30 years of evolution. To date, CPPs are largely modified to improve its efficacy and to suit the different delivery applications. The modes of CPPs penetration are still an unresolved mystery and requires further investigations to increase its effectiveness and to diversify its use. Despite having huge potential as a biomolecule carrier, CPPs also have some drawbacks. In this review, the natural and synthetic CPPs, the modifications that have been conducted on CPPs to improve its efficacy, its extended applications, modes of penetration and limitation as well as challenges will be discussed.
Numerous biomaterials have been developed over the years to enhance the outcomes of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. These products are specifically designed to prevent postoperative bleeding, optimize wound healing, and reduce inflammation. However, there is no singular material on the market that can be deemed the optimal material for the nasal pack. We systematically reviewed the available evidence to assess the functional biomaterial efficacy after ESS in prospective studies. The search was performed using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 31 articles were identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2) was used to assess each study's risk of bias. The studies were critically analyzed and categorized into types of biomaterial and functional properties, according to synthesis without meta-analysis (SWiM) guidelines. Despite the heterogeneity between studies, it was observed that chitosan, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, and starch-derived materials exhibit better endoscopic scores and significant potential for use in nasal packing. The published data support the idea that applying a nasal pack after ESS improves wound healing and patient-reported outcomes.
Objective: Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol of olive plant is well known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. The aim of this systematic search is to highlight the scientific evidence evaluating molecular efficiency of HT in halting the progression of intimal hyperplasia (IH), which is a clinical condition arises from endothelial inflammation. Methods: A systematic search was performed through PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, based on pre-set keywords which are Hydroxytyrosol OR 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, AND Intimal hyperplasia OR Neointimal hyperplasia OR Endothelial OR Smooth muscles. Eighteen in vitro and three in vitro and in vivo studies were selected based on a pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Based on evidence gathered, HT was found to upregulate PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways and supresses inflammatory factors and mediators such as IL-1β, IL-6, E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in endothelial vascularization and functioning. Two studies revealed HT disrupted vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) cell cycle by dephosphorylating ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. Therefore, HT was proven to promote endothelization and inhibit vascular SMCs migration thus hampering IH development. However, none of these studies described the effect of HT collectively in both vascular endothelial cells (EC) and SMCs in IH ex vivo model. Conclusions: Evidence from this concise review provides an insight on HT regulation of molecular pathways in reendothelization and inhibition of VSMCs migration. Henceforth, we propose effect of HT on IH prevention could be further elucidated through in vivo and ex vivo model.
MicroRNAs are short, single-stranded ribonucleic acids expressed endogenously in the body to regulate gene expression at the post-translational level, with exogenous microRNA offering an attractive approach to therapy. Among the myriad microRNA candidates involved in controlling bone homeostasis and remodeling, microRNA 21 (miR21) is the most abundant. This paper discusses the studies conducted on the role and mechanism of human miR21 (hsa-miR21) in the regulation of bones and the various pathways mediated by miR21, and explores the feasibility of employing exogenous miR21 as a strategy for promoting osteogenesis. From the literature review, it was clear that miR21 plays a dual role in bone metabolism by regulating both bone formation and bone resorption. There is substantial evidence to date from both in vitro and in vivo studies that exogenous miR21 can successfully accelerate new bone synthesis in the context of bone loss due to injury or osteoporosis. This supports the exploration of applications of exogenous miR21 in bone regenerative therapy in the future.