METHODS: This was a nationwide tertiary hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study using the capture-recapture method. It looked at the estimated crude prevalence of confirmed MS and NMOSD and annual incidence on 29 December 2017. Recapture of data was done between February and March 2018 on 1 March 2018. Public and referring private institutions were accessed.
RESULTS: The survey identified 767 MS and 545 NMOSD subjects, with crude prevalence rates of 2.73 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.53; 2.92 per 100,000 population) and 1.94 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.77; 2.10 per 100,000 population) with observed crude annual incidence of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.43; 0.58) for MS and 0.39 per 100,000 (95% CI: 0.35; 0.47) for NMOSD. The MS:NMOSD ratios were 1.4:1.0. The capture-recapture method revealed 913 MS (95% CI: 910; 915.9) and 580 (95% CI: 578.8; 581.2) NMOSD with prevalence per 100,000 of 3.26 (95% CI: 3.05; 3.47) and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.90; 2.24), respectively. In the MS group, 59.4% were Malay, 16.6% Chinese, 20.5% Indian, and 3.5% were from indigenous groups. In the NMOSD group, 47.3% were Malay, 46.9% Chinese, 3.5% Indian, and 2.3% were from other indigenous groups. The ratio of NMOSD to MS among the Chinese was 2:1, but the ratio of MS to NMOSD among the Malays was 1.8:1, and that in Indians was 8.3:1.
CONCLUSION: There is a modest increase in the prevalence of MS and NMOSD in Malaysia with inter-ethnic differences for MS/NMOSD.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical characteristics and electrophysiological data of sixty-one consecutive patients admitted between 2012 and 2015 were systematically analysed and reclassified according to the new GBS clinical classification. Neurophysiology was evaluated with Hadden et al.'s vs recently proposed Rajabally et al.'s criteria. Functional severity and clinical outcome of various GBS subtypes were ascertained.
RESULTS: All patients initially identified as GBS or related disorders can be sub-classified into having classical GBS (41, 67%), classic Miller-Fisher Syndrome (MFS) (6, 10%), Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) (3, 5%), paraparetic GBS (4, 7%), bifacial weakness with paresthesia (3, 5%), acute ophthalmoparesis (AO) (1, 2%) and overlap syndrome (3, 5%): one (2%) with GBS/Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis overlap and 2 (3%) with GBS/MFS overlap. Greater proportion of axonal classical GBS (67% vs 55%, p=0.372) seen with Rajabally et al.'s criteria and a predominantly axonal form of paraparetic variant (75%) independent of electrodiagnostic criteria were more representative of Asian GBS cohort. Classical GBS patients had lowest admission and discharge Medical Research Council Sum Score (MRCSS), greater functional disability and longest length of in-patient stay. Twenty (20/21, 95%) patients who needed mechanical ventilation had classical GBS. Patients required repeated dose of intravenous immunoglobulin (5/6, 3%) or plasma exchange (4/4, 100%) more frequently had axonal form of classical GBS.
CONCLUSION: Phenotype recognition based on new GBS clinical classification, supported by electrodiagnostic study permits more precise clinical subtypes determination and outcome prognostication.