METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 27 patients with symptoms of OSAS seen at a tertiary institutional center and 25 normal controls performed between June 2015 and June 2016. All patients and controls underwent a polysomnography (PSG) test and were diagnosed with OSAS based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Patients are those with OSAS symptoms and had AHI > 5, whereas controls are staffs from the ophthalmology clinic without clinical criteria for OSAS and had PSG result of AHI
AIM: To review clinical and experimental animal studies providing evidence for the efficacy of TI to heal corneal wounds.
METHODS: National and international databases, including PubMed and Scopus, were searched using relevant keywords, and additional manual searches were conducted to assess the effectiveness of TI application on corneal wound healing. Journal articles published from January 1, 2000 to December 1, 2022 were examined. The relevancy of the identified citations was checked against predetermined eligibility standards, and relevant articles were extracted and reviewed.
RESULTS: A total of eight articles were found relevant to be discussed in this review, including four animal studies and four clinical studies. According to the studies conducted, TI is effective for corneal re-epithelialization in patients with diabetes based on corneal wound size and healing rate.
CONCLUSION: Available animal and clinical studies have shown that TI promotes corneal wound healing by several mechanisms. The use of TI was not associated with adverse effects in any of the published cases. Further studies are needed to enhance our knowledge and understanding of TI in the healing of DK.
METHODS: This is a cross sectional study. Myopic children who had been wearing ortho-K and SVSs for 12 months were recruited, and the questionnaires were distributed online. The PREP scores were obtained using a summary scoring method. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data normality. Unpaired t-test was performed for normally distributed data, and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normally distributed data. P
METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized controlled hospital-based study involving diabetic patients with postoperative corneal epithelial defects after vitreoretinal surgery. Diabetic patients were randomized into 2 different groups and received either 0.5 units of topical insulin (DTI) or artificial tears (Vismed, sodium hyaluronate 0.18%; DAT). The primary outcome measured was the rate of corneal epithelial wound healing (mm2/h) over a preset interval and time from baseline to minimum size of epithelial defect on fluorescein-stained anterior segment digital camera photography. The secondary outcome measured was the safety of topical insulin 0.5 units and artificial tears (Vismed, sodium hyaluronate 0.18%). Patients were followed up until 3 months postoperation.
RESULTS: A total of 38 eyes from 38 patients undergoing intraoperative corneal debridement during vitreoretinal surgery with resultant epithelial defects (19 eyes per group) were analyzed. DTI was observed to have a significantly higher healing rate compared with the DAT group at rates over 36 hours (P = 0.010), 48 hours (P = 0.009), and 144 hours (P = 0.009). The rate from baseline to closure was observed to be significantly higher in the DTI group (1.20 ± 0.29) (mm2/h) compared with the DAT group (0.78 ± 0.20) (mm2/h) as well (P < 0.001). No adverse effect of topical insulin and artificial tears was reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Topical insulin (0.5 units, 4 times per day) is more effective compared with artificial tears (Vismed, sodium hyaluronate 0.18%, 4 times per day) for the healing of postoperative corneal epithelial defects induced during vitreoretinal surgery in diabetic patients, without any adverse events.
METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.
RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.
METHODS: Healthy school children aged < 10 years were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study. Refraction and best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) were determined using cycloplegic refraction and a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart, respectively. All children underwent MRI using a 3-Tesla whole-body scanner. Quantitative eyeball measurements included the longitudinal axial length (LAL), horizontal width (HW), and vertical height (VH) along the cardinal axes. Correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the level of refractive error and the eyeball dimensions.
RESULTS: A total of 70 eyes from 70 children (35 male, 35 female) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 8.38 (0.49) years were included and analyzed. Mean (SD) refraction (spherical equivalent, SEQ) and BCDVA were -2.55 (1.45) D and -0.01 (0.06) logMAR, respectively. Ocular dimensions were greater in myopes than in emmetropes (all P < 0.05), with no significant differences according to sex. Mean (SD) ocular dimensions were LAL 24.07 (0.91) mm, HW 23.41 (0.82) mm, and VH 23.70 (0.88) mm for myopes, and LAL 22.69 (0.55) mm, HW 22.65 (0.63) mm, and VH 22.94 (0.69) mm for emmetropes. Significant correlations were noted between SEQ and ocular dimensions, with a greater change in LAL (0.46 mm/D, P < 0.001) than in VH (0.27 mm/D, P < 0.001) and HW (0.22 mm/D, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Myopic eyeballs are larger than those with emmetropia. The eyeball elongates as myopia increases, with the greatest change in LAL, the least in HW, and an intermediate change in VH. These changes manifest in both sexes at a young age and low level of myopia. These data may serve as a reference for monitoring the development of refractive error in young Malaysian children of Chinese origin.