Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Chendran P, Meng Hsien Y, Wan Abdul Halim WH
    PMID: 31885979 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6862487
    Incidence of cornea melting or perforation is commonly seen in variety of cornea conditions. It can cause debilitating vision loss and impair patient's daily activity. Several techniques have been described to surgically treat cornea perforation and melting. In this article, a series of corneal diseases treated with corneal patch graft are highlighted to relate different approach of cornea patch graft surgery. Post-operative management and complications are discussed.
  2. Chendran P, Seng Fai T, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Md Din N
    J Glaucoma, 2019 10;28(10):e162-e164.
    PMID: 31368915 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001334
    Ocular pyogenic granuloma is a benign tumor seen after ocular insult secondary to ocular surgeries, trauma or infection. Although benign, intervention is sometimes necessary. Previous authors have reported pyogenic granuloma formation following oculoplastic surgeries. We report a pyogenic granuloma after an Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. A 65-year-old gentleman presented with right eye redness associated with pain and swelling ~2 months after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Examination found a sessile growth on the tube extruding puss with signs of endophthalmitis. The glaucoma drainage device was explanted and culture results grew Staphylococcus aureus. This article discusses the formation of pyogenic granuloma on a glaucoma drainage device and its management.
  3. Tan SY, Md Din N, Mohd Khialdin S, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Tang SF
    Cureus, 2021 Feb 12;13(2):e13320.
    PMID: 33738163 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.13320
    The hazy corneal donor-recipient interface after corneal transplant may cause difficulties when implanting the XEN gel stent via ab-interno approach. We aim to describe XEN gel stent implantation via ab-externo approach in refractory steroid-induced glaucoma after corneal lamellar keratoplasty. Under local anaesthesia, the XEN injector needle was inserted 7 mm behind the limbus with the bevel facing up, directly beneath the conjunctiva and advanced to the marked 2.5 mm scleral entry wound. The needle then pierced the sclera until the needle tip was just visible in the anterior chamber (AC). The slider was pushed until the tip of the XEN stent was seen in the AC. The needle was slowly withdrawn while still pushing the slider to complete stent deployment. Subconjunctival Mitomycin C 0.01% (30 µg/0.3 mL) was then injected posterior to the bleb. Three eyes of three patients with steroid-induced glaucoma after lamellar keratoplasty underwent XEN gel stent implantation via ab-externo approach placed at the superotemporal quadrant. Pre-operatively, all patients had uncontrolled IOP between 30-45 mmHg despite maximum medications and selective laser trabeculoplasty. After XEN gel stent implantation, IOP ranged between 10-17 mmHg with one or two topical antiglaucoma at 12 months. Complications include hypotony maculopathy, stent migration and hyphaema, all of which were successfully managed. Corneal graft remained clear at 12 months. XEN gel stent implantation via ab-externo approach is able to achieve good intraocular pressure (IOP) control without compromising cornea graft in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma after lamellar keratoplasty at 12 months.
  4. Fang SY, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Mat Baki M, Din NM
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 2018 Apr;256(4):783-790.
    PMID: 29492688 DOI: 10.1007/s00417-018-3919-7
    PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients are at risk of glaucoma but the risk increases if they have higher intraocular pressure (IOP) while sleeping. We aim to evaluate the postural effect of upright and prolong supine positions on IOP in these patients.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 27 patients with symptoms of OSAS seen at a tertiary institutional center and 25 normal controls performed between June 2015 and June 2016. All patients and controls underwent a polysomnography (PSG) test and were diagnosed with OSAS based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Patients are those with OSAS symptoms and had AHI > 5, whereas controls are staffs from the ophthalmology clinic without clinical criteria for OSAS and had PSG result of AHI

  5. Mohammad Razali A, Mohd Zain A, Bt Wan Abdul Halim WH, Md Din N
    Cureus, 2020 Apr 18;12(4):e7732.
    PMID: 32440379 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.7732
    Most patients with sinonasal carcinoma present to the otorhinolaryngologist with nasal symptoms. It is however uncommon for them to present with acute visual loss at first presentation. We report a case of compressive optic neuropathy secondary to sinonasal carcinoma, which presented acutely with right eye blurring of vision upon waking up. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain and orbit with contrast showed a locally invasive nasopharyngeal mass extending into the right orbit and cranial fossa. Histopathological examination revealed squamous cell sinonasal carcinoma. Her visual acuity improved with a three-day course of pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g per day, followed by a gradual tapering dose of oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day).
  6. Kuan HC, Ivan Cheng EY, Yong MH, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Othman O
    Cureus, 2021 Dec;13(12):e20822.
    PMID: 35141078 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.20822
    Corneal nodular lesions are not uncommon in clinical practice. Diagnosing and managing this condition can be challenging due to its variable causes. This article highlights three cases of corneal nodular lesions. A common clinical pathway for the diagnosis and treatment of cornea nodular lesions is discussed. Two young females and an elderly man presented with a unilateral corneal nodule of variable duration, which was further demonstrated on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Several diagnoses were made after thorough history and examination which include herpetic stromal keratitis, phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis secondary to blepharitis, and Salzmann nodular degeneration. All cases were initiated on topical antibiotics and topical steroids with additional medication or surgical procedure onboard according to their clinical condition. The corneal nodules resolved with scarring after a period of treatment. In conclusion, corneal nodular lesions can be associated with various pathologies. Thorough history, examination, and appropriate investigations are needed to reveal the underlying causes. Serial anterior segment images and AS-OCT are useful to monitor progression and treatment response. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment are crucial to prevent further complications.
  7. Shahrudin NA, Mohd Zahidin AZ, Md Noh UK, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Md Din N
    GMS Ophthalmol Cases, 2017;7:Doc31.
    PMID: 29326863 DOI: 10.3205/oc000082
    Objective: To highlight the clinical presentation of CMV endotheliitis and the challenge in diagnosing this condition in recurrent failed penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods: Case series Results: There are 3 cases of recurrent failure in PK secondary to CMV endotheliitis presented. Case 1 and 2 were pseudophakic patients, while in case 3, the patient had a previous history of recurrent anterior uveitis. Case 1 and 3 had four and one previous failed PK respectively, while case 2 had endothelial keratoplasty twice before the diagnosis of CMV endotheliitis was made, following positive culture of aqueous humour. The visual acuity ranged from 1/60 to hand movement. All patients had pigmented KP, and two of them had typical coin-shaped KP. Oral valganciclovir was instituted for all patients consisting of 900 mg bidaily for two weeks, followed by 900 mg once daily for six months. Additionally, topical ganciclovir eyedrop 0.5% was given every four hours with topical dexaminim four times a day. Repeated anterior chamber (AC) tap after six months of treatment was negative for CMV in case 3 while cases 1 and 2 are still on treatment. CMV endotheliitis is an increasingly important cause of failed corneal transplant. We recommend anterior chamber tap in suspicious cases of repeatedly failed corneal transplant, regardless of the presence of coin-shaped KP or not. Minimum treatment with oral valganciclovir is important to eradicate the problem, before proceeding with another corneal transplant. Conclusion: It is important to make an accurate early diagnosis by good clinical judgement in preventing loss of corneal endothelial cells. High index of suspicion for CMV endotheliitis as a cause of graft failure must be made especially when the patient presents with coin-shaped KP. Therefore unnecessary treatment resulting from misdiagnosis in these patients can be prevented. Early recognition and treatment of this condition is important to prevent permanent endothelial cell loss and corneal decompensation.
  8. Ting Yih Ling J, Mohd Zain A, Naffi AA, Mustapha M, Wan Abdul Halim WH
    Cureus, 2023 Feb;15(2):e34669.
    PMID: 36909105 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.34669
    Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is becoming one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide with a significant impact on quality of life. The effectiveness of intravitreal (IVT) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has been established by clinical trials and has become the treatment of choice in the majority of DME patients in reducing macular edema and improving visual acuity. Frequent drop-out and discontinuation of treatment are major issues. Lack of compliance can lead to worsening outcomes and be a burden to patients and the healthcare system. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess multiple factors that affect adherence to IVT anti-VEGF treatment among patients with DME, including socioeconomic causes and the Health Belief Model (HBM) domains, in addition to exploring the relationship between them. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among DME patients in Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from December 2020 to June 2021. We identified eligible patients using a retrospective chart review of clinical findings and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Included subjects were of Malaysian nationality, aged 18 years and above, who were initiated or re-initiated IVT anti-VEGF treatment regime and on follow-up for at least six months from initial injection from January 2019 onwards. A translated and validated self-administered questionnaire was given to the respondents. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0 (Released 2019; IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, United States). Demographics of the patient were summarized using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test was used to compare the difference in components of the HBM questionnaire. Linear regression was further used to explore the relationship between patients' demographics and the HBM component. Results A total of 141 patients participated in this study, of whom 56.2% patients were adherent to treatment. The majority were aged 60 years and above (56.7%), male (52.5%), Malay (38.9%), and married (71.6%). There was a significant statistical difference in patients who were adherent to treatment, in terms of life entourage (p=0.004, Fisher Exact test). HBM domains that influenced adherence to treatment included perceived severity, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, cues to action, and self-efficacy (p<0.05, independent sample t-test). Further, multiple logistic regression tests on sociodemographic factors and HBM domains after eliminating confounding factors narrowed down the significant variables to perceived susceptibility (p= 0.023), perceived benefits (p< 0.001), and self-efficacy (p< 0.001). Conclusion Patients' adherence to IVT anti-VEGF is influenced by perceived susceptibility to complications from DME, perceived benefits to the treatment, and self-efficacy.
  9. Sulaiman FN, Kamardin NF, Sultan Abdul Kader MI, Ch'ng H, Wan Abdul Halim WH
    Cureus, 2023 May;15(5):e38975.
    PMID: 37313108 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.38975
    A 36-year-old man presented with an acute onset of a right eye monocular altitudinal defect associated with pain on eye movement upon waking up from sleep. His right eye subsequently developed outward deviation and a total loss of vision. Clinical examination of the right eye revealed a visual acuity of no light perception (NLP) with the presence of relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) and involvement of cranial nerves II, III, IV, and VI. A marked optic disc swelling and peripapillary hemorrhages were seen in the right fundus. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the brain and orbit showed a unilateral enlargement and enhancement of the right intraorbital and intracanalicular segments of the optic nerve with surrounding fat stranding and orbital apex crowding. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity and enhancement of the optic nerve and the myelin sheath. Serum anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies were detected. He was treated with corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin. His vision improved slowly after treatment. This case report shows the diverse manifestations of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease, which includes the orbital apex syndrome.
  10. Leong CY, Naffi AA, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Bastion MC
    World J Diabetes, 2023 Jun 15;14(6):930-938.
    PMID: 37383598 DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v14.i6.930
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic keratopathy (DK) occurs in 46%-64% of patients with diabetes and requires serious attention. In patients with diabetes, the healing of corneal epithelial defects or ulcers takes longer than in patients without diabetes. Insulin is an effective factor in wound healing. The ability of systemic insulin to rapidly heal burn wounds has been reported for nearly a century, but only a few studies have been performed on the effects of topical insulin (TI) on the eye. Treatment with TI is effective in treating DK.

    AIM: To review clinical and experimental animal studies providing evidence for the efficacy of TI to heal corneal wounds.

    METHODS: National and international databases, including PubMed and Scopus, were searched using relevant keywords, and additional manual searches were conducted to assess the effectiveness of TI application on corneal wound healing. Journal articles published from January 1, 2000 to December 1, 2022 were examined. The relevancy of the identified citations was checked against predetermined eligibility standards, and relevant articles were extracted and reviewed.

    RESULTS: A total of eight articles were found relevant to be discussed in this review, including four animal studies and four clinical studies. According to the studies conducted, TI is effective for corneal re-epithelialization in patients with diabetes based on corneal wound size and healing rate.

    CONCLUSION: Available animal and clinical studies have shown that TI promotes corneal wound healing by several mechanisms. The use of TI was not associated with adverse effects in any of the published cases. Further studies are needed to enhance our knowledge and understanding of TI in the healing of DK.

  11. Sulaiman FN, Sultan Abdul Kader MI, Sawri Rajan R, Wan Abdul Halim WH
    Cureus, 2023 Apr;15(4):e37632.
    PMID: 37200640 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.37632
    Differential diagnosis of vision loss in a space-occupying lesion can be exhaustive. Olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) is a rare, benign, slow-growing tumour originating from the anterior cranial base. OGM is one of the differential diagnoses of intracranial tumours. We report a case of an OGM compressing the optic nerve and frontal lobe causing bilateral vision loss for six months. Multidisciplinary management by ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and pathologists led to the diagnosis and tumour resection of OGM in the patient. Possible mechanisms of vision loss, imaging features, and treatment are discussed in this report.
  12. Ee See Ong D, Meng Hsien Y, Mohd Khialdin S, Wan Abdul Halim WH
    Cureus, 2023 Jul;15(7):e41350.
    PMID: 37546125 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.41350
    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare condition characterized by the obstruction of cerebral venous sinuses or cortical veins, leading to stroke-like symptoms. This case report presents a case of a 74-year-old male with isolated unilateral abducens nerve palsy as the sole sign of CVT, without accompanying symptoms or focal deficits. Neuroimaging, including CT and magnetic resonance venography, confirmed the diagnosis of CVT with a thrombus in the right transverse sinus. The patient was co-managed with the medical team and initiated on anticoagulation therapy. Follow-up showed resolution of diplopia and improvement in extraocular muscle movements. Unilateral abducens nerve palsy in CVT is rare, with most cases presenting as bilateral palsy. The case report emphasizes the importance of considering CVT in the differential diagnosis of isolated abducens nerve palsy and highlights the role of neuroimaging in early detection. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are crucial for favorable outcomes in CVT cases. Further research is needed to enhance understanding of the pathophysiology, prognosis, and optimal management of this uncommon presentation.
  13. Wong KH, Cheng TC, Md Pauzi SH, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Md Din N
    Cureus, 2023 Jul;15(7):e42497.
    PMID: 37637548 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.42497
    Convergence-retraction nystagmus alongside behavioral changes can be rare manifestations of a potentially life-threatening midbrain lesion. After experiencing headaches for three months, a 13-year-old boy was diagnosed with depression due to exhibiting reduced speech, hypersomnia, and psychomotor slowing for three weeks. It was preceded by headache for three months. Examination revealed visual acuity of 6/6 bilaterally, convergence-retraction nystagmus worst on upgaze, limited bilateral ocular motility in upgaze, and light-near dissociation on pupil examination, all of which point towards Parinaud's syndrome. However, there was no lid retraction to suggest Collier's sign. Fundus examination revealed papilledema. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large pineal mass extending to both thalami, dilated ventricles due to obstructive hydrocephalus, and cerebral edema. An urgent external ventricular drain was inserted, and biopsy revealed pineal gland germinoma. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in adequate tumor shrinkage. This case report highlights that subacute behavioral changes may mask a potentially life-threatening intracranial tumor, especially when associated with abnormal eye movement.
  14. Rohaina CM, Then KY, Ng AM, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Zahidin AZ, Saim A, et al.
    Transl Res, 2014 Mar;163(3):200-10.
    PMID: 24286920 DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2013.11.004
    The cornea can be damaged by a variety of clinical disorders or chemical, mechanical, and thermal injuries. The objectives of this study were to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to corneal lineage, to form a tissue engineered corneal substitute (TEC) using BMSCs, and to treat corneal surface defects in a limbal stem cell deficiency model. BMSCs were induced to corneal lineage using limbal medium for 10 days. Induced BMSCs demonstrated upregulation of corneal stem cell markers; β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, and p63, increased protein expression of CK3 and p63 significantly compared with the uninduced ones. For TEC formation, passage 1 BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on amniotic membrane in a transwell co-culture system and were grown in limbal medium. Limbal stem cell deficiency models were induced by alkaline injury, and the TEC was implanted for 8 weeks. Serial slit lamp evaluation revealed remarkable improvement in corneal regeneration in terms of corneal clarity and reduced vascularization. Histologic and optical coherence tomography analyses demonstrated comparable corneal thickness and achieved stratified epithelium with a compact stromal layer resembling that of normal cornea. CK3 and p63 were expressed in the newly regenerated cornea. In conclusion, BMSCs can be induced into corneal epithelial lineage, and these cells are viable for the formation of TEC, to be used for the reconstruction of the corneal surface in the limbal stem cell deficient model.
  15. Mohd-Ali B, Low YC, Mohamad Shahimin M, Arif N, Abdul-Hamid H, Wan Abdul-Halim WH, et al.
    Cont Lens Anterior Eye, 2023 Feb;46(1):101774.
    PMID: 36319519 DOI: 10.1016/j.clae.2022.101774
    PURPOSE: There are limited reports available on the impact of wearing Orthokeratology (ortho-K) lenses on the quality of life of Asian children. This study evaluated and compared vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) between myopic children wearing ortho-K lenses and single-vision spectacles (SVSs), living in Kuala Lumpur, using Paediatric Refractive Error Profile (PREP) questionnaires.

    METHODS: This is a cross sectional study. Myopic children who had been wearing ortho-K and SVSs for 12 months were recruited, and the questionnaires were distributed online. The PREP scores were obtained using a summary scoring method. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data normality. Unpaired t-test was performed for normally distributed data, and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normally distributed data. P 

  16. Dasrilsyah AM, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Mustapha M, Tang SF, Kaur B, Ong EY, et al.
    Cornea, 2023 May 18.
    PMID: 37267451 DOI: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000003308
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the effect of topical insulin (0.5 units, 4 times per day) versus artificial tears (Vismed, sodium hyaluronate 0.18%, 4 times per day) for the healing of postoperative corneal epithelial defects induced during vitreoretinal surgery in diabetic patients.

    METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized controlled hospital-based study involving diabetic patients with postoperative corneal epithelial defects after vitreoretinal surgery. Diabetic patients were randomized into 2 different groups and received either 0.5 units of topical insulin (DTI) or artificial tears (Vismed, sodium hyaluronate 0.18%; DAT). The primary outcome measured was the rate of corneal epithelial wound healing (mm2/h) over a preset interval and time from baseline to minimum size of epithelial defect on fluorescein-stained anterior segment digital camera photography. The secondary outcome measured was the safety of topical insulin 0.5 units and artificial tears (Vismed, sodium hyaluronate 0.18%). Patients were followed up until 3 months postoperation.

    RESULTS: A total of 38 eyes from 38 patients undergoing intraoperative corneal debridement during vitreoretinal surgery with resultant epithelial defects (19 eyes per group) were analyzed. DTI was observed to have a significantly higher healing rate compared with the DAT group at rates over 36 hours (P = 0.010), 48 hours (P = 0.009), and 144 hours (P = 0.009). The rate from baseline to closure was observed to be significantly higher in the DTI group (1.20 ± 0.29) (mm2/h) compared with the DAT group (0.78 ± 0.20) (mm2/h) as well (P < 0.001). No adverse effect of topical insulin and artificial tears was reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Topical insulin (0.5 units, 4 times per day) is more effective compared with artificial tears (Vismed, sodium hyaluronate 0.18%, 4 times per day) for the healing of postoperative corneal epithelial defects induced during vitreoretinal surgery in diabetic patients, without any adverse events.

  17. Leow SN, Luu CD, Hairul Nizam MH, Mok PL, Ruhaslizan R, Wong HS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0128973.
    PMID: 26107378 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128973
    To investigate the safety and efficacy of subretinal injection of human Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs) on retinal structure and function in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats.
  18. Cheng TC, Yahya MFN, Mohd Naffi AA, Othman O, Seng Fai T, Yong MH, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Oct 01;32(7):2285-2291.
    PMID: 33770023 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007645
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the satisfaction of surgeons and trainees with three-dimensional (3D) ophthalmic surgery during a demonstration compared to traditional surgery.

    METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.

    RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).

    CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.

  19. Mohd-Ali B, Chen LY, Shahimin MM, Arif N, Abdul Hamid H, Wan Abdul Halim WH, et al.
    PMID: 37641786 DOI: 10.51329/mehdiophthal1447
    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to investigate eye shapes; however, reports involving children are scarce. This study aimed to determine ocular dimensions, and their correlations with refractive error, using three-dimensional MRI in emmetropic versus myopic children.

    METHODS: Healthy school children aged < 10 years were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study. Refraction and best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) were determined using cycloplegic refraction and a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart, respectively. All children underwent MRI using a 3-Tesla whole-body scanner. Quantitative eyeball measurements included the longitudinal axial length (LAL), horizontal width (HW), and vertical height (VH) along the cardinal axes. Correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the level of refractive error and the eyeball dimensions.

    RESULTS: A total of 70 eyes from 70 children (35 male, 35 female) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 8.38 (0.49) years were included and analyzed. Mean (SD) refraction (spherical equivalent, SEQ) and BCDVA were -2.55 (1.45) D and -0.01 (0.06) logMAR, respectively. Ocular dimensions were greater in myopes than in emmetropes (all P < 0.05), with no significant differences according to sex. Mean (SD) ocular dimensions were LAL 24.07 (0.91) mm, HW 23.41 (0.82) mm, and VH 23.70 (0.88) mm for myopes, and LAL 22.69 (0.55) mm, HW 22.65 (0.63) mm, and VH 22.94 (0.69) mm for emmetropes. Significant correlations were noted between SEQ and ocular dimensions, with a greater change in LAL (0.46 mm/D, P < 0.001) than in VH (0.27 mm/D, P < 0.001) and HW (0.22 mm/D, P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Myopic eyeballs are larger than those with emmetropia. The eyeball elongates as myopia increases, with the greatest change in LAL, the least in HW, and an intermediate change in VH. These changes manifest in both sexes at a young age and low level of myopia. These data may serve as a reference for monitoring the development of refractive error in young Malaysian children of Chinese origin.

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