Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 46 in total

  1. Siow SL, Wong CM, Sohail M
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Jun;64(2):168-9.
    PMID: 20058581 MyJurnal
    Gastric outlet obstruction and in particular, pyloric stenosis, is relatively common in developing countries. Acute clinical presentation is often the manifestation of biochemical and electrolyte changes. The presence of metabolic alkalosis in combination with acute renal failure should alarm us to the possibility of adult pyloric stenosis. We report a case of adult pyloric stenosis that presented as acute renal failure and discuss its pathophysiology.
  2. Siow SL, Mahendran HA, Wong CM
    Asian J Surg, 2017 Sep;40(5):407-414.
    PMID: 26922628 DOI: 10.1016/j.asjsur.2015.12.001
    OBJECTIVE: Intraluminal gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) located at the posterior wall and near the gastroesophageal junction represent a surgical challenge. We present our experience of laparoscopic transgastric resection for gastric GISTs of such location.

    METHODS: Data of seven patients undergoing laparoscopic transgastric resection were identified and retrospectively reviewed with regard to procedural steps and patient outcomes.

    RESULTS: Seven patients (4 men; mean age 64.1 ± 14.6 years) with gastric GISTs underwent laparoscopic transgastric resection from January 2010 to May 2015. Three of the seven GISTs were located near the gastroesophageal junction and the rest were found in the posterior wall of the stomach. All seven patients underwent successful laparoscopic resection without any conversions. There were no mortalities and no significant postoperative complications. Intraoperative endoscopy was performed for all patients. The mean operative time was 164.0 ± 59.1 minutes. Regular diet was resumed within 3 days on average and mean postoperative stay was 3.6 ± 1.3 days. All patients achieved complete R0 resection with a mean tumor size of 5.5 ± 1.1 cm. At a mean follow-up of 48.0 ± 13.4 months, all patients were recurrence free.

    CONCLUSIONS: GISTs of the posterior wall and in close proximity to the gastroesophageal junction can be safely resected laparoscopically using such an approach. Standard technique is required to achieve good oncological outcomes.

  3. Siow SL, Sha HL, Wong CM
    BMC Infect Dis, 2016 Feb 05;16:68.
    PMID: 26850778 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1405-6
    BACKGROUND: Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon affliction in adolescence. It is usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. The disease is caused by lymphohaematogenous spread after primary infection in the lung or ingestion of infected sputum and has a typically protean and nonspecific presentation. The occurrence of TB in an urachal remnant is probably from the contiguous spread of an abdominal focus or mesenteric lymph node. Urachal TB is a rare entity, with only two reported cases in the literature. We report here a case of clinically silent pulmonary and abdominal TB that manifested in the infection of an urachal sinus and highlight the role of laparoscopy in its diagnosis and treatment.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old boy presented to our institution with peri-umbilical swelling and purulent discharge from his umbilicus for 2 weeks duration. There were no radiological, microbiological or clinical evidences of TB in the initial presentation, though he had close social contact with someone who had TB. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen confirmed the diagnosis of an urachal abscess. An incision and drainage procedure was performed followed by a course of antibiotics. A scheduled laparoscopic approach later showed that the peritoneum and serosal surface of the small and large intestines were studded with nodules of variable sizes, in addition to the urachal sinus. The histology of the resected tissues (urachal sinus and nodules) was consistent of TB infection. He recovered fully after completing 6 months of anti-tuberculous therapy.

    CONCLUSION: This report highlights a rare case of TB urachal abscess in an adolescent boy, the difficulties in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, the need to consider TB as a cause of urachal infection in endemic areas and the use of laparoscopy in both diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Ong M, Ongkudon CM, Wong CM
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2016 Oct 02;46(7):657-65.
    PMID: 26759918 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2015.1135447
    Pedobacter cryoconitis BG5 are psychrophiles isolated from the cold environment and capable of proliferating and growing well at low temperature regime. Their cellular products have found a broad spectrum of applications, including in food, medicine, and bioremediation. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a high-cell density cultivation strategy coupled with optimized growth medium for P. cryoconitis BG5. To date, there has been no published report on the design and optimization of growth medium for P. cryoconitis, hence the objective of this research project. A preliminary screening of four commercially available media, namely tryptic soy broth, R2A, Luria Bertani broth, and nutrient broth, was conducted to formulate the basal medium. Based on the preliminary screening, tryptone, glucose, NaCl, and K2HPO4 along with three additional nutrients (yeast extract, MgSO4, and NH4Cl) were identified to form the basal medium which was further analyzed by Plackett-Burman experimental design. Central composite experimental design using response surface methodology was adopted to optimize tryptone, yeast extract, and NH4Cl concentrations in the formulated growth medium. Statistical data analysis showed a high regression factor of 0.84 with a predicted optimum optical (600 nm) cell density of 7.5 using 23.7 g/L of tryptone, 8.8 g/L of yeast extract, and 0.7 g/L of NH4Cl. The optimized medium for P. cryoconitis BG5 was tested, and the observed optical density was 7.8. The cost-effectiveness of the optimized medium was determined as 6.25 unit prices per gram of cell produced in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask.
  5. Siow SL, Tee SC, Wong CM
    J Med Case Rep, 2015;9:49.
    PMID: 25890166 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-015-0519-6
    Paraesophageal hernia with intrathoracic mesentericoaxial type of gastric volvulus is a rare clinical entity. The rotation occurs because of the idiopathic relaxation of the gastric ligaments and ascent of the stomach adjacent to the oesophagus through the hiatus defect, while the gastroesophageal junction remains in the abdomen. The open approach remains the gold standard therapy for most patients. Here we report the case of a patient with such a condition who underwent a successful laparoscopic surgery. A literature search revealed that this is the first case report from Southeast Asia.
  6. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM
    Respirology, 2001 Sep;6(3):259-64.
    PMID: 11555386
    This study aimed to investigate the microbial aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients requiring hospitalization.
  7. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2000 Sep;18(3):135-40.
    PMID: 11270467
    This study aimed to evaluate dry powder inhaler naive asthmatic patients' perception and preference of the Accuhaler, a multidose dry powder inhaler and the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). After the first instruction, 66.7% of 48 patients enrolled in the study could demonstrate the correct use of the Accuhaler. When the patients were asked to compare the pMDI and the Accuhaler after using the Accuhaler to administer salmeterol for 4 weeks, the Accuhaler scored significantly better than the pMDI for the following features: knowing how many doses are left, presence of an attached cover, taste, instruction for use, attractiveness, ease of use, ease of holding, shape, and comfortable mouthpiece. The pMDI scored better to the Accuhaler in terms of size. More patients preferred the Accuhaler than the pMDI; the presence of a dose counter and perceived ease of use were the main reasons cited for their preference for the Accuhaler.
    Study site: Asthma Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  8. Nadesan K, Chan SP, Wong CM
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Jun;20(1):49-54.
    PMID: 10879265
    Heat stroke, which is also known as "sun stroke," is a medical emergency, and fatalities can occur unless it is diagnosed early and treated efficiently. Heat stroke may manifest quite suddenly, giving little time to differentiate it from extreme physical exhaustion in collapsed subjects. It is also known to lead to serious disseminated intravascular coagulation. Sudden death in a young female is presented who collapsed after trekking in a hilly, jungle area in Malaysia on a warm, humid day. She had joined a weight reduction programme a few weeks earlier. She was found collapsed and in a semiconscious state in the jungle by her groupmates and was taken to hospital. On admission she was unconscious, hyperpyrexic, with rapid, thready pulse and a low blood pressure. Biochemical studies revealed metabolic acidosis, elevated liver and cardiac enzymes and impairment of renal function. Her coagulation profile was found to be impaired and she started bleeding through the mouth and nostrils. She also developed watery diarrhoea and initially a septicaemic condition, including acute enteritis was suspected. Despite active treatment, her condition deteriorated and she died eight hours after admission. Autopsy confirmed a generalised bleeding tendency, with pulmonary, oesophageal and gastrointestinal mucosal haemorrhages. Flame-shaped subendocardial shock haemorrhages were seen in the interventricular septum on the left side of the heart. The findings support a diagnosis of heat stroke. Various aspects related to heat stroke, the autopsy diagnosis and its prevention are discussed.
  9. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM
    Respirology, 2000 Mar;5(1):33-8.
    PMID: 10728729
    To define the causes of exudative pleural effusions in our region.
  10. Wong CM, Lim KH, Liam CK
    Postgrad Med J, 1999 May;75(883):297-8.
    PMID: 10533638
    Cryptococcal infection uncommonly presents with pulmonary manifestations and even more rarely so as massive bilateral effusions. Pleural involvement is usually associated with underlying pulmonary parenchymal lesions and is unusual while on antifungal therapy. We report a patient with cryptococcal meningitis who, while on intravenous 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B, developed life-threatening bilateral massive pleural effusions with evidence of spontaneous resolution, consistent with prior hypothesis of antigenic stimulation as the cause of pleural involvement.
  11. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM
    Respirology, 2000 Dec;5(4):355-61.
    PMID: 11192546
    This study aimed to determine whether the clinicopathological features of lung cancer in patients younger than 40 years differ from that of older patients in an Asian country.
  12. Lim KH, Liam CK, Wong CM
    Postgrad Med J, 2000 Aug;76(898):512, 518-9.
    PMID: 10908387
  13. Wong CM, Ganesh R, Ng KY
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):117-9.
    PMID: 10972015
    Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy prior to rupture is an arduous task even with the availability of many new investigative methods and imaging modalities. Above all, a high index of suspicion is necessary when dealing with women who present in early pregnancy with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. With the increased use of ovulation induction agents, the probability of heterotropic pregnancy should be kept in mind. The use of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) will help in earlier diagnosis because of its advantages over transabdominal ultrasonography (TAS).
  14. Siow SL, Wong CM, Hardin M, Sohail M
    J Med Case Rep, 2016 Jan 18;10:11.
    PMID: 26781191 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-015-0780-8
    Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture and traumatic abdominal wall hernia are two well-described but rare clinical entities associated with blunt thoracoabdominal injuries. To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two clinical entities as a result of a motor vehicle accident has not been previously reported.
  15. Liam CK, Goh CT, Isahak M, Lim KH, Wong CM
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2001 Jun;19(2):79-83.
    PMID: 11699724
    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between asthma symptoms and the degree of airway obstruction as measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in a group of 64 asthmatic patients with clinically stable disease attending a university-based urban asthma clinic. Asthma symptoms did not correlate with the degree of airway obstruction as measured by prebronchodilator PEFR (total asthma symptom score vs PEFR: r = -0.214, p = 0.104, n = 59) and only correlated poorly with prebronchodilator FEV1 (total asthma symptom score vs FEV1: r = -0.256, p = 0.041, n = 64). These results lend support to the recommendation that airway obstruction should be measured objectively when assessing patients with chronic persistent asthma.
    Study site: Asthma clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  16. Lim KH, Tan LH, Liam CK, Wong CM
    Chest, 2001 Nov;120(5):1728-31.
    PMID: 11713160
  17. Lim KH, Liam CK, Vasudevan AE, Wong CM
    Respirology, 1999 Sep;4(3):299-301.
    PMID: 10489679 DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1843.1999.00195.x
    A 62-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of chronic non-productive cough and unexplained fever. Further questioning revealed that he had headaches and myalgia. Bilateral thickened temporal arteries were noted on physical examination. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 96 mm in 1 h. A biopsy specimen of the left temporal artery showed inflammatory changes consistent with the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Commencement of prednisolone resulted in rapid and dramatic resolution of his symptoms. Physicians should be aware of respiratory symptoms in patients with giant cell arteritis in order to avoid delay in diagnosis and therapy of this condition.
  18. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM, Tang BG
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 1999 Apr;3(4):300-9.
    PMID: 10206500
    SETTING: An urban university teaching hospital.
    OBJECTIVES: To determine patients' attitudes to tuberculosis and their knowledge of the disease, and factors associated with treatment compliance.
    DESIGN: All adult patients commenced on treatment for tuberculosis from September 1994 to February 1996 were interviewed on initiation of treatment. To assess patient compliance with treatment, hospital clinical records were reviewed retrospectively.
    RESULTS: A total of 135 patients with a mean age (±SD) of 41.9 (±17.4) years (range 15–84 years) were interviewed. The patients had limited understanding and knowledge about tuberculosis. There was a negative correlation between patient age and tuberculosis knowledge score (r = −0.18, P = 0.038). Patients with tertiary education had better knowledge than the others. Of 118 patients who were followed-up in our chest clinic, 80 (67.8%) completed the prescribed treatment. Compliance with treatment and follow-up was not affected by age, sex, ethnic group, educational level, occupation, extent of knowledge, tuberculosis symptoms, hospitalisation for tuberculosis or duration of the prescribed treatment regimen. There was a trend toward poorer compliance among patients who equated disappearance of tuberculosis symptoms with cure of the disease.
    CONCLUSIONS: Malaysian patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis attending a university teaching hospital had misconceptions and limited knowledge about the disease and its treatment. Educational background was an important determinant of a patient's level of knowledge about tuberculosis. Compliance was not affected by patient characteristics. Adequate counselling and education of patients and close relatives on tuberculosis and the necessity for prolonged treatment may help to improve treatment compliance.
    Study site: Chest clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  19. Wong CM, Lim KH, Liam CK
    Respirology, 2003 Mar;8(1):65-8.
    PMID: 12856744
    OBJECTIVE: In southeast Asia, pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequently presumed diagnosis for haemoptysis. This study was designed to assess the causes of haemoptysis, the diagnostic yield of causes in different diagnostic modalities and the distribution of older patients.

    METHODS: All patients presenting to the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia with haemoptysis were recruited prospectively and evaluated.

    RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients were evaluated for haemoptysis; 71 (44.4%) were aged 60 years or more. Significantly more patients smoked in the older age group (P = 0.002). The main causes of haemoptysis in the older patients were bronchogenic carcinoma (49.3%), pneumonia (11.3%), bronchiectasis (8.6%), cryptogenic (5.6%) and active TB (4.2%). Significantly more older patients had carcinoma (P < 0.001), while the younger patients more often had TB (P < 0.001). Chest pain was significantly more common in the older patients (P = 0.025), particularly in patients with carcinoma. Bronchoscopy alone or combined with CT of the thorax was significantly more diagnostic in the older patient (P = 0.006).

    CONCLUSION: Bronchogenic carcinoma is the commonest cause of haemoptysis in patients aged 60 years and above. Presumptive anti-TB therapy should not be encouraged despite the regional high prevalence of TB.

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