Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Chang CH, Riazi M, Yunus MH, Osman S, Noordin R
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2014 Dec;80(4):278-81.
    PMID: 25241641 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.08.012
    This study evaluated 2 rapid leptospirosis serological tests, Leptorapide® (Linnodee, Northern Ireland) and VISITECT®-LEPTO (Omega Diagnostics, Scotland, UK), which are commonly used in Malaysia. A total of 183 samples comprised 113 sera from leptospirosis patients, and 70 sera from other infections and healthy controls were used. The leptospirosis sera were grouped into 2 serum panels, i.e., Group I (MAT+, PCR+) and Group II (MAT+). When inconclusive results were interpreted as positives, both tests showed lower diagnostic sensitivities (≤ 34%) with Group I sera, as compared to Group II sera (Leptorapide®, 93%; VISITECT®-LEPTO, 40%). When inconclusive results were interpreted as negatives, the 2 tests showed ~20% sensitivity with both serum panels. The diagnostic specificity of VISITECT®-LEPTO (94%) was superior to Leptorapide® (69%). Since both tests had misdiagnosed a large proportion of Group I patients and showed many inconclusive results among Group II patients, they have limited diagnostic value in detecting acute leptospirosis.
  2. Rahumatullah A, Lim TS, Yunus MH, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2019 08;101(2):436-440.
    PMID: 31162018 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0034
    Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease responsible for morbidity and disability that affects 1.2 billion people worldwide, mainly the poor communities. Currently, filarial antigen testing is the method of choice for the detection of bancroftian filariasis, and to date, there are two commonly used tests. In the present study, a recently reported recombinant monoclonal antibody (5B) specific to BmSXP filarial antigen was used in developing an ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen in sera of patients with bancroftian filariasis. The performance of the ELISA was evaluated using 124 serum samples. The ELISA was positive with all sera from microfilaremic bancroftian filariasis patients (n = 34). It also showed 100% diagnostic specificity when tested with sera from 50 healthy individuals and 40 patients with other parasitic diseases. The developed assay using the novel 5B recombinant monoclonal antibody could potentially be a promising alternative antigen detection test for bancroftian filariasis.
  3. Rahumatullah A, Yunus MH, Tye GJ, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020 03;102(3):578-581.
    PMID: 31933469 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0777
    This study investigated the applications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) produced against two recombinant filarial proteins of diagnostic value. Ab5B and Ab3A were produced against recombinant BmSXP, and Ab4 and Ab4-fragment crystallizable (Fc) against recombinant BmR1. Ab5B and Ab4-Fc were found to be useful as quality control (QC) reagents for two commercial rapid test kits, such as Brugia RapidTM and BLF Rapid® (Reszon Diagnostics International Sdn. Bhd., 47600 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia), respectively. The two rmAbs reacted positively with the corresponding recombinant proteins lined on the nitrocellulose strips of the cassette tests, thus may replace or reduce the need for patient serum samples as positive controls for QC of the commercial kits. They were also successfully conjugated to gold nanoparticles and reacted positively with the test lines containing the corresponding recombinant proteins when directly applied to the cassette tests. The gold-conjugated reagents can be used to confirm the antigenicity of test lines after the storage of the rapid tests for a prolonged period or under unfavorable conditions. Furthermore, Ab5B and Ab3A were shown to be able to capture the target recombinant proteins through immunoaffinity purification, enabling their use for applications that need very highly purified proteins. In conclusion, this study demonstrated several potential uses of rmAb proteins produced against recombinant filarial proteins.
  4. Noordin R, Yunus MH, Tan Farrizam SN, Arifin N
    Adv Parasitol, 2020;109:131-152.
    PMID: 32381194 DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.003
    Toxocariasis is a human infection primarily caused by larvae of Toxocara canis from dogs, and also by T. cati from cats. Children have a more significant risk of acquiring the infection due to their closer contact with pets, and greater chances of ingesting soil. Diagnosis of toxocariasis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and serological data. Indirect IgG ELISA is a widely used serodiagnostic method for toxocariasis, with native T. canis TES most commonly used as the antigen. Western blots, using the same antigen, can be used to confirm positive ELISA findings to reduce false-positive results. Improvements in Toxocara serodiagnosis include the use of recombinant TES antigens, simpler and more rapid assay formats, and IgG4 subclass detection. Also, incorporation of recombinant T. cati TES protein increases the diagnostic sensitivity. Development of antigen detection tests using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, nanobodies, or aptamers can complement the antibody detection assays, and enhance the effectiveness of the serodiagnosis.
  5. Teh AY, Amerizadeh A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Noordin R
    Pathog Glob Health, 2016 Oct-Dec;110(7-8):277-286.
    PMID: 27697019
    The IgG avidity assay is an important tool in the management of suspected toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. This study aimed to produce new Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins and to assess their usefulness in an IgG avidity assay. Toxoplasma positive and negative serum samples were used, the former were categorized into low (LGA) and high (HGA) IgG avidity samples. Immunoblots were performed on 30 T. gondii cDNA clones to determine the reactivity and IgG avidity to the expressed proteins. Two of the clones were found to have diagnostic potential and were analyzed further; AG12b encoded T. gondii apical complex lysine methyltransferase (AKMT) protein and AG18 encoded T. gondii forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-containing protein. The His-tagged recombinant proteins, rAG12b and rAG18, were expressed and tested with LGA and HGA samples using an IgG avidity western blot and ELISA. With the IgG avidity western blot, rAG12b identified 86.4% of LGA and 90.9% of HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 81.8% of both LGA and HGA samples. With the IgG avidity ELISA, rAG12b identified 86.4% of both LGA and HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 77.3% of LGA and 86.4% of HGA serum samples. This study showed that the recombinant antigens were able to differentiate low avidity and high avidity serum samples, suggesting that they are potential candidates for use in the Toxoplasma IgG avidity assay.
  6. Khanbabaie S, Riazi M, Chang CH, Yunus MH, Noordin R
    Acta Trop, 2019 Feb;190:171-176.
    PMID: 30458123 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.11.018
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution and is a major public health problem in some areas. Diagnosis of CE is mainly based on clinical symptoms, imaging and serological testing, however, improvement in serodiagnosis is still needed. This study was aimed at detecting circulating Echinococcus antigen in CE patients using a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) assay. Three types of hydatid antigens i.e. hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), native antigen B (nAgB) and recombinant antigen B (rAgB) were prepared and polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised against each antigen. Purified IgG fractions were prepared and a portion was conjugated to gold nanoparticles. After a series of optimizations, a final antigen detection LFD assay was developed using a combination of anti-nAgB-IgG and gold-conjugated anti-HCF-IgG. Evaluation of the assay showed that 27 out of 35 (77%) serum samples from CE patients gave positive results. Meanwhile, the test showed a diagnostic specificity of 82% when tested with sera from 38 healthy individuals and 13 patients with other parasitic diseases. In conclusion, the antigen detection LFD assay seemed to be useful for diagnosis of CE and possibly for post-treatment follow-up, and merit further evaluation studies. We foresee that it may improve serodiagnosis of CE when used in tandem with an antibody detection test.
  7. Yunus MH, Arifin N, Balachandra D, Anuar NS, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2019 08;101(2):432-435.
    PMID: 31218996 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0053
    The conventional method of detecting Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples has poor diagnostic sensitivity. Detection of Strongyloides-specific antibodies increases the sensitivity; however, most tests are ELISAs that use parasite extract which may cross-react with the sera of other helminth infections. To improve the serological diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, this study aimed at developing a sensitive and specific lateral flow rapid dipstick test. Two recombinant proteins, recombinant NIE (rNIE) and recombinant Ss1a (rSs1a), were used in preparing the dipstick, with gold-conjugated antihuman IgG4 as detector reagent. In parallel, the corresponding ELISA was performed. Both assays demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity of 91.3% (21/23) when tested with serum samples of patients with Strongyloides infection, and 100% specificity with 82 sera of asymptomatic (healthy) and those with other parasitic infections. The ELISA and dipstick test results were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.6114, P = 0.0019). The developed lateral flow dipstick test may improve the serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis and merit further validation studies.
  8. Yunus MH, Tan Farrizam SN, Abdul Karim IZ, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2018 01;98(1):32-38.
    PMID: 29141740 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0632
    Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit. Using Toxocara-positive samples, the concordance of the dipstick dotted with rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120 was 41.4% (12/29), 51.7% (15/29), and 72.4% (21/29), respectively. When positivity with any dipstick was considered as an overall positive rapid test result, the concordance with the Cypress kit was 93% (27/29). Meanwhile, when compared with the results of the Cypress kit, the concordance of IgG-ELISA from NovaTec and Bordier was 100% (29/29) and 89.7% (26/29), respectively. Specific IgG4 has been recognized as a marker of active infection for several helminthic diseases; therefore, the two non-concordant results of the rapid test when compared with the NovaTec IgG-ELISA kit may be from samples of people with non-active infection. All the three dipsticks showed 100% (50/50) concordance with the Cypress kit when tested with serum from individuals who were healthy and with other infections. In conclusion, the lateral flow rapid test is potentially a good, fast, and easy test for toxocariasis. Next, further validation studies and development of a test with the three antigens in one dipstick will be performed.
  9. Noordin R, Mohd Zain SN, Yunus MH, Sahimin N
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2017 08 01;111(8):370-372.
    PMID: 29206992 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trx062
    Background: Malaysia aims to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by the year 2020, thus the potential threat of LF from migrant workers needs to be investigated.

    Methods: Brugian and bancroftian filariasis among 484 migrant workers from six countries were investigated using rapid tests based on detection of specific IgG4 antibodies against BmR1 (Brugia Rapid) and BmSXP recombinant antigens.

    Results: The seroprevalence of brugian filariasis was very low; however, bancroftian filariasis was notable among workers from India, Nepal and Myanmar.

    Conclusion: Malaysia is not endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti, but harbors the vectors for the parasite, thus the results showed that migrant workers should be monitored for this infection.

  10. Batarfi WA, Mohd Yunus MH, Hamid AA
    Molecules, 2023 Mar 15;28(6).
    PMID: 36985625 DOI: 10.3390/molecules28062652
    Skin wound healing is a multiphase physiological process that involves the activation of numerous types of cells and is characterized by four phases, namely haemostasis, inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. However, on some occasions this healing becomes pathological, resulting in fibrosis. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal fibroblast-like characteristics. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic compound extracted from olive oil and has been proven to have several health benefits. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HT in type II EMT in human skin wound healing via cell viability, proliferation, migration, and proteins expression. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) isolated from skin samples were cultured in different concentrations of HT and EMT model, induced by adding 5 ng/mL of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) to the cells. HT concentrations were determined via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cells' migrations were evaluated using scratch and transwell migration assay. Protein expressions were evaluated via immunocytochemistry. The result showed that HT at 0.2% and 0.4% significantly increased the proliferation rate of HDF (p < 0.05) compared to control. Scratch assay after 24 h showed increased cell migration in cells treated with 0.4% HT (p < 0.05) compared to the other groups. After 48 h, both concentrations of HT showed increased cell migration (p < 0.05) compared to the TGF-β group. Transwell migration revealed that HT enhanced the migration capacity of cells significantly (p < 0.05) as compared to TGF-β and the control group. In addition, HT supplemented cells upregulate the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin while downregulating the expression of mesenchymal marker vimentin in comparison to TGF-β group and control group. This study showed that HT has the ability to inhibit EMT, which has potential in the inhibition of fibrosis and persistent inflammation related to skin wound healing.
  11. Khalilpour A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Santhanam A, Vellasamy N, Noordin R
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:809.
    PMID: 25406411 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-809
    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen and during the process of infection, antigens from the bacterium elicit strong host humoral immune responses. In our previous report, native H. pylori UreG protein showed good reactivity with sera from H. pylori patients. This study was aimed at producing the recombinant form of the protein (rUreG) and determining its seroreactivities.
  12. Khalilpour A, Sadjjadi SM, Moghadam ZK, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Osman S, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2014 Nov;91(5):994-9.
    PMID: 25200268 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0170
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus is of major concern for humans in many parts of the world. Antigen B was prepared from E. granulosus hydatid fluid, and Western blots confirmed eight batches showing a band corresponding to the 8-/12-kDa subunit with positive serum and no low-molecular mass band (< 15 kDa) with negative serum. The batches were pooled and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgG dipsticks. Diagnostic sensitivity was determined using serum samples from 21 hydatidosis patients, and diagnostic specificity was established using sera from 17 individuals infected with other parasites and 15 healthy people. IgG4 dipstick had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95% (20 of 21) and a specificity of 100% (32 of 32). The IgG dipstick had a sensitivity of 100% (21 of 21) and a specificity of 87.5% (28 of 32). Thus, both IgG and IgG4 dipsticks had high sensitivities, but IgG4 had greater specificity for the diagnosis of human CE.
  13. Saidin S, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Razak KA, Huat LB, Othman N, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2014 Apr 04;14:182.
    PMID: 24708664 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-182
    BACKGROUND: Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common clinical manifestation of extraintestinal amoebiasis especially in developing countries, causing up to 100 000 fatal cases annually. Accurate and early diagnosis is important to prevent the disease complications, however its diagnosis still poses many challenges due to the limitations of the available detection tools. Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), an excretory-secretory protein of E. histolytica, has been reported as a potential diagnostic marker for ALA, hence it may be exploited in the development of a new test for ALA.

    METHODS: Recombinant PPDK (rPPDK) was expressed, purified and evaluated by Western blot. In parallel, recombinant galactose-and-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine inhibitable lectin (Gal/GalNAc lectin) was produced and tested similarly. The protein identity was confirmed by analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF. A lateral flow dipstick (LFD) test using rPPDK was subsequently developed (rPPDK-LFD) and evaluated for serodiagnosis of ALA.

    RESULTS: rPPDK was expressed as soluble protein after 4 hours of induction with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at 30°C. Purification using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) resin yielded 1.5 mg of rPPDK from 1 L of culture with estimated molecular mass of 98 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Western blots using sera from patients with ALA, healthy individuals and other diseases probed with anti-human IgG4-HRP showed the highest sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (100%); as compared to blots using IgG and IgG1 as secondary antibodies. Moreover, rPPDK showed better specificity when compared to rGal/GalNAc lectin. In the development of the LFD test, the optimum amount of rPPDK was 0.625 μg per dipstick and the optimum working concentration of colloidal gold conjugated anti-human IgG4 was optical density (OD) 5 (1.7 μg of anti-human IgG4). Evaluation of rPPDK-LFD using ALA patients and controls serum samples showed 87% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% specificity.

    CONCLUSION: The developed rPPDK-LFD showed good potential for rapid diagnosis of ALA, and merit further multicentre validation using larger number of serum samples.

  14. Fong MY, Noordin R, Lau YL, Cheong FW, Yunus MH, Idris ZM
    Parasitology, 2013 Jan;140(1):39-45.
    PMID: 22917270 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182012001242
    Brugia malayi is one of the parasitic worms which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Its geographical distribution includes a large part of Asia. Despite its wide distribution, very little is known about the genetic variation and molecular epidemiology of this species. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nucleotide sequences of B. malayi from microfilaria-positive human blood samples in Northeast Borneo Island were determined, and compared with published ITS1 sequences of B. malayi isolated from cats and humans in Thailand. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that B. malayi ITS1 sequences from Northeast Borneo were more similar to each other than to those from Thailand. Phylogenetic trees inferred using Neighbour-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods showed similar topology, with 2 distinct B. malayi clusters. The first cluster consisted of Northeast Borneo B. malayi isolates, whereas the second consisted of the Thailand isolates. The findings of this study suggest that B. malayi in Borneo Island has diverged significantly from those of mainland Asia, and this has implications for the diagnosis of B. malayi infection across the region using ITS1-based molecular techniques.
  15. Zahabiun F, Sadjjadi SM, Yunus MH, Rahumatullah A, Moghaddam MH, Saidin S, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2015 Aug;93(2):319-25.
    PMID: 26033026 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0190
    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis.
  16. Chua KH, Mohamed IN, Mohd Yunus MH, Shafinaz Md Nor N, Kamil K, Ugusman A, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2021;12:633292.
    PMID: 34025406 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.633292
    Edible bird's nest (BN) is a Chinese traditional medicine with innumerable health benefits, including anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. A small number of studies have reported the anti-viral effects of EBN against influenza infections using in vitro and in vivo models, highlighting the importance of sialic acid and thymol derivatives in their therapeutic effects. At present, studies have reported that EBN suppresses the replicated virus from exiting the host cells, reduces the viral replication, endosomal trafficking of the virus, intracellular viral autophagy process, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reorient the actin cytoskeleton of the infected cells, and increase the lysosomal degradation of viral materials. In other models of disease, EBN attenuates oxidative stress-induced cellular apoptosis, enhances proliferation and activation of B-cells and their antibody secretion. Given the sum of its therapeutic actions, EBN appears to be a candidate that is worth further exploring for its protective effects against diseases transmitted through air droplets. At present, anti-viral drugs are employed as the first-line defense against respiratory viral infections, unless vaccines are available for the specific pathogens. In patients with severe symptoms due to exacerbated cytokine secretion, anti-inflammatory agents are applied. Treatment efficacy varies across the patients, and in times of a pandemic like COVID-19, many of the drugs are still at the experimental stage. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects of EBN, chemical constituents from various EBN preparation techniques, and drugs currently used to treat influenza and novel coronavirus infections. We also aim to review the pathogenesis of influenza A and coronavirus, and the potential of EBN in their clinical application. We also describe the current literature in human consumption of EBN, known allergenic or contaminant presence, and the focus of future direction on how these can be addressed to further improve EBN for potential clinical application.
  17. Khan AH, Khanbabaie S, Yunus MH, Mohd Zain SN, Mohd Baharudeen Z, Sahimin N, et al.
    J Immigr Minor Health, 2020 Oct;22(5):1105-1108.
    PMID: 32445161 DOI: 10.1007/s10903-020-01029-y
    Hydatid disease is not endemic in Malaysia; however, its migrant workers originate from neighboring countries where the disease is prevalent. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating the seroprevalence of hydatid disease among the workers. A total of 479 migrant workers were screened for hydatid disease. The sociodemographic information was collected, and serum samples were tested with a rapid dipstick test for hydatid disease called Hyd Rapid™. The present study showed that 13.6% of the migrant workers were found to be seropositive for hydatid disease. The highest seroprevalence was seen among Indian workers (29.41%), followed by Myanmarese (21.43%), Bangladeshis (14.92%), Nepalese (10.68%), and Indonesian (10.66%). This is the first study that highlights the likely presence of hydatid disease among the migrant workers in Malaysia, which may be of interest to the health authorities.
  18. Sahimin N, Yunus MH, Douadi B, Yvonne Lim AL, Noordin R, Behnke JM, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Dec 01;36(4):1014-1026.
    PMID: 33597471
    The influx of low skilled migrant workers to Malaysia from low socio-economic countries where gastrointestinal parasitic infections are prevalent has raised concerns about transmission to the local population. Three methods for detection (serology, microscopy and molecular techniques) were utilized to identify Entamoeba infections amongst the targeted cohort and determine risk factors associated with infection. Serological screening of 484 migrant workers from five working sectors in Peninsular Malaysia using IgG4 ELISA based on the rPPDK antigen showed an overall seroprevalence of 7.4% (n = 36; CL95 = 5.3-10.1%) with only one factor statistically associated with seropositivity of anti-amoebic antibodies, i.e. years of residence in Malaysia (χ2 1 = 4.007, p = 0.045). Microscopic examination of 388 faecal samples for protozoan cysts and trophozoites showed a slightly higher prevalence (11.6%; n=45; CL95: 8.4-14.8%). Meanwhile, amplification of the 16S rDNA gene detected two species i.e. Entamoeba dispar (23/388; 5.9%; CL95: 3.6-8.3%) and E. histolytica (11/388; 2.8%; CL95: 1.2-4.5%) and mixed infections with both parasites in only three samples (3/388; 0.8%; CL95: 0.2-2.2%). Entamoeba dispar infection was significantly associated with those employed in food and domestic services (χ2 4 = 12.879, p = 0.012). However, none of the factors affected the prevalence of E. histolytica infection. Despite the low prevalence of E. histolytica in faecal samples of the study cohort, the presence of this pathogenic parasite still poses potential public health risks and calls for tighter control strategies based on better availability of chemotherapeutic treatment and accessibility to appropriate health education.
  19. Vola A, Tamarozzi F, Noordin R, Yunus MH, Khanbabaie S, De Silvestri A, et al.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2018 Sep;92(1):31-33.
    PMID: 29776711 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.04.007
    Rapid diagnostic tests for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are convenient to support ultrasound diagnosis in uncertain cases, especially in resource-limited settings. We found comparable diagnostic performances of the experimental Hyd Rapid Test and the commercial VIRapid HYDATIDOSIS Test, used in our diagnostic laboratory, using samples from well-characterized hepatic CE cases.
  20. Saidin S, Yunus MH, Othman N, Lim YA, Mohamed Z, Zakaria NZ, et al.
    Pathog Glob Health, 2017 May;111(3):128-136.
    PMID: 28335696 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2017.1300421
    Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml-1. Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml-1. The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.
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