Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:146723.
    PMID: 25110655 DOI: 10.1155/2014/146723
    A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.
  2. Fadilah NIM, Rahman MBA, Yusof LM, Mustapha NM, Ahmad H
    Pharmaceutics, 2021 Feb 01;13(2).
    PMID: 33535623 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13020193
    The standard treatment of open wounds via the direct usage of therapeutic agents is not without limitations with respect to healing. Small peptides can create a favorable milieu for accelerating the healing of wounds. This study presents the potential of a novel fatty acid conjugated tetrapeptide (palmitic acid-glycine-aspartic acid-proline-histidine; Palmitoyl-GDPH) in alleviating wound healing. Tetracycline was employed as a standard control drug following its significance in wound healing including biologically active and antimicrobial effects. The peptide in liquid form was applied on to a 4 cm2 full thickness wound surgically induced at the dorsum of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The in vivo wound treatment with Palmitoyl-GDPH for eighteen days, histologically demonstrated an almost perfect healing exhibited by increased re-epithelialization, enhanced collagen deposition, and diminished scar formation compared to the controls. In addition, the well-developed epidermal-dermal junction and ultimate stimulation of hair follicle-growth in the Palmitoyl-GDPH treated group indicated the wound to have healed as functionally viable tissues. In general, the much lower hemogram values in the Palmitoyl-GDPH group indicated that the ongoing healing is en route to an earlier recovery. Additionally, the liver, kidney, and pancreas function biomarkers being within normal limits indicated the relatively non-toxic nature of Palmitoyl-GDPH at the used dosage. These results indisputably supported the great potential of this newly synthesized Palmitoyl-GDPH to be used as an effective therapeutic agent for wound healing (this actually means creating a new wound).
  3. Wenliang F, Rameli MABP, Ibrahim TAT, Noor MHM, Yusof LM, Zakaria MZAB
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2019 Aug;107(6):1898-1907.
    PMID: 30597760 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34282
    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective and commonly used anthracycline anticancer drug for the treatment of osteosarcoma (OS). However, its antitumor effect is hampered by the nonspecific distribution and significant adverse effects. Nanoparticles based drug delivery systems are promising approaches to maximize the anticancer efficacy while decrease the side effects. In this study, biogenic aragonite nanoparticles (ANPs) were developed from cockle shells and loaded with DOX. An orthotopic rat OS model was induced by UMR-106 cells tibia cavity injection. The anticancer efficacy study included five groups: normal control group, OS model group, free DOX group (2 mg/kg), DOX-ANPs 1 group (2 mg of equivalent DOX/kg) and DOX-ANPs 2 group (1.5 mg of equivalent DOX/kg). This study demonstrates that the DOX-ANPs treatment groups can significantly reduce the tumor volume and increase the surviving ratio as compared to the OS model group. In addition, these two DOX-ANPs groups showed less toxicity to the normal organs compared to the free DOX group. Furthermore, DOX-ANPs 2 group showed the similar anticancer efficacy as DOX-ANPs 1 group, which suggested that DOX loaded onto the ANPs may allow the reduction of chemotherapy doses. These results highlight the promising application of ANPs derived from cockle shells as an effective drug delivery system for a successful chemotherapy against OS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 1898-1907, 2019.
  4. Handool KO, Ibrahim SM, Kaka U, Omar MA, Abu J, Yusoff MSM, et al.
    J Exp Orthop, 2018 May 02;5(1):13.
    PMID: 29721763 DOI: 10.1186/s40634-018-0128-6
    BACKGROUND: The use of a closed fracture model has become the preferred model to study the fracture healing process, given that the periosteum and the soft tissue surrounding the fracture site play an important role in the fracture healing process. Some techniques like osteotomy, drilling the long bones and the use of the guillotine-like apparatus to induce fracture are characterized by some undesirable effects and complications. The aim of this study is to optimize and evaluate an in vivo fracture model using three-point bending pliers that can be used to study secondary bone fracture healing in rats.

    METHODS: Modified three-point bending pliers were used as a device to create the closed rat tibial bone fracture that was prefixed with an intramedullary pin (23 G × 11/2″) in rats. The exact location of the induced closed fracture was along the long bone. The presence of bone comminution, and the fracture bone alignment were immediately examined after the induction of the fracture until the 6th week.

    RESULTS: All fractures induced were transverse, located in the middle to proximal one third of the tibia, and they all healed without complications. Bone union as shown radiographically occurred within 2-3 weeks postoperative. The average angle of the fracture line with the axis of the tibia was 89.41 ± 2.11°. The lateral and anterio-posterior pin angulation views were 167.33 ± 3.67° and 161.60 ± 4.87° respectively. The average length of proximal end of the fractured bone in comparison with the whole length of intact bone was 41.02 ± 3.27%. There was a significant difference in percentage of the gross callus area and gross callus index, while there was no significant difference in X-ray callus index. There was no significant difference of the gross callus area between slight comminution (n = 4) and non comminution (n = 21).

    CONCLUSION: The optimized rat tibial fracture model resulted in mainly transverse tibial mid-shaft fractures with minimal bone comminution and absence of surrounding soft tissue damage. The size area of consequent soft callus formation and the extent to which the closed fracture model was reproducible are very good outcomes making it feasible for in vivo laboratory research use.

  5. Abolfathi M, Mohd-Yusof BN, Hanipah ZN, Mohd Redzwan S, Yusof LM, Khosroshahi MZ
    Complement Ther Med, 2020 Jan;48:102273.
    PMID: 31987257 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102273
    OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects of carnitine supplementation on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of carnitine supplementation on liver function, lipid profile, body mass index, body weight, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were performed. Only randomized placebo-controlled human studies that examined the effects of carnitine supplementation on liver function, lipid profile, body mass index, body weight, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance up to September 2019 were included. Fixed effects or random-effects models were applied to compute the pooled effect size. Heterogeneity assessments were performed using Cochran's Q test and I-squared statistics. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Jaded scale.

    RESULTS: A total of 5 articles were selected, including 334 individuals (167 in control and 167 in intervention groups). The results demonstrated that carnitine supplementation significantly reduced homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.91; 95 % CI: -1.11, -0.72; p 

  6. Mahmood SK, Zakaria MZAB, Razak ISBA, Yusof LM, Jaji AZ, Tijani I, et al.
    Biochem Biophys Rep, 2017 Jul;10:237-251.
    PMID: 28955752 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2017.04.008
    The demands for applicable tissue-engineered scaffolds that can be used to repair load-bearing segmental bone defects (SBDs) is vital and in increasing demand. In this study, seven different combinations of 3 dimensional (3D) novel nanocomposite porous structured scaffolds were fabricated to rebuild SBDs using an extraordinary blend of cockle shells (CaCo3) nanoparticles (CCN), gelatin, dextran and dextrin to structure an ideal bone scaffold with adequate degradation rate using the Freeze Drying Method (FDM) and labeled as 5211, 5400, 6211, 6300, 7101, 7200 and 8100. The micron sized cockle shells powder obtained (75 µm) was made into nanoparticles using mechano-chemical, top-down method of nanoparticles synthesis with the presence of the surfactant BS-12 (dodecyl dimethyl bataine). The phase purity and crystallographic structures, the chemical functionality and the thermal characterization of the scaffolds' powder were recognized using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) respectively. Characterizations of the scaffolds were assessed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Degradation Manner, Water Absorption Test, Swelling Test, Mechanical Test and Porosity Test. Top-down method produced cockle shell nanoparticles having averagely range 37.8±3-55.2±9 nm in size, which were determined using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). A mainly aragonite form of calcium carbonate was identified in both XRD and FTIR for all scaffolds, while the melting (Tm) and transition (Tg) temperatures were identified using DSC with the range of Tm 62.4-75.5 °C and of Tg 230.6-232.5 °C. The newly prepared scaffolds were with the following characteristics: (i) good biocompatibility and biodegradability, (ii) appropriate surface chemistry and (iii) highly porous, with interconnected pore network. Engineering analyses showed that scaffold 5211 possessed 3D interconnected homogenous porous structure with a porosity of about 49%, pore sizes ranging from 8.97 to 337 µm, mechanical strength 20.3 MPa, Young's Modulus 271±63 MPa and enzymatic degradation rate 22.7 within 14 days.
  7. Chemmalar S, Intan-Shameha AR, Abdullah CAC, Ab Razak NA, Yusof LM, Ajat M, et al.
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2021 Aug 02;11(8).
    PMID: 34443820 DOI: 10.3390/nano11081988
    Calcium carbonate has slowly paved its way into the field of nanomaterial research due to its inherent properties: biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity, and slow biodegradability. In our efforts to synthesize calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CSCaCO3NP) from blood cockle shells (Anadara granosa), we developed a simple method to synthesize CSCaCO3NP, and loaded them with gefitinib (GEF) and paclitaxel (PTXL) to produce mono drug-loaded GEF-CSCaCO3NP, PTXL-CSCaCO3NP, and dual drug-loaded GEF-PTXL-CSCaCO3NP without usage of toxic chemicals. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results reveal that the drugs are bound to CSCaCO3NP. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal that the CSCaCO3NP, GEF-CSCaCO3NP, PTXL-CSCaCO3NP, and GEF-PTXL-CSCaCO3NP are almost spherical nanoparticles, with a diameter of 63.9 ± 22.3, 83.9 ± 28.2, 78.2 ± 26.4, and 87.2 ± 26.7 (nm), respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and N2 adsorption-desorption experiments revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles are negatively charged and mesoporous, with surface areas ranging from ~8 to 10 (m2/g). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles are aragonite. The CSCaCO3NP show excellent alkalinization property in plasma simulating conditions and greater solubility in a moderately acidic pH medium. The release of drugs from the nanoparticles showed zero order kinetics with a slow and sustained release. Therefore, the physico-chemical characteristics and in vitro findings suggest that the drug loaded CSCaCO3NP represent a promising drug delivery system to deliver GEF and PTXL against breast cancer.
  8. Mohammad A, Falahi E, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Hanipah ZN, Redzwan SM, Yusof LM, et al.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2021 05 31;15(4):102158.
    PMID: 34186370 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.031
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The studies have shown that α-tocopherol supplementation could improve lipid profile in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Nonetheless, the result remains inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of α-tocopherol supplement on lipid parameters in DM patients.

    METHODS: We conducted an extensive search via Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to acquire the reported RCTs up to October 2020.

    RESULTS: The results showed no effects of α-tocopherol supplementation on lipid profile in DM patients except when used ≥12 weeks.

    CONCLUSIONS: α-tocopherol supplementation in DM patients had no significant effect on lipid profiles.

  9. Mahmood SK, Razak IA, Ghaji MS, Yusof LM, Mahmood ZK, Rameli MABP, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:8587-8598.
    PMID: 29238193 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S145663
    The healing of load-bearing segmental defects in long bones is a challenge due to the complex nature of the weight that affects the bone part and due to bending, shearing, axial, and torsional forces. An innovative porous 3D scaffolds implant of CaCO3aragonite nanocomposite derived from cockle shell was advanced for substitute bone solely for load-bearing cases. The biomechanical characteristics of such materials were designed to withstand cortical bone strength. In promoting bone growth to the implant material, an ideal surface permeability was formed by means of freeze drying and by adding copolymers to the materials. The properties of coating and copolymers supplement were also assessed for bone-implant connection resolutions. To examine the properties of the material in advanced biological system, an experimental trial in an animal model was carried out. Critical sized defect of bone was created in rabbit's radial bone to assess the material for a load-bearing application with a short and extended period assessment with histological evaluation of the incorporated implanted material to the bone of the host. Trials in animal models proved that the material has the capability of enduring load-bearing conditions for long-term use devoid of breaking or generating stress that affects the host bone. Histological examination further confirmed the improved integration of the implanted materials to the host bone with profound bone development into and also above the implanted scaffold, which was attained with negligible reaction of the tissues to a foreign implanted material.
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