OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of metformin on parameters involved in testicular lactate production, transport/utilisation, and sexual behaviour in diabetic state.
METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin-treated diabetic group (n = 6/group). Metformin (300 mg/kg b.w./day) was administrated orally for 4 weeks.
RESULTS: Intra-testicular glucose and lactate levels, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity increased, while the mRNA transcript levels of genes responsible for testicular glucose and lactate transport/utilisation (glucose transporter 3, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), MCT2, and LDH type C) decreased in DC group. Furthermore, penile nitric oxide increased, while cyclic guanosine monophosphate decreased, with impaired sexual behaviour in DC group. Treatment with metformin improved these parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: Metformin increases testicular lactate transport/utilisation and improves sexual behaviour in diabetic state.
METHODS: HFD-fed mice were administered MD (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg) or 2 mg/kg metformin (positive control) orally for 16 weeks. Normal diet and HFD-fed control groups received normal saline.
RESULTS: MD dose of 50 mg/kg was better than 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg in significantly reducing weight-gain, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation in liver and kidney, and improving the serum lipid profile. Lowered protein carbonyls and lipid hydroperoxides in urine and tissue homogenates and elevated reduced glutathione, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) levels in tissue homogenates indicated amelioration of oxidative stress.
CONCLUSION: MD has therapeutic value in the prevention and management of obesity, hyperglycaemia, and oxidative stress.
OBJECTIVE: To find out the effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in the healing dynamics of diabetic wounds with particular emphasis on interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumour necrosis factor-α.
METHODS: Scientific databases searched using keywords of the population: DM, intervention: PBMT, and outcomes: inflammatory cytokines.
RESULTS: We have included five preclinical studies in the present systematic review for qualitative analysis. These studies evaluated the effect of PBMT at different wavelengths, dosage, and time on wound healing in DM.
CONCLUSIONS: The systematic review concludes that PBMT regulates inflammatory cytokines levels, enhances cell proliferation, and migration, thereby improving the wound healing properties.