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  1. Mu AK, Lim BK, Aminudin N, Hashim OH, Shuib AS
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2016 Jul;122(3):111-6.
    PMID: 26849673 DOI: 10.3109/13813455.2016.1151441
    Endometrial (ECa), ovarian (OCa) and cervical (CCa) cancers are among 10 of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide. Cancers are known to cause some proteins to be differentially glycosylated or aberrantly excreted in the urine, which can be used as biomarkers. Since ECa, OCa and CCa are difficult to diagnose at the early stage, the aim of the present study was to identify a panel of new biomarkers for early detection of the cancers using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) technology. Identification of early biomarkers that are specific and efficient can increase the survival rate of the patients.
  2. Shamsudin L
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 1998 Jul;106(3):253-60.
    PMID: 10099722
    In the search for better understanding on the nutritional quality of natural tropical plankton, samples were collected from shallow coastal waters facing the South China Sea during the dry monsoon (May-September) and the wet monsoon (November-April) seasons from March 1993 to July 1994. The total fatty acid content of the predominantly phytoplankton communities (25-200 microns sieve nets) varied four to fivefold with the lowest value occurring during the dry monsoon when blue-green became predominant. Saturated fatty acid content (SAFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and total omega 3 (sigma omega 3) showed the same seasonal pattern as the total fatty acid with high values in October to December 1993. When species of the dinoflagellate Peridinium and Ceratium were present in considerable amount, the docosahexaenoic acid DHA content was high, especially from March to May 1993. The maximum content of eicosapentaenoic acid EPA, total omega-3 fatty acid, PUFA and sigma omega 3 in phytoplankton occurred during the pre-monsoon period (October and November 1993) when the diatoms were present in large amounts. The larger fraction sample (> 200 microns sieve nets) which consisted predominantly of zooplankton had high amounts of PUFA from September to November 1993.
  3. Shamsudin L
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 1996;104(1):36-42.
    PMID: 8724878
    Microplanktonic red tide blooms (dominated by dinoflagellates) were observed in brackish water fish ponds of Terengganu between March 1992 to January 1993. The first short-lived bloom (2-3 days) occurred in October 1992 while the second long-lived bloom (6-7 days) occurred in January 1993. The dominant dinoflagellate species comprised of Peridinium quinquecorne (> 90% total cell count) with considerable proportion of Protoperidinium excentricum. Ciliophora consisting of Tintinopsis sp. and Favella sp. were also present during the bloom period. The total ash, chlorophyll, phaeopigment, lipid and fatty acid content of the microplankton were studied. Considerable amounts (6-11% of the total fatty acid) of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 18:3w3 (linolenic acid) were present in the microplankton. However, high amounts of 20:5w3 (eicosapentanoic acid) and 22:6w3 (docosahexaenoic acid) were present with variable but usually high amounts of 22:4w6 and 22:5w6 acids. The latter microplankton bloom contained higher amounts of 20:5w3 and 22:6w3 acids than the earlier bloom. Lipid content were three to five times higher than chlorophyll a. There was an increase with successive day after bloom outbreak in the relative proportion of total C18, C20, and C22 fatty acid components. The algae microplankton contained the w3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) probably needed for the growth and survival rate of grazing pond animals.
  4. Nna VU, Bakar ABA, Ahmad A, Mohamed M
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2020 Dec;126(5):377-388.
    PMID: 30513216 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2018.1543329
    Context: Metformin's effect on glycaemic control is well documented, but its effect on diabetes-induced testicular impairment has been scarcely reported.Objective: To investigate the effects of metformin on testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, which largely contribute to fertility decline in diabetic state.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 6/group) namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin (300 mg/kg b.w./d)-treated diabetic groups. Metformin was administrated for 4 weeks.Results: Decreased mRNA expressions and activities of antioxidant enzymes were seen in the testes of DC group. mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic markers increased, while interleukin-10 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) decreased in the testes of DC group. Treatment with metformin up-regulated antioxidant enzymes, down-regulated inflammation, and apoptosis and increased PCNA immunoexpression in the testes.Conclusions: Metformin protects the testes from diabetes-induced impairment and may improve male reproductive health in diabetic state.
  5. Rehman MU, Rashid SM, Rasool S, Shakeel S, Ahmad B, Ahmad SB, et al.
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2019 Jul;125(3):201-209.
    PMID: 29537332 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2018.1448422
    Development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is directly linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. In this context, inflammatory and oxidative markers have gained much attention as targets for therapeutic intervention. We studied the effect of zingerone in a streptozotocin/high fat diet (STZ/HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rat model. Zingerone also known as vanillyl acetone is a pharmacologically active compound present usually in dry ginger. STZ/HFD caused excessive increase in ROS and inflammation in experimental animals. The treatment with zingerone markedly abrogated ROS levels, inhibited the NF-кB activation and considerably reduced level of other downstream inflammatory molecules (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β), furthermore, zingerone treatment improved renal functioning by significantly decreasing the levels of kidney toxicity markers KIM-1, BUN, creatinine, and LDH and suppressed TGF-β. Collectively, these findings indicate that zingerone treatment improved renal function by anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting the efficacy of zingerone in the treatment of DN.
  6. Nna VU, Abu Bakar AB, Ahmad A, Mohamed M
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2019 May 10.
    PMID: 31072137 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2019.1610778
    CONTEXT: Lactate is the preferred energy substrate for developing testicular germ cells. Diabetes is associated with impaired testicular lactate transport/utilisation, and poor sexual behaviour.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of metformin on parameters involved in testicular lactate production, transport/utilisation, and sexual behaviour in diabetic state.

    METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin-treated diabetic group (n = 6/group). Metformin (300 mg/kg b.w./day) was administrated orally for 4 weeks.

    RESULTS: Intra-testicular glucose and lactate levels, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity increased, while the mRNA transcript levels of genes responsible for testicular glucose and lactate transport/utilisation (glucose transporter 3, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), MCT2, and LDH type C) decreased in DC group. Furthermore, penile nitric oxide increased, while cyclic guanosine monophosphate decreased, with impaired sexual behaviour in DC group. Treatment with metformin improved these parameters.

    CONCLUSIONS: Metformin increases testicular lactate transport/utilisation and improves sexual behaviour in diabetic state.

  7. Eleazu C, Suleiman JB, Othman ZA, Zakaria Z, Nna VU, Hussain NHN, et al.
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2020 Apr 22.
    PMID: 32319823 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2020.1752258
    Context: Global prevalence of obesity is increasing. Objective: To study the effect of bee bread (BB) on serum renal function parameters, oxidative stress, inflammatory and B-cell associated protein X (Bax) in the kidneys of high fat diet (HFD) obese rats. Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Control: received rat diet and water (1 mL/kg); HFD group: received HFD and water (1 mL/kg): bee bread (BB) preventive or orlistat preventive: received HFD and BB (0.5 g/kg) or HFD and orlistat (10 mg/kg); BB or orlistat treatment: received BB (0.5 g/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg). Results: HFD group had increased body weight, Body Mass Index, Lee Obesity Indices, kidney weights, malondialdehyde, inflammatory markers, Bax; decreased glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant activity, no differences (p > .05) in food intakes, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, catalase compared to control. Conclusion: BB modulated most of these parameters, as corroborated by histology.
  8. Irfan HM, Khan NAK, Asmawi MZ
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2020 May 15.
    PMID: 32412306 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2020.1762661
    Background:Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used traditionally for the treatment of different cardio-metabolic disorders. So, the aim was to assess its leaf extracts in metabolic syndrome rat model.Methods: Out of the total 36-rats, 6 rats were given normal matched diet (NMD) while the rest were provided high-fat diet and 20% fructose (HFD-20%F). Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were administered orally for 30 days. Body weight, blood glucose, BMI, blood pressure, lipids, insulin, insulin resistance, MCP-1, visceral fat and liver weight were evaluated.Results: Sixty-days feeding with HFD-20%F produced the metabolic syndrome features like hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), visceral fat, and liver weight significantly (p
  9. Nallappan D, Ong KC, Palanisamy UD, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2020 Aug 19.
    PMID: 32813560 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2020.1808019
    AIM: A high-fat diet (HFD) can lead to obesity and related metabolic disorders. This study evaluated the preventive efficacy of myricetin derivative-rich fraction (MD) from Syzygium malaccense leaf extract against HFD-induced obesity, hyperglycaemia, and oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice.

    METHODS: HFD-fed mice were administered MD (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg) or 2 mg/kg metformin (positive control) orally for 16 weeks. Normal diet and HFD-fed control groups received normal saline.

    RESULTS: MD dose of 50 mg/kg was better than 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg in significantly reducing weight-gain, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation in liver and kidney, and improving the serum lipid profile. Lowered protein carbonyls and lipid hydroperoxides in urine and tissue homogenates and elevated reduced glutathione, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) levels in tissue homogenates indicated amelioration of oxidative stress.

    CONCLUSION: MD has therapeutic value in the prevention and management of obesity, hyperglycaemia, and oxidative stress.

  10. Karkada G, Maiya GA, Houreld NN, Arany P, Rao Kg M, Adiga S, et al.
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2020 Dec 28.
    PMID: 33370535 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2020.1861025
    CONTEXT: Delayed wound healing in diabetes mellitus (DM) is due to the overlapping phases of the healing process. The prolonged inflammation and altered levels of inflammatory cytokines lead to deformed cell proliferation. Photobiomodulation alleviates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and promotes tissue repair, thereby restoring the wound healing process.

    OBJECTIVE: To find out the effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in the healing dynamics of diabetic wounds with particular emphasis on interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumour necrosis factor-α.

    METHODS: Scientific databases searched using keywords of the population: DM, intervention: PBMT, and outcomes: inflammatory cytokines.

    RESULTS: We have included five preclinical studies in the present systematic review for qualitative analysis. These studies evaluated the effect of PBMT at different wavelengths, dosage, and time on wound healing in DM.

    CONCLUSIONS: The systematic review concludes that PBMT regulates inflammatory cytokines levels, enhances cell proliferation, and migration, thereby improving the wound healing properties.

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