Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

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  1. Kingsley B, Kayarohanam S, Brindha P, Subramoniam A
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Apr;10(Suppl 2):S283-7.
    PMID: 24991104 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.133277
    Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana.
  2. Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chiang Chan EW
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Apr;10(Suppl 2):S232-9.
    PMID: 24991097 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.133238
    Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF) activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties.
  3. Emeka PM, Badger-Emeka LI, Eneh CM, Khan TM
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Apr;10(Suppl 2):S357-62.
    PMID: 24991115 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.133282
    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates.
  4. Vijayakumar B, Parasuraman S, Raveendran R, Velmurugan D
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Aug;10(Suppl 3):S639-44.
    PMID: 25298685 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.139809
    Cleistanthins A and B are isolated compounds from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb (Euphorbiaceae). This plant is poisonous in nature which causes cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypotension, nonspecific ST-T changes and QTc prolongation. The biological activity predictions spectra of the compounds show the presence of antihypertensive, diuretic and antitumor activities.
  5. Gundamaraju R, Vemuri RC, Singla RK, Manikam R, Rao AR, Sekaran SD
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Aug;10(Suppl 3):S557-62.
    PMID: 25298674 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.139782
    The myocardium is generally injured in the case of reperfusion injury and arterial damage is caused by hypertension. In reference to these statements, the present study was focused. Cardiac glycosides were said to have protective effects against myocardial infarction and hypertension. Strophanthus hispidus was thus incorporated in the study.
  6. Ooh KF, Ong HC, Wong FC, Sit NW, Chai TT
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Aug;10(Suppl 3):S443-55.
    PMID: 25298659 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.139767
    The phytochemistry and bioactivity of wetland macrophytes are underexplored. Plants are known as the natural sources of phytochemical beneficial to health.
  7. Goh SH, Alitheen NB, Yusoff FM, Yap SK, Loh SP
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Jan;10(37):1-8.
    PMID: 24696543 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.126650
    Marine brown diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans and green microalga Nannochloropsis oculata are beneficial materials for various applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.
  8. Sim KS, Ibrahim H, Malek SN, Syamsir DR, Awang K
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Jan;10(37):70-2.
    PMID: 24695515 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.126666
    Alpinia murdochii (Zingiberaceae) is a wild ginger species restricted to mountain areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Due to rapid development and deforestation activities, this species is becoming rare. This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of A. murdochii.
  9. Yong WK, Ho YF, Malek SN
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2015 Oct;11(Suppl 2):S275-83.
    PMID: 26664015 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.166069
    Xanthohumol, a major prenylated chalcone found in female hop plant, Humulus lupulus, was reported to have various chemopreventive and anti-cancer properties. However, its apoptotic effect on human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was unknown.
  10. Narayanaswamy R, Isha A, Wai LK, Ismail IS
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2016 Jan;12(Suppl 1):S21-6.
    PMID: 27041853 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.176111
    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau has gained popularity among Malaysians as a traditional plant for anti-inflammatory activity.
  11. Wan Nor Hafiza WA, Yazan LS, Tor YS, Foo JB, Armania N, Rahman HS
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2016 Jan;12(Suppl 1):S86-95.
    PMID: 27041866 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.176107
    Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extract of Dillenia suffruticosa (EADS and DCMDS, respectively) can be a potential anticancer agent. The effects of EADS and DCMDS on the growth of HeLa cervical cancer cells and the expression of apoptotic-related proteins had been investigated in vitro. Cytotoxicity of the extracts toward the cells was determined by 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the effects on cell cycle progression and the mode of cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry technique, while the effects on apoptotic-related genes and proteins were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Treatment with DCMDS inhibited (P < 0.05) proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The expression of cyclin B1 was downregulated that led to G2/M arrest in the cells after treatment with DCMDA. In summary, DCMDS induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptotic pathway and dysregulation of mitochondria. The data suggest the potential application of DCMDS in the treatment of cervical cancer.
  12. Wahyuni FS, Shaari K, Stanslas J, Lajis NH, Hamidi D
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2016 Jan;12(Suppl 1):S52-6.
    PMID: 27041859 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.176115
    To isolate compounds from the roots of Garcinia cowa and to evaluated their cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145), and lung (H-460) cell lines.
  13. Fard MT, Arulselvan P, Karthivashan G, Adam SK, Fakurazi S
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2015 Oct;11(Suppl 4):S556-63.
    PMID: 27013794 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.172961
    Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits.
  14. De B, Bhandari K, Singla RK, Katakam P, Samanta T, Kushwaha DK, et al.
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2015 Oct;11(Suppl 4):S522-32.
    PMID: 27013789 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.172956
    Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun are popular Indian medicinal plants with notable hypoglycemic potentials. Now the work reports chemo-profiling of the three species with in-vitro screening approach for natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) against enzymes pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. Further along with the chemometrics optimized extraction process technology, phyto-synergistic studies of the composite polyherbal blends have also been reported.
  15. Ahmed F, Urooj A, Karim AA
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2013 Apr;9(34):130-4.
    PMID: 23772108 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.111265
    Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits.
  16. Siddiqui MJ, Ismail Z, Saidan NH
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2011 Apr;7(26):92-6.
    PMID: 21716929 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.80662
    Vinca rosea (Apocynaceae) is one of the most important and high value medicinal plants known for its anticancer alkaloids. It is the iota of the isolated secondary metabolites used in chemotherapy to treat diverse cancers. Several high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developed to quantify the active alkaloids in the plant. However, this method may serve the purpose in quantification of V. rosea plant extracts in totality.
  17. Suhaimi SA, Hong SL, Abdul Malek SN
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S179-S188.
    PMID: 28808378 DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_432_16
    BACKGROUND: Ruta angustifolia Pers. is a perennial herb that is cultivated worldwide, including Southeast Asia, for the treatment of various diseases as traditional medicine.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify an active principle of R. angustifolia and to investigate its effect on the HT29 cell death.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of R. angustifolia Pers. were initially investigated for their cytotoxic activity against two human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7 and HT29) and a normal human colon fibroblast cell line (CCD-18Co) using sulforhodamine B cytotoxicity assay. Eight compounds including rutamarin were isolated from the active chloroform extract and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line and CCD-18Co noncancer cells. Further studies on the induction of apoptosis such as morphological examinations, biochemical analyses, cell cycle analysis, and caspase activation assay were conducted in rutamarin-treated HT29 cells.

    RESULTS: Rutamarin exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 5.6 μM) but was not toxic to CCD-18Co cells. The morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis including activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9 were observed in rutamarin-treated HT29 cells. These may be associated with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M checkpoints, which was also observed in HT29 cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study describes rutamarin-induced apoptosis in the HT29 cell line for the first time and suggests that rutamarin has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent.

    SUMMARY: Rutamarin was cytotoxic to HT29 colon cancer cells but exerted no damage to normal colon cellsRutamarin induced morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis in HT29 cellsRutamarin induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M checkpoints in a dose-dependent manner in HT29 cellsRutamarin activated caspases 3, 8, and 9 in a dose-dependent manner in HT29 cells. Abbreviations used: ACN: Acetonitrile, ANOVA: One-way analysis of variance, BrdU: Bromodeoxyuridine, 13C-NMR: Carbon-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance, CAD: Caspase-activated endonuclease, CCD-18Co: Human colon normal, DLD1: Human Duke's type C colorectal adenocarcinoma, DMRT: Duncan's multiple range test, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, DR4/5: Death receptor 4/5 protein, EMEM: Eagle's minimum essential media, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, FITC Annexin V: Annexin V conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC-DEVD-FMK: Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of caspase inhibitor Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, FITC-IETD-FMK: Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of caspase inhibitor Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, FITC-LEHD-FMK: Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of caspase inhibitor Leu-Glu-His-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, G0: Quiescent phase of cell cycle, G1: Gap 1 phase of cell cycle, G2: Gap 2 phase of cell cycle, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, HeLa: Human cervical adenocarcinoma, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, HT29: Human colon adenocarcinoma, Huh7.5: Human hepatocellular carcinoma, IC50: Half maximal inhibitory concentration, KSHV: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, M phase: Mitotic phase of cell cycle, MCF7: Human breast adenocarcinoma, NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance, PBS: Phosphate-buffered saline, PI: Propidium iodide, RNase: Ribonuclease, rt: Retention time, S phase: Synthesis phase of cell cycle, SD: Standard deviation, SRB: Sulforhodamine B, TCA: Trichloroacetic acid, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, TNF-R1: Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein, TUNEL: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling, UV: Ultraviolet.

  18. Phang CW, Karsani SA, Abd Malek SN
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S321-S328.
    PMID: 28808400 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.210180
    Chalcones have been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties by targeting multiple molecular pathways. It was, therefore, of interest to investigate flavokawain C (FKC), a naturally occurring chalcone, which can be isolated from Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root extract. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of FKC on the growth of HT-29 cells and its underlying mechanism of action. Cell viability of HT-29 cells was assessed by Sulforhodamine B assay after FKC treatment. Induction of apoptosis was examined by established morphological and biochemical assays. ROS generation was determined by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence staining, and superoxide dismutase activity was measured using the spectrophotometric method. Western blotting was used to examine the changes in the protein levels. FKC markedly decreased the cell viability of HT-29 cells and the cells showed dramatic changes in cellular and nuclear morphologies with typical apoptotic features. The induction of apoptosis correlated well with the externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA fragmentation, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases, and PARP cleavage. This was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in SOD activity. The protein levels of XIAP, c-IAP1, and c-IAP2 were downregulated, whereas the GADD153 was upregulated after FKC treatment. FKC induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2/M phases via upregulation of p21 and p27 in a p53-independent manner. Our results provide evidence that FKC has the potential to be developed into chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of colon adenocarcinoma.

    SUMMARY: Flavokawain C inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cellsFlavokawain C induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells, associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in SOD activityFlavokawain C induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2/M phases via upregulation of p21 and p27 in HT-29 cellsHT-29 cells treated with flavokawain C caused downregulation of XIAP, c-IAP1, and c-IAP2, and upregulation of GADD153. Abbreviations used: FKC: Flavokawain C; SRB: Sulforhodamine B; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; PARP: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; ER: Endoplasmic reticulum; IAPs: Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins; TUNEL: Transferase dUTP nick end labeling; Annexin V-FITC: Annexin V conjugated with fluorescein isothicyanate.

  19. Perumal S, Mahmud R, Ismail S
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S311-S315.
    PMID: 28808398 DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_309_15
    BACKGROUND: The escalating dominance of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains as infectious pathogen had urged the researchers to look for alternative and complementary drugs.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to address the biological targets and probable mechanisms of action underlying the potent antibacterial effect of the isolated compounds from Euphorbia hirta (L.) against P. aeruginosa.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The action mechanisms of caffeic acid (CA) and epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) on P. aeruginosa cells were investigated by several bacterial physiological manifestations involving outer membrane permeabilization, intracellular potassium ion efflux, and nucleotide leakage.

    RESULTS: The findings revealed that ECG and CA targeted both cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of P. aeruginosa. The cellular membrane destruction and ensuing membrane permeability perturbation of P. aeruginosa had led to the ascending access of hydrophobic antibiotics, release of potassium ions, and leakages of nucleotides.

    CONCLUSION: The overall study concludes that ECG and CA isolated from E. hirta possess remarkable anti-infective potentials which can be exploited as drug template for the development of new antibacterial agent against resistant P. aeruginosa pathogen.

    SUMMARY: Epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) and caffeic acid (CA) exhibited remarkable bactericidal abilities by increasing the outer membrane and plasma membrane permeability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenECG and CA had facilitated the entry of hydrophobic antibiotics into P. aeruginosa by disintegrating the lipopolysaccharides layer of the outer membraneECG-induced potassium efflux with efficiency close to that obtained with cefepime suggesting mode of action through membrane disruptionBoth ECG and CA had caused consistent leakage of intracellular nucleotide content with the increase in time. Abbreviations used: ECG: Epicatechin 3-gallate; CA: Caffeic acid; E. hirta: Euphoria hirta.

  20. Afzal S, Batool M, Ch BA, Ahmad A, Uzair M, Afzal K
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S262-S265.
    PMID: 28808390 DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_398_16
    AIMS: The study is conducted to evaluate the immunomodulatory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant potential of Ziziphus mauritiana (Rhamnaceae). Phytochemical analysis of Z. mauritiana revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinone glycoside, cardiac glycoside, saponin, tannin, and flavonoids.

    METHODOLOGY: The cytotoxicity of the plant Z. mauritiana was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test. Antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were calculated in the plasma of rats after chronic administration of 400 mg/kg of Z. mauritiana for 6 weeks.

    RESULTS: The dichloromethane extract of the plant exhibited significant immunomodulatory activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% of 55.43 ± 7.9. The dichloromethane extracts of the plant showed 70% mortality at concentration 1000 μg/ml. SOD and T-AOC levels were increased while MDA level in the plasma was reduced in the plasma of rats treated with dichloromethane Z. mauritiana.

    CONCLUSION: This can be deduced that the root of Z. mauritiana has immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, and antioxidant potential.

    SUMMARY: Roots of Z. mauritiana was exhibited immunomodulator, cytotoxic and antioxidant activitiesZ. mauritiana showed potential antioxidant activity in rats Abbreviations used: SOD: Superoxide dismutase; T-AOC: Total antioxidant capacity; MDA: Malondialdehyde; ZMRD: Z. mauritiana root extract of dichloromethane fraction; LD50: Z. mauritiana root extract of methanol fraction ZMRM, lethal dose 50.

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