Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Ritchie J
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  2. Bell KL, Rangan H, Kull CA, Murphy DJ
    R Soc Open Sci, 2015 Sep;2(9):150370.
    PMID: 26473060 DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150370
    To investigate the pathways of introduction of the African baobab, Adansonia digitata, to the Indian subcontinent, we examined 10 microsatellite loci in individuals from Africa, India, the Mascarenes and Malaysia, and matched this with historical evidence of human interactions between source and destination regions. Genetic analysis showed broad congruence of African clusters with biogeographic regions except along the Zambezi (Mozambique) and Kilwa (Tanzania), where populations included a mixture of individuals assigned to at least two different clusters. Individuals from West Africa, the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia shared a cluster. Baobabs from western and central India clustered separately from Africa. Genetic diversity was lower in populations from the Indian subcontinent than in African populations, but the former contained private alleles. Phylogenetic analysis showed Indian populations were closest to those from the Mombasa-Dar es Salaam coast. The genetic results provide evidence of multiple introductions of African baobabs to the Indian subcontinent over a longer time period than previously assumed. Individuals belonging to different genetic clusters in Zambezi and Kilwa may reflect the history of trafficking captives from inland areas to supply the slave trade between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. Baobabs in the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia indicate introduction from West Africa through eighteenth and nineteenth century European colonial networks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  3. Mohamad, O., Mohd. Nazir, B., Abdul Rahman, M., Herman, S.
    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) from Malvaceae family is an annual crop with potential for use by many industries including food, animal feed, neutraceutical, cosmeticeutical and pharmaceutical industries. Its origin is not fully known but it is believed to be from West Africa, although the plant is found native from India to Southeast Asia. The calyxes, stems and leaves are acid in flavour. The juice is produced from the calyces, and it is claimed to be a prohealth drink due to its high contents of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins and other antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  4. Hawking F
    Bull World Health Organ, 1962;27:555-68.
    PMID: 13953210
    There has been little change since 1955 in the laboratory techniques for seeking new antifilarial compounds, although one valuable addition to laboratory study has been the experimental infection of cats with Brugia malayi.The chief drug for the treatment and control of filariasis-whether caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or by B. malayi-continues to be diethylcarbamazine, and the author reviews the reports recently published on its use. In India and China large-scale campaigns involving the use of this drug have been undertaken; and in Tahiti filariasis has been suppressed and almost eliminated. Campaigns on a smaller scale and pilot projects considered in this survey include those conducted in Pacific islands, Malaya, Ceylon, Brazil, Surinam and East and West Africa.It is generally agreed that the administration of diethylcarbamazine produces a great diminution in the microfilarial counts of those taking it, and in many persons both microfilariae and adult worms are eradicated. The difficulties which arise are due to toxic effects which occur in some recipients and which may adversely affect the acceptability of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  5. Wan Mohamed Noor WN, Sandhu SS, Ahmad Mahir HM, Kurup D, Rusli N, Saat Z, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Nov-Dec;21(6):3-8.
    PMID: 25897276 MyJurnal
    The current Ebola outbreak, which is the first to affect West African countries, has been declared to have met the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Malaysia has taken steps to strengthen and enhanced the five core components of preparedness and response to mitigate the outbreak. The National Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre (CPRC) commands, controls and coordinates the preparedness and response plans for disasters, outbreaks, crises and emergencies (DOCE) related to health in a centralised way. Through standardised case definition and mandatory notification of Ebola by public and private practitioners, surveillance of Ebola is made possible. Government hospitals and laboratories have been identified to manage and diagnose Ebola virus infections, and medical staff members have been trained to handle an Ebola outbreak, with emphasis on strict infection prevention and control practices. Monitoring of the points of entry, focusing on travellers and students visiting or coming from West African countries is made possible by interagency collaborations. To alleviate the public's anxiety, effective risk communications are being delivered through various channels. With experience in past outbreak control, the MOH's preparedness and response plans are in place to abate an Ebola outbreak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  6. da Silva Voorham JM
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 2014;158:A7946.
    PMID: 25227888
    Sylvatic dengue viruses are both evolutionarily and ecologically distinguishable from the human dengue virus (DENV). Sporadic episodes of sylvatic human infections in West Africa and Southeast Asia suggest that sylvatic DENV regularly come into contact with human beings. Following a study on the sylvatic transmission cycle in Malaysia in 2007, researchers announced that a new DENV serotype, DENV-5, had been discovered. Scientists are still sceptical about these new findings, and indicate that more data is necessary to determine whether this 'new' virus really is a different serotype or whether it is a variant of one of the four DENV serotypes already known. The good news is that this new variant has not yet established itself in the human transmission cycle. However, if it really is a new serotype this will have implications for the long-term control of dengue using vaccines currently under development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  7. Sokol E, Clark D, Aguayo VM
    Food Nutr Bull, 2008 Sep;29(3):159-62.
    PMID: 18947028
    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes out of concern that inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes was contributing to the alarming decline in breastfeeding worldwide and the increase in child malnutrition and mortality, particularly in developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  8. AIDS Anal Afr, 1999 Jun-Jul;10(1):13.
    PMID: 12295121
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  9. Ang HH, Lam CK, Wah MJ
    Chemotherapy, 1996 Sep-Oct;42(5):318-23.
    PMID: 8874969
    Six clones were derived from each Plasmodium falciparum isolate obtained from Malaysia, Africa and Thailand and were characterized against type II antifolate drugs, cycloguanil and pyrimethamine using the modified in vitro microtechnique. Results showed that these isolates were of a heterogeneous population, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of Gombak A clones at 0.0151-0.1450 and 0.0068-0.1158 microM, Gambian clones at 0.0056-0.1792 and 0.0004-0.0068 microM and TGR clones at 0.0103-0.0703 and 0.0776-0.3205 microM against cycloguanil and pyrimethamine, respectively. All clones displayed similar susceptibilities as their parent isolates except A/D3, A/D5, A/G4 and A/H7 clones which were sensitive to cycloguanil at 0.0735, 0.0151, 0.0540 and 0.0254 microM but Gm/B2 clone was resistant at 0.1792 microM, respectively. However, A/D3, TGR/B4, TGR/B7, TGR/C4, TGR/C7 and TGR/H2 clones were resistant to pyrimethamine at 0.1158, 0.1070, 0.1632, 0.1580, 0.2409 and 0.3205 microM, respectively. Further results indicated that they were pure clones compared to their parent isolates as their drug susceptibility studies were statistically different (p < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  10. Shaper AG
    Pathol Microbiol (Basel), 1970;35(1):26-35.
    PMID: 5472024
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  11. IPPF News, 1977 Nov-Dec;2(6):2.
    PMID: 12308737
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  12. Wiesenfeld SL
    Science, 1967 Sep 08;157(3793):1134-40.
    PMID: 6038684
    The particular agricultural adaptation we have been considering is the ultimate determinant of the presence of malaria parasites in the intracellular environment of the human red blood cell. This change in the cellular environment is deleterious for normal individuals, but individuals with the sickle-cell gene are capable of changing their red-cell environment so that intense parasitism never develops. Normal individuals suffer higher mortality rates and lower fertility rates in a malarious environment than individuals with the sickle-cell trait do, so the latter contribute proportionately more people to succeeding generations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  13. Anyanwu GO, Iqbal J, Khan SU, Zaib S, Rauf K, Onyeneke CE, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Oct 18.
    PMID: 30342966 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.021
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anthocleista vogelii Planch is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa for the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the antidiabetic activities of chloroform fraction (CF) of Anthocleista vogelii Planch root bark in rats with diet- and alloxan-induced obesity-diabetes.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inhibitory activities of CF against α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were determined in vitro. Three weeks old rats were fed with high-fat diet for 9 weeks to induce obesity prior to further induction of diabetes using alloxan (150mg/kg body weight, i.p.). Blood glucose levels and body weight were measured every 7 days throughout the experiment. Glucose tolerance was assessed in normal and CF-treated rats on day 21. Terminal blood samples were collected from sacrificed animals for the measurement of serum insulin levels. Pancreases were excised from treated and untreated animals for histopathological examination.

    RESULTS: LCMS/MS chromatographic profile of CF via positive and negative modes revealed 13 and 23 compounds respectively. Further analysis revealed quebrachitol (QCT), loganin, sweroside, oleoside 11-methyl ester and ferulic acid, which have been previously reported for their antidiabetic activities, as constituents of CF. CF inhibited activities of α-amylase (IC50 = 51.60 ± 0.92µg/ml) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 5.86 ± 0.97µg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of animals with obesity-diabetes with 100 and 200mg/kg CF significantly improved glucose tolerance (P<0.001) and enhanced serum insulin levels (P<0.05) compared to diabetic control rats.

    CONCLUSIONS: Antidiabetic activities of CF might be mediated via inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, elevation of serum insulin concentration, and enhancement of insulin and leptin sensitivity in obesity-diabetes rats. This study further substantiates the traditional use of A. vogelii in the management and treatment of diabetes in Africa and encourages further studies to investigate its mechanism of action.

    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  14. Arendt M, Allain A
    J Hum Lact, 2019 Feb;35(1):15-20.
    PMID: 30517831 DOI: 10.1177/0890334418812075
    Annelies Allain has been at the forefront of global efforts to support and promote breastfeeding for more than 30 years. Her accomplishments continue to affect all of us who work with breastfeeding families. Born in the Netherlands in 1945, Annelies Allain-van Elk received a scholarship and completed a BA from the University of Minnesota, Duluth, USA. Back in Europe, she obtained a BA in French language and literature (University of Geneva, Switzerland) as well as a translator's diploma. After 4 years working in West Africa and visits to South America, she returned to Geneva to obtain an MA in development studies. She is fluent in English, French, and Dutch and has working knowledge of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and German. Ms. Allain was a co-founder of IBFAN (1979) and the coordinator of IBFAN Europe (1980-1984). In 1984, she moved to Penang, Malaysia, and IBFAN work soon took over as a full-time job. She was instrumental in developing the Code Documentation Centre (1985) and by 1991 it became a foundation (ICDC) registered in the Netherlands. Subsequently, the Centre has trained over 2,000 officials from 148 countries about the International Code, making it the world's top International Code implementation institution. Among her many other education and advocacy activities, Ms. Allain was a co-founder of WABA (1990) and for many years has been a consultant with UNICEF and WHO's Western Pacific Regional Office on International Code implementation and monitoring. In this interview she provides a firsthand account of how most of the major global breastfeeding protection efforts influencing our current situation came into being. (This is a verbatim interview: MA = Maryse Arendt; AA = Annelies Allain.).
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  15. Lind CE, Agyakwah SK, Attipoe FY, Nugent C, Crooijmans RPMA, Toguyeni A
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 14;9(1):16767.
    PMID: 31727970 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53295-y
    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a globally significant aquaculture species rapidly gaining status as a farmed commodity. In West Africa, wild Nile tilapia genetic resources are abundant yet knowledge of fine-scale population structure and patterns of natural genetic variation are limited. Coinciding with this is a burgeoning growth in tilapia aquaculture in Ghana and other countries within the region underpinned by locally available genetic resources. Using 192 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers this study conducted a genetic survey of Nile tilapia throughout West Africa, sampling 23 wild populations across eight countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Mali, Gambia and Senegal), representing the major catchments of the Volta, Niger, Senegal and Gambia River basins. A pattern of isolation-by-distance and significant spatial genetic structure was identified throughout West Africa (Global FST = 0.144), which largely corresponds to major river basins and, to a lesser extent, sub-basins. Two populations from the Gambia River (Kudang and Walekounda), one from the western Niger River (Lake Sélingué) and one from the upper Red Volta River (Kongoussi) showed markedly lower levels of diversity and high genetic differentiation compared to all other populations, suggesting genetically isolated populations occurring across the region. Genetic structure within the Volta Basin did not always follow the pattern expected for sub-river basins. This study identifies clear genetic structuring and differentiation amongst West African Nile tilapia populations, which concur with broad patterns found in previous studies. In addition, we provide new evidence for fine-scale genetic structuring within the Volta Basin and previously unidentified genetic differences of populations in Gambia. The 192 SNP marker suite used in this study is a useful tool for differentiating tilapia populations and we recommend incorporating this marker suite into future population screening of O. niloticus. Our results form the basis of a solid platform for future research on wild tilapia genetic resources in West Africa, and the identification of potentially valuable germplasm for use in ongoing breeding programs for aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  16. Ravina A
    Presse Med, 1968 Dec 7;76(48):2271-3.
    PMID: 5720934
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  17. Arrows Change, 1997 Aug;3(2):4-5.
    PMID: 12348425
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  18. Lightbourne R
    PMID: 12315520
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
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