We aimed to investigate the effects that natural lipids, theobroma oil (TO) and beeswax (BW), might have on the physical properties of formulated nanoparticles and also the degree of expulsion of encapsulated amphotericin B (AmB) from the nanoparticles during storage. Lecithin and sodium cholate were used as emulsifiers whilst oleic acid (OA) was used to study the influence of the state of orderliness/disorderliness within the matrices of the nanoparticles on the degree of AmB expulsion during storage. BW was found to effect larger z-average diameter compared with TO. Lecithin was found to augment the stability of the nanoparticles imparted by BW and TO during storage. An encapsulation efficiency (%EE) of 59% was recorded when TO was the sole lipid as against 42% from BW. In combination however, the %EE dropped to 39%. When used as sole lipid, TO or BW formed nanoparticles with comparatively higher enthalpies, 21.1 and 23.3 J/g respectively, which subsequently caused significantly higher degree of AmB expulsion, 81 and 83% respectively, whilst only 11.8% was expelled from a binary TO/BW mixture. A tertiary TO/BW/OA mixture registered the lowest enthalpy at 8.07 J/g and expelled 12.6% of AmB but encapsulated only 22% of AmB. In conclusion, nanoparticles made from equal concentrations of TO and BW produced the most desirable properties and worthy of further investigations.
This study describes the properties of an amphotericin B-containing mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), with the intent to maximize uptake within the gastrointestinal tract. We have reported previously that lipid nanoparticles can significantly improve the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmpB). On the other hand, the aggregation state of AmpB within the NLC has been ascribed to some of the side effects resulting from IV administration. In the undissolved state, AmpB (UAmpB) exhibited the safer monomeric conformation in contrast to AmpB in the dissolved state (DAmpB), which was aggregated. Chitosan-coated NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) presented a slightly slower AmpB release profile as compared to the uncoated formulation, achieving 26.1% release in 5 hours. Furthermore, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation appeared to prevent the expulsion of AmpB upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal pH media, whereby up to 63.9% of AmpB was retained in the NLC compared to 56.1% in the uncoated formulation. The ChiAmpB NLC demonstrated mucoadhesive properties in pH 5.8 and 6.8. Thus, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation is well-primed for pharmacokinetic studies to investigate whether delayed gastrointestinal transit may be exploited to improve the systemic bioavailability of AmpB, whilst simultaneously addressing the side-effect concerns of AmpB.
Oral delivery of amphotericin B (AmpB) is desirable because it provides a more patient-friendly mode of administration compared to the current delivery approach akin with the marketed AmpB formulations. The goal of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of orally administered chitosan-coated AmpB-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (ChiAmpB NLC) administered to Sprague Dawley rats at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Orally administered ChiAmpB NLC resulted in a two-fold increase in the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) compared to the uncoated AmpB NLC and marketed Amphotret®. This enhanced bioavailability of AmpB suggests prolonged transit and retention of ChiAmpB NLC within the small intestine through mucoadhesion and subsequent absorption by the lymphatic pathway. The results show that mean absorption and residence times (MAT & MRT) were significantly higher from ChiAmpB NLC compared to the other two formulations, attesting to the mucoadhesive effect. The ChiAmpB NLC presented a lower nephrotic accumulation with preferential deposition in liver and spleen. Thus, the limitations of current marketed IV formulations of AmpB are potentially addressed with the ChiAmpB NLC in addition to utilizing this approach for targeting internal organs in visceral leishmaniasis.
Oral delivery of pharmaceuticals requires that they retain their physical and chemical attributes during transit within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, for the manifestation of desired therapeutic profiles. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers to improve the absorption of hydrophobic drugs. In this study, we examine the stability of amphotericin B (AmB) and paracetamol (PAR) SLNs in simulated GI fluids during gastric emptying. On contact with the simulated fluids, the particles increased in size due to ingress of the dissolution media into the particles. Simulated gastric emptying revealed that the formulations had mean sizes <350nm and neutral surface charges, both of which are optimal for intestinal absorption of SLNs. There was ingress of the fluids into the SLNs, followed by diffusion of the dissolved drug, whose rate depended on the solubility of the loaded-drug in the particular medium. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses indicated that drug loading followed the core-shell model and that the AmB SLNs have a more drug-enriched core than the PAR SLNs do. The AmB SLNs are therefore a very suitable carrier of AmB for oral delivery. The stability of the SLNs in the simulated GI media indicates their suitability for oral delivery.
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, killing more than 15 million people worldwide. This is despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Nanoparticles offer a promising technology to enhance drug efficacy and formation of effective vehicles for drug delivery. Here, we conjugated amphotericin B, nystatin (macrocyclic polyenes), and fluconazole (azole) with silver nanoparticles. Silver-conjugated drugs were synthesized successfully and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Conjugated and unconjugated drugs were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype using amoebicidal assay and host cell cytotoxicity assay. Viability assays revealed that silver nanoparticles conjugated with amphotericin B (Amp-AgNPs) and nystatin (Nys-AgNPs) exhibited significant antiamoebic properties compared with drugs alone or AgNPs alone (P
Surface-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent a promising mode of drug delivery used to enhance retention of drugs at absorption site. Formulated chitosan-coated amphotericin-B-loaded NLC (ChiAmp NLC) had a size of 394.4 ± 6.4 nm, encapsulation and loading efficiencies of 86.0 ± 3% and 11.0 ± 0.1% respectively. Amphotericin-B release from NLCs was biphasic with no changes in physical properties upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Antifungal properties of Amphotericin-B and ChiAmpB NLC were comparable but ChiAmpB NLC was twice less toxic to red blood cells and ten times safer on HT-29 cell lines. In vitro mucoadhesion data were observed ex vivo, where ChiAmpB NLC resulted in higher retention within the small intestine compared to the uncoated formulation. The data strongly offers the possibility of orally administering a non-toxic, yet effective Amphotericin-B nanoformulation for the treatment of systemic fungal infections.