Cardiac amyloidosis is an uncommon and often unrecognised cause of cardiac failure. It is an infiltrative disease that may mimic either a restrictive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, coronary artery disease or valvular heart disease. The diagnosis should be suspected in a patient with cardiac failure who has low voltage complexes on the electrocardiogram, in association with increased myocardial mass and echogenicity on the echocardiogram. The definitive diagnosis, however, can only be made by endomyocardial biopsy or biopsy of any involved organ in systemic amyloidosis. Prognosis is poor and treatment ineffective.
Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare, benign, locally aggressive odontogenic epithelial tumor that affects the jaws. Although there are numerous reports on the variants of CEOT, occurrence of clear cells with complete absence of calcification has been a rarity. Histochemical analysis of tumor cells revealed glycogen granules with PAS staining, with absence of CD 1a staining in clear cells, while the amyloid-like deposit associated with clear cells showed green birefringence with Congo red. We report an unusual variant of CEOT occurring in a 27 years old male patient.
A retrospective study was conducted to investigate whether there was a correlation between the histological pattern of renal amyloidosis, the chemical type of amyloid protein involved and the clinical presentation. Eighteen consecutive cases of systemic amyloidosis that had renal biopsies processed and examined histopathologically at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur were reviewed. The age range of patients was 25 to 64 yrs (mean, 46 yrs). The male:female ratio was 2.6:1. Three patients were Malay, 9 Chinese, 3 Indian, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iban, and 1 Bisaya. According to the predominant site of amyloid deposition, 14 cases showed a glomerular pattern and 4 a vascular pattern. 8 cases were designated as 2 anti-human amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis on the basis of permanganate-sensitivity and immunoreactivity of deposits with anti-human AA protein antibody. Ten cases contained deposits that were permanganate-resistant and nonimmunoreactive for AA protein and were designated as AL in type. The histomorphologic pattern of renal amyloidosis did not provide a reliable means of differentiating AA from AL amyloidosis. The glomerular pattern tended to present with renal manifestations such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic renal failure, whereas the vascular pattern tended to present with nonrenal manifestations such as diarrhoea. These findings may have a bearing on the pathophysiology of amyloidosis and provide clues to appropriate management.
Congo-red screening demonstrated intratumor deposits of amyloid in 35 of 53 unselected cases of basal cell carcinoma. Male subjects had a higher amyloid positivity rate than female subjects. The amyloid deposits were permanganate-resistant and located in the stroma between clumps of tumor cells, as well as abutting the advancing front of the neoplasm. Solar elastosis was often observed in the overlying and adjacent subepidermis. The relationship between amyloid positivity and the different histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma, tumor ulceration, and density of the lymphoplasmacytic stromal infiltrate were also studied. The possibility that amyloid originates from the tumor cells and is a result of tumor apoptosis (degeneration) is discussed.
Biopsy and necropsy tissue from 31 unselected patients with systemic amyloidosis, in which there was histologic evidence of liver involvement, were reviewed with reference to the location and pattern of amyloid deposition in the liver. Amyloidosis was classified into AA and AL types on the basis of immunohistochemistry and permanganate reaction of the amyloid deposits. Nineteen were categorized as AA (secondary) and 12 as AL (primary) amyloidosis. Deposition of AA amyloid was limited to the walls of vessels in the portal tract, constituting a "vascular" pattern. In AL amyloidosis, the deposits exhibited a "sinusoidal" pattern in that they were seen along hepatic sinusoids as well as in vessel walls. This difference was statistically significant (P less than .001). The histologic pattern of liver infiltration offers a valuable clue in the classification of systemic amyloidosis and provides information that may be useful in the selection of patients for therapy.
Congo red screening of 27,052 routine biopsy specimens from 22,827 patients over a 5 1/2-year period in the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya detected 186 cases of amyloidosis. The categories of amyloidosis encountered and their prevalences in relation to each other were: systemic AL (5.9%); systemic AA (3.2%); isolated atrial (14%); primary localized cutaneous (7.5%); other primary localized deposits (3.2%); localized intratumour (58%); and dystrophic (8.6%). A third of patients with systemic AL amyloidosis had coexistent immunocyte abnormality. The commonest underlying pathology for systemic AA amyloidosis was leprosy. Notable among the types of localized amyloidosis revealed by this study were isolated atrial amyloidosis, which appeared to complicate chronic rheumatic heart disease, and intratumour amyloidosis complicating nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Other tumours in which amyloid deposits were observed included basal cell carcinoma, islet cell tumour and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Dystrophic amyloidosis was observed in fibrotic tissues, such as damaged cardiac valves and osteoarthritic joints. Heredofamilial amyloidosis, senile systemic amyloidosis and degenerative cerebral amyloidosis were notably absent from this study.
The findings of autopsies performed on 35 leprosy subjects in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, between January 1981 and December 1985 are presented. This is the first report based on autopsy findings from Malaysia. The patients were elderly subjects with a mean age of 74 years. Sixty-six percent had lepromatous leprosy. None had active skin lesions. The most common cause of death was pyogenic infection, particularly bronchopneumonia. Tuberculosis was noted in 25% of the cases. The other important causes of death included cardiac and renal failure. Renal lesions were evident in 71% of the cases, and the most common pathology was interstitial nephritis. Generalized amyloidosis complicated six (17%) patients.