Sepak Takraw is a popular sport among the Southeast Asian countries and various brands of takraw balls are available in the local market to suit the needs of players. In this study, four different takraw balls commonly used by the Malaysian takraw players were selected for testing of mechanical properties by using compression and fatigue analysis. It was found that the GE takraw balls were more suitable to be used by Malaysian takraw players due to higher fatigue life and tensile strength. This finding is particularly useful for the local sport academy in deciding which ball is to be used in the future takraw competitions.
Eleven different brands of mineral water available in Malaysia were assessed in comparison with two criteria for ingested radiation dose. It is concluded that mineral water can only contribute a very small fraction of the typical daily intake of potassium, and that the radiation dose acquired from any of the brands can never exceed a small fraction of the recommended limits.
Seven different brands of mouthwashes were assessed for the inhibition of growth of oral micro-organisms. The results showed wide variations in their effectiveness: Those containing cationic surfactants and complex organic nitrogenous compounds were more active than the older formulations based on phenols. A list was compiled ranking the mouthwashes according to their antimicrobial activity, which did not always agree with the manufacturer's claims or indication for use.
The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids (TFA) contents of samples of five Malaysian cream crackers biscuit brands were determined by gas-liquid chromatography, using a 60 m Supelco SP2340 fused silica capillary column and flame ionization detection. The identities of the fatty acids were established by comparing their retention times with authentic standards from Supelco. The results were expressed as relative percentages. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the samples ranged from 48.90% to 54.87% of total fatty acids. As for the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the total PUFA in the samples ranged from 9.97% to 11.73% of total fatty acids. Total trans fatty acids (TFA) ranged from 0.17% to 0.77% of total fatty acids. The monotrans 18:2 tc or 18:2 ct isomer content ranged from 0.07% to 0.10% of total fatty acids and the ditrans 18:2 isomer (9t, 12t) was not detected. The results indicate that all the fat sources of the 5 sample crackers biscuit brands were palm oil based.
This paper examines the chemical elements used as colour additives in cosmetic coloured contact lenses (Cos-CCL) using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) analysis. The samples comprised two different Cos-CCL brands and colours (sample A1-black iris colour & B1-gray iris colour) with their respective clear contact lens counterparts as controls (sample A2 & B2). The parameters of Cos-CCL were observed carefully so that they resembled their respective controls. All the samples were analysed for chemical element characterisation by using EDX spectroscopy surface mapping analysis on both front and back surfaces. EDX spectroscopy point analysis was done on cross-section surface of Cos-CCL when colour additive pattern could not be detected by FESEM on either surface. FESEM-EDX spectroscopy analysis has revealed iron element in the colour additives of the A1 sample and aluminium elements in the B2 sample. These two elements were not present in the respective control samples. It can be concluded that iron and aluminium elements are exclusively attributed to the colour additive in Cos-CCL samples. It is important for manufacturers of Cos-CCL to disclose information of their products and create greater awareness on the risks facing users.