Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a serious, life-threatening vascular disease that presents as an enlarged area of the aorta, which is the main artery that carries blood away from the heart. AAA may occur at any location in the aorta, but it is mainly found in the abdominal region. A ruptured AAA causes serious health issues, including death. Traditional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography angiogram, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound sonography, have been used to identify AAAs. Circulating biomarkers have recently become attractive for diagnosing AAAs due to their cost-effectiveness compared to imaging. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a secreted hormone vital for human atherosclerotic plaque stability, has been found to be an efficient biomarker for AAA identification. In this report, immunosensing was performed by using an InterDigitated electrode (IDE) sensor to detect circulating levels of IGF-1. The detection limit of IGF-1 was found to be 100 fM with this sensor. Moreover, related protein controls (IGF-2 and IGFBP3) were not detected with the same antibody, indicating selective IGF-1 detection. Thus, immunosensing by using an IDE sensor may help to effectively diagnose AAAs and represents a basic platform for further development.
Sensing applications can be used to report biomolecular interactions in order to elucidate the functions of molecules. The use of an analyte and a ligand is a common set-up in sensor development. For several decades, antibodies have been considered to be potential analytes or ligands for development of so-called "immunosensors." In an immunosensor, formation of the complex between antibody and antigen transduces the signal, which is measurable in various ways (e.g., both labeled and label-free based detection). Success of an immunosensor depends on various factors, including surface functionalization, antibody orientation, density of the antibody on the sensor platform, and configuration of the immunosensor. Careful optimization of these factors can generate clear-cut results for any immunosensor. Herein, current aspects, involved in the generated immunosensors, are discussed.
Rationally designed biosensing system supports multiplex analyses is warranted for medical diagnosis to determine the level of analyte interaction. The chemically functionalized novel multi-electrode polysilicon nanogap (PSNG) lab-on-chip is designed in this study, facilitates multiplex analyses for a single analyte. On the fabricated 69nm PSNG, biocompatibility and structural characteristics were verified for the efficient binding of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). With the assistance of microfluidics, hCG sample was delivered via single-injection to 3-Aminopropyl(triethoxy)silane (APTES) and Glycidoxypropyl(trimethoxy)silane (GPMS) modified PSNG electrodes and the transduced signal was used to investigate the dielectric mechanisms for multiplex analyses. The results from amperometric response and impedance measurement delivered the scale of interaction between anti-hCG antibody and hCG that exhibited 6.5 times higher sensitivity for the chemical linker, APTES than GPMS. Under optimized experimental conditions, APTES and GPMS modified immunosensor has a limit of detection as 0.56mIU/ml and 2.93mIU/ml (at S/N=3), with dissociation constants (Kd) of 5.65±2.5mIU/ml and 7.28±2.6mIU/ml, respectively. These results suggest that multiplex analysis of single target could enhance the accuracy of detection and reliable for real-time comparative analyses. The designed PSNG is simple, feasible, requires low sample consumption and could be applied for any given multiplex analyses.
Due to the low titer or uneven distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in field samples, detection of CTV by using conventional detection techniques may be difficult. Therefore, in the present work, the cadmium-telluride quantum dots (QDs) was conjugated with a specific antibody against coat protein (CP) of CTV, and the CP were immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to develop a specific and sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanobiosensor for detecting CTV. The maximum FRET efficiency for the developed nano-biosensor was observed at 60% in AuNPs-CP/QDs-Ab ratio of 1:8.5. The designed system showed higher sensitivity and specificity over enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of detection of 0.13μgmL(-1) and 93% and 94% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. As designed sensor is rapid, sensitive, specific and efficient in detecting CTV, this could be envisioned for diagnostic applications, surveillance and plant certification program.
In this study, a disposable and simple electrochemical immunosensor was fabricated for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. In this method, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were mixed with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to modify the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPE). Initially, AgNPs-rGO modified-SPEs were fabricated by using simple electrochemical deposition method. Then the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was immobilized between the primary antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibody onto AgNPs-rGO modified-SPEs to fabricate a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor. The proposed method could detect the CEA with a linear range of 0.05-0.50µgmL-1 and a detection limit down to 0.035µgmL-1 as compared to its non-sandwich counterpart, which yielded a linear range of 0.05-0.40µgmL-1, with a detection limit of 0.042µgmL-1. The immunosensor showed good performance in the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen, exhibiting a simple, rapid and low-cost. The immunosensor showed a higher sensitivity than an enzymeless sensor.