Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Hunsperger EA, Yoksan S, Buchy P, Nguyen VC, Sekaran SD, Enria DA, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Oct;8(10):e3171.
    PMID: 25330157 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003171
    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood*
  2. Tan PC, Soe MZ, Si Lay K, Wang SM, Sekaran SD, Omar SZ
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012;6(5):e1637.
    PMID: 22590658 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001637
    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito borne infection worldwide. Vertical transmissions after maternal dengue infection to the fetus and pregnancy losses in relation to dengue illness have been reported. The relationship of dengue to miscarriage is not known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood
  3. Kumarasamy V, Wahab AH, Chua SK, Hassan Z, Chem YK, Mohamad M, et al.
    J Virol Methods, 2007 Mar;140(1-2):75-9.
    PMID: 17140671
    A commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA was evaluated to demonstrate its potential application for early laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. Dengue virus NS1 antigen was detected in 199 of 213 acute serum samples from patients with laboratory confirmation of acute dengue virus infection but none of the 354 healthy blood donors' serum specimens. The dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA gave an overall sensitivity of 93.4% (199/213) and a specificity of 100% (354/354). The sensitivity was significantly higher in acute primary dengue (97.3%) than in acute secondary dengue (70.0%). The positive predictive value of the dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA was 100% and negative predictive value was 97.3%. Comparatively, virus isolation gave an overall positive isolation rate of 68.1% with a positive isolation rate of 73.9 and 31.0% for acute primary dengue and acute secondary dengue, respectively. Molecular detection of dengue RNA by RT-PCR gave an overall positive detection rate of 66.7% with a detection rate of 65.2 and 75.9% for acute primary dengue and acute secondary dengue, respectively. The results indicate that the commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA may be superior to virus isolation and RT-PCR for the laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue infection based on a single serum sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood*
  4. Kassim FM, Izati MN, TgRogayah TA, Apandi YM, Saat Z
    PMID: 21706934
    Accurate and timely diagnosis of dengue virus is important for early detection of dengue virus infection. In this study, the usefulness of the dengue NS1 antigen test was evaluated as a routine, rapid diagnostic test for dengue virus infection. A total of 208 sera from patients suspected of having dengue virus infection were collected and tested for dengue antibody, dengue genome and dengue NS1 antigen. Dengue antibody test, dengue PCR test and dengue antigen test were able to detect dengue virus infection from Days 1 to 8 in 72.8, 52.8 and 44.0% of samples, respectively. Of the 208 sera tested, 69.2% (144/208) of the acute sera were positive for dengue virus infection based on IgM antibody, IgG antibody, NS1 antigen and PCR tests. Thirty-two point two percent of the samples (67/208) were found positive for dengue NS1 antigen, 38.5% (80/208) were PCR positive, 40.9% (85/208) were IgM positive and 36.1% (75/208) were IgG positive for dengue virus. The results reveal the detection rate of dengue virus infection was similar for PCR and dengue antibody (65.9%) and for NS1 antigen and dengue antibody (62.0%) combinations. Therefore, the dengue NS1 antigen test can be used to complement the current antibody test used in peripheral laboratories. Thus, the combination of the NS1 antigen and antibody tests could increase the diagnostic efficiency for early diagnosis of dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood*
  5. Fry SR, Meyer M, Semple MG, Simmons CP, Sekaran SD, Huang JX, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011 Jun;5(6):e1199.
    PMID: 21713023 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001199
    BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum.
    AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test.
    METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples.
    KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6%) and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8) respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1%) and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9%) compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood*
  6. Locarnini S
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:41-51.
    PMID: 16108173
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood*
  7. Wang SM, Sekaran SD
    J Clin Microbiol, 2010 Aug;48(8):2793-7.
    PMID: 20573879 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02142-09
    Early definitive diagnosis of dengue virus infection may help in the timely management of dengue virus infection. We evaluated the Standard Diagnostics (SD, South Korea) dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SD dengue NS1 Ag ELISA) for the detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen in patients' sera, using a total of 399 serum samples in a comparison with real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, an in-house IgM capture (MAC)-ELISA, and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Of the 320 dengue sera, 205 (64%) tested positive for NS1 antigen compared to 300 (93.75%) by either MAC-ELISA or RT-PCR, 161 (50.31%) by RT-PCR, and 226 (70.36%) by MAC-ELISA only. The assay was able to detect NS1 antigen in convalescent-phase sera until day 14 of infection. The NS1 detection rate is inversely proportional while the IgM detection rate is directly proportional to the presence of IgG antibodies. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the SD dengue NS1 Ag ELISA in the detection of "confirmed dengue virus" sera are 76.76% and 98.31%, respectively. This suggests that the SD kit is highly specific and sensitive for the detection of NS1 antigen. However, caution is needed when the kit is used as a single assay, as detection in samples that contained the virus was only about 81.97%. Combining this assay with an IgM and/or IgG assay will increase the sensitivity of detection, especially in areas with a higher prevalence of secondary dengue virus infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood*
  8. Ngim CF, Husain SMT, Hassan SS, Dhanoa A, Ahmad SAA, Mariapun J, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2021 05;15(5):e0009445.
    PMID: 34014983 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009445
    BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is the most common mosquito-borne infection worldwide where an expanding surveillance and characterization of this infection are needed to better inform the healthcare system. In this surveillance-based study, we explored the prevalence and distinguishing features of dengue fever amongst febrile patients in a large community-based health facility in southern peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: Over six months in 2018, we recruited 368 adults who met the WHO 2009 criteria for probable dengue infection. They underwent the following blood tests: full blood count, dengue virus (DENV) rapid diagnostic test (RDT), ELISA (dengue IgM and IgG), nested RT-PCR for dengue, multiplex qRT-PCR for Zika, Chikungunya and dengue as well as PCR tests for Leptopspira spp., Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus.

    RESULTS: Laboratory-confirmed dengue infections (defined by positive tests in NS1, IgM, high-titre IgG or nested RT-PCR) were found in 167 (45.4%) patients. Of these 167 dengue patients, only 104 (62.3%) were positive on rapid diagnostic testing. Dengue infection was significantly associated with the following features: family or neighbours with dengue in the past week (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI:2.14-6.00, p<0.001), cutaneous rash (AOR: 3.58, 95% CI:1.77-7.23, p<0.001), increased temperature (AOR: 1.33, 95% CI:1.04-1.70, p = 0.021), leucopenia (white cell count < 4,000/μL) (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI:1.72-6.89, p<0.001) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/μL)(AOR: 4.63, 95% CI:2.33-9.21, p<0.001). Dengue infection was negatively associated with runny nose (AOR: 0.47, 95% CI:0.29-0.78, p = 0.003) and arthralgia (AOR: 0.42, 95% CI:0.24-0.75, p = 0.004). Serotyping by nested RT-PCR revealed mostly mono-infections with DENV-2 (n = 64), DENV-1 (n = 32) and DENV-3 (n = 17); 14 co-infections occurred with DENV-1/DENV-2 (n = 13) and DENV-1/DENV-4 (n = 1). Besides dengue, none of the pathogens above were found in patients' serum.

    CONCLUSIONS: Acute undifferentiated febrile infections are a diagnostic challenge for community-based clinicians. Rapid diagnostic tests are increasingly used to diagnose dengue infection but negative tests should be interpreted with caution as they fail to detect a considerable proportion of dengue infection. Certain clinical features and haematological parameters are important in the clinical diagnosis of dengue infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/blood
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