OBJECTIVE: The review was performed to answer the following research question: "In VPNs, are high amounts of arginine in PN, compared with low amounts of arginine, associated with appropriate circulating concentrations of arginine?" Therefore, the aims were to 1) quantify the relationship between parenteral arginine intakes and plasma arginine concentrations in PN-dependent VPNs; 2) identify any features of study design that affect this relationship; and 3) estimate the target parenteral arginine dose to achieve desirable preterm plasma arginine concentrations.
DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched regardless of study design; review articles were not included.
DATA EXTRACTION: Only articles that discussed amino acid (AA) intake and measured plasma AA profile post PN in VPNs were included. Data were obtained using a data extraction checklist that was devised for the purpose of this review.
DATA ANALYSIS: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. The dose-concentration relationship of arginine content (%) and absolute arginine intake (mg/(kg × d)) with plasma arginine concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Future studies using AA solutions with arginine content of 17%-20% and protein intakes of 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day may be needed to achieve higher plasma arginine concentrations.
Subjects and Methods: Two groups of 40 patients each having dentinal hypersensitivity were treated using 8% proarginine and iontophoresis. The patients were recalled after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The scores were tabulated and the results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software.
Results: Visual analog scale between the two groups showed a significant difference from the 1st week till the 4th week. ANOVA values showed the reduction in the dentinal hypersensitivity in Group 2 using the iontophoresis along with the 8.0% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel correlation test of the Schiff's dentinal hypersensitivity cross-tabulation showed P < 0.001 which was statistically significant reduction after the 4th week following the application of 8.0% arginine-calcium carbonate along with iontophoresis.
Conclusion: Iontophoresis, when used along with Colgate® Sensitive Pro-Relief™ toothpaste, can provide additional benefit as this provides a better sealing effect.