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  1. Premakumar CM, Turner MA, Morgan C
    Nutr. Rev., 2019 12 01;77(12):878-889.
    PMID: 31504841 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz049
    CONTEXT: Very preterm neonates (VPNs) are unable to digest breast milk and therefore rely on parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations. This systematic review was prepared following PRISMA-P 2015 guidelines. For the purpose of this review, desirable mean plasma arginine concentration is defined as ≥80 micromoles/L.

    OBJECTIVE: The review was performed to answer the following research question: "In VPNs, are high amounts of arginine in PN, compared with low amounts of arginine, associated with appropriate circulating concentrations of arginine?" Therefore, the aims were to 1) quantify the relationship between parenteral arginine intakes and plasma arginine concentrations in PN-dependent VPNs; 2) identify any features of study design that affect this relationship; and 3) estimate the target parenteral arginine dose to achieve desirable preterm plasma arginine concentrations.

    DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched regardless of study design; review articles were not included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Only articles that discussed amino acid (AA) intake and measured plasma AA profile post PN in VPNs were included. Data were obtained using a data extraction checklist that was devised for the purpose of this review.

    DATA ANALYSIS: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. The dose-concentration relationship of arginine content (%) and absolute arginine intake (mg/(kg × d)) with plasma arginine concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Future studies using AA solutions with arginine content of 17%-20% and protein intakes of 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day may be needed to achieve higher plasma arginine concentrations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arginine/administration & dosage*
  2. Sani MH, Taher M, Susanti D, Kek TL, Salleh MZ, Zakaria ZA
    Biol Res Nurs, 2015 Jan;17(1):68-77.
    PMID: 25504952 DOI: 10.1177/1099800414529648
    Elucidate the antinociceptive mechanisms of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia malaccensis Linn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arginine/administration & dosage
  3. Emadi M, Jahanshiri F, Kaveh K, Hair-Bejo M, Ideris A, Alimon AR
    Avian Pathol., 2011 Feb;40(1):63-72.
    PMID: 21331949 DOI: 10.1080/03079457.2010.539590
    To explore the effects of the combination of tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn-soybean meal-based diet containing different levels of Arg and Trp was used. Cobb500 male broiler chickens from 0 to 49 days of age were subjected to a diet supplemented with the combination of Trp and Arg. Growth performance parameters and serum parameters were measured at 27 and 49 days of age. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the combination of Trp and Arg on the challenged chickens, we measured the serum levels of interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G at 27, 35, 42, and 49 days of age. The results showed that the three evaluated immune system parameters including interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G were significantly enhanced after treatment. This enhancement resulted in the recovery of infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens compared with controls as confirmed by histopathological examinations. Moreover, serum parameters such as albumin and total protein increased, whereas the treatment decreased (P<0.05) the feed:gain ratio, aspartate amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride and cholesterol. These findings suggest that the combination of Arg and Trp has a regulatory effect on growth performance. Moreover, it modulates the systemic immune response against infectious bursal disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arginine/administration & dosage*
  4. Kamaldin MN, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Apr 10;18(4):4209-20.
    PMID: 23612473 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18044209
    Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arginine/administration & dosage
  5. Kumar S, Thomas BS, Gupta K, Guddattu V, Alexander M
    Niger J Clin Pract, 2018 Aug;21(8):1029-1033.
    PMID: 30074006 DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_341_17
    Aim and objectives: The aim and the objectives were. (1) to assess the efficacy of a desensitizing toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine-calcium carbonate (Colgate® Sensitive Pro-Relief™), (2) to assess the efficacy of a desensitizing toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine-calcium carbonate (Colgate® Sensitive Pro-Relief™) used in combination with iontophoresis, and (3) to compare the effectiveness of the above methods.

    Subjects and Methods: Two groups of 40 patients each having dentinal hypersensitivity were treated using 8% proarginine and iontophoresis. The patients were recalled after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The scores were tabulated and the results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software.

    Results: Visual analog scale between the two groups showed a significant difference from the 1st week till the 4th week. ANOVA values showed the reduction in the dentinal hypersensitivity in Group 2 using the iontophoresis along with the 8.0% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel correlation test of the Schiff's dentinal hypersensitivity cross-tabulation showed P < 0.001 which was statistically significant reduction after the 4th week following the application of 8.0% arginine-calcium carbonate along with iontophoresis.

    Conclusion: Iontophoresis, when used along with Colgate® Sensitive Pro-Relief™ toothpaste, can provide additional benefit as this provides a better sealing effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arginine/administration & dosage
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