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  1. Xu X, Liu F, Cheng RC, Chen J, Xu X, Zhang Z, et al.
    Proc Biol Sci, 2015 Jun 07;282(1808):20142486.
    PMID: 25948684 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2486
    Living fossils are lineages that have retained plesiomorphic traits through long time periods. It is expected that such lineages have both originated and diversified long ago. Such expectations have recently been challenged in some textbook examples of living fossils, notably in extant cycads and coelacanths. Using a phylogenetic approach, we tested the patterns of the origin and diversification of liphistiid spiders, a clade of spiders considered to be living fossils due to their retention of arachnid plesiomorphies and their exclusive grouping in Mesothelae, an ancient clade sister to all modern spiders. Facilitated by original sampling throughout their Asian range, we here provide the phylogenetic framework necessary for reconstructing liphistiid biogeographic history. All phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Liphistiidae and of eight genera. As the fossil evidence supports a Carboniferous Euramerican origin of Mesothelae, our dating analyses postulate a long eastward over-land dispersal towards the Asian origin of Liphistiidae during the Palaeogene (39-58 Ma). Contrary to expectations, diversification within extant liphistiid genera is relatively recent, in the Neogene and Late Palaeogene (4-24 Ma). While no over-water dispersal events are needed to explain their evolutionary history, the history of liphistiid spiders has the potential to play prominently in vicariant biogeographic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/genetics*
  2. Pang SL, Ho KL, Waterman J, Teh AH, Chew FT, Ng CL
    Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun, 2015 Nov;71(Pt 11):1396-400.
    PMID: 26527267 DOI: 10.1107/S2053230X1501818X
    Dermatophagoides farinae is one of the major house dust mite (HDM) species that cause allergic diseases. N-terminally His-tagged recombinant Der f 21 (rDer f 21), a group 21 allergen, with the signal peptide truncated was successfully overexpressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. The purified rDer f 21 protein was initially crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Well diffracting protein crystals were obtained after optimization of the crystallization conditions using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with a reservoir solution consisting of 0.19 M Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 32% PEG 400 at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.49 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray source. The crystal belonged to the C-centered monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.46, b = 27.71, c = 90.25 Å, β = 125.84°. The calculated Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.06 Å(3) Da(-1) suggests that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 40.3%. Despite sharing high sequence identity with Blo t 5 (45%) and Blo t 21 (41%), both of which were determined to be monomeric in solution, size-exclusion chromatography, static light scattering and self-rotation function analysis indicate that rDer f 21 is likely to be a dimeric protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/genetics*; Arthropod Proteins/isolation & purification; Arthropod Proteins/chemistry*
  3. Reginald K, Tan CL, Chen S, Yuen L, Goh SY, Chew FT
    Sci Rep, 2018 08 06;8(1):11743.
    PMID: 30082894 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30224-z
    We previously identified an expressed sequence tag clone, Der f 22, showing 41% amino acid identity to published Der f 2, and show that both genes are possible paralogues. The objective of this study was to characterize the genomic, proteomic and immunological functions Der f 22 and Der f 2. The full-length sequence of Der f 2 and Der f 22 coded for mature proteins of 129 and 135 amino acids respectively, both containing 6 cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis of known group 2 allergens and their homologues from our expressed sequence tag library showed that Der f 22 is a paralogue of Der f 2. Both Der f 2 and Der f 22 were single gene products with one intron. Both allergens showed specific IgE-binding to over 40% of the atopic patients, with limited of cross-reactivity. Both allergens were detected at the gut region of D. farinae by immunostaining. Der f 22 is an important allergen with significant IgE reactivity among the atopic population, and should be considered in the diagnostic panel and evaluated as future hypoallergen vaccine therapeutic target.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/classification; Arthropod Proteins/metabolism*; Arthropod Proteins/chemistry
  4. Reginald K, Chew FT
    Sci Rep, 2019 02 07;9(1):1556.
    PMID: 30733527 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-38313-9
    Der p 2 is a major dust mite allergen and >80% of mite allergic individuals have specific IgE to this allergen. Although it is well characterized in terms of allergenicity, there is still some ambiguity in terms of its biological function. Three-dimensional structural analysis of Der p 2 and its close homologues indicate the presence of a hydrophobic cavity which can potentially bind to lipid molecules. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential ligand of Der p 2. Using a liposome pulldown assay, we show that recombinant Der p 2 binds to liposomes prepared with exogenous cholesterol in a dose dependent fashion. Next, an ELISA based assay using immobilized lipids was used to study binding specificities of other lipid molecules. Cholesterol was the preferred ligand of Der p 2 among 11 different lipids tested. Two homologues of Der p 2, Der f 2 and Der f 22 also bound to cholesterol. Further, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we confirmed that cholesterol is the natural ligand of Der p 2. Three amino acid residues of Der p 2, V104, V106 and V110 are possible cholesterol binding sites, as alanine mutations of these residues showed a significant decrease in binding (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/genetics; Arthropod Proteins/metabolism*; Arthropod Proteins/chemistry
  5. Misnan R, Murad S, Yadzir ZH, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2012 Dec;30(4):285-93.
    PMID: 23393908
    Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as the major allergens in multiple species of crab. Charybdis feriatus is an important commercial crab in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/immunology*; Arthropod Proteins/chemistry
  6. Chan WY, Selvarajah GT, Ajat M, Suzuki R, Tsukui T
    Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 2019 Jun;212:43-49.
    PMID: 31213251 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.05.002
    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease in dogs. House dust mites such as Dermatophagoides farinae are one of the known causative agents for the induction of canine AD worldwide. D. farinae protein Der f 2 is known as an important allergen involved in canine AD and recently, Zen-1 has also been identified as an allergenic protein. There is limited information on the prevalence and role of allergen sensitization to crude D. farinae extract (CDF), Der f 2 and Zen-1 among dogs diagnosed with AD in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific reactive sera among dogs diagnosed with AD in Malaysia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples were collected from dogs diagnosed with AD from several veterinary clinics in Malaysia. The canine case records were retrieved and information on signalment, dermatological and non-dermatological histories, clinical presentation, food allergies, and exclusion of ectoparasitic, microbial and fungal skin infections were obtained through a survey form. All serum samples were evaluated to quantify the CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. A total of 24.6%, 48.4% and 29.8% of dogs diagnosed with AD were positive for CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific IgE, respectively. These results suggest that CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1 are important allergens that can contribute to AD in dogs in Malaysia, and serological testing can be performed to provide additional treatment options involving specific immunotherapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/blood; Arthropod Proteins/immunology*
  7. Arockiaraj J, Vanaraja P, Easwvaran S, Singh A, Othman RY, Bhassu S
    Mol Biol Rep, 2012 Jun;39(6):6671-82.
    PMID: 22290288 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-1473-7
    In this study, we have reported a full length of small heat shock protein 37 (designated MrHSP37) gene, identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrHSP37 is 2,425 base pairs in length, and encodes 338 amino acids. MrHSP37 contains a long heat shock protein family profile in the amino acid sequence between 205 and 288. The mRNA expressions of MrHSP37 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MrHSP37 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, stomach, haemocyte, intestine, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrHSP37 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity which increased with the concentration of the protein. And also the purified recombinant MrHSP37 protein was used for thermal aggregation assay (chaperone activity). It showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein is an active chaperone in this assay. Taken together, these results suggest that MrHSP37 is potentially involved in the immune responses against IHHNV challenge in M. rosenbergii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/genetics*; Arthropod Proteins/metabolism; Arthropod Proteins/chemistry
  8. Pang SL, Ho KL, Waterman J, Rambo RP, Teh AH, Mathavan I, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 Mar 20;9(1):4933.
    PMID: 30894561 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40879-x
    Group 21 and 5 allergens are homologous house dust mite proteins known as mid-tier allergens. To reveal the biological function of group 21 allergens and to understand better the allergenicity of the rDer f 21 allergen, we determined the 1.5 Å crystal structure of rDer f 21 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae. The rDer f 21 protein consists of a three helical bundle, similar to available structures of group 21 and homologous group 5 allergens. The rDer f 21 dimer forms a hydrophobic binding pocket similar to the one in the Der p 5 allergen, which indicates that both of the homologous groups could share a similar function. By performing structure-guided mutagenesis, we mutated all 38 surface-exposed polar residues of the rDer f 21 allergen and carried out immuno-dot blot assays using 24 atopic sera. Six residues, K10, K26, K42, E43, K46, and K48, which are located in the region between the N-terminus and the loop 1 of rDer f 21 were identified as the major IgE epitopes of rDer f 21. Epitope mapping of all potential IgE epitopes on the surface of the rDer f 21 crystal structure revealed heterogeneity in the sIgE recognition of the allergen epitopes in atopic individuals. The higher the allergen-sIgE level of an individual, the higher the number of epitope residues that are found in the allergen. The results illustrate the clear correlation between the number of specific major epitope residues in an allergen and the sIgE level of the atopic population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins
  9. Ernieenor FCL, Ernna G, Jafson AS, Mariana A
    Exp Appl Acarol, 2018 Sep;76(1):99-107.
    PMID: 30151715 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-018-0285-4
    The occurrence of Suidasia medanensis (= S. pontifica) mites in Malaysian house dust was first reported in 1984. The taxonomy of this storage mite is, however, quite confusing. Therefore, we need an accurate identification to resolve morphological problems due to its minute size and some overlapping characters between species. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the application of partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for the identification of S. medanensis by PCR. Identity of the mite was first determined by observing morphological characters under a light microscope. Genomic DNA of S. medanensis mites was successfully extracted prior to PCR and DNA sequencing using COI universal primers. The length of the COI sequences obtained was 378 bp. BLAST analysis of amplicon sequences showed that local S. medanensis COI region had 99% maximum identity with S. medanensis nucleotide sequence (AY525568) available in the GenBank. As the phylogenetic tree generated indicated, COI sequences from this study were clustered with S. medanensis from Korea and the UK in one major clade, supported with high bootstrap value (> 85%). Results of the phylogenetic analysis of this COI gene were congruent with the morphological identification and provided strong support for a single clade of local S. medanensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/analysis
  10. Arockiaraj J, Chaurasia MK, Kumaresan V, Palanisamy R, Harikrishnan R, Pasupuleti M, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2015 Apr;43(2):364-74.
    PMID: 25575476 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2014.12.036
    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an antimicrobial protein, is an important component of innate immune system which recognizes repetitive sugar groups on the surface of bacteria and viruses leading to activation of the complement system. In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization of cDNA encoded for MBL from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). Two short peptides (MrMBL-N20: (20)AWNTYDYMKREHSLVKPYQG(39) and MrMBL-C16: (307)GGLFYVKHKEQQRKRF(322)) were synthesized from the MrMBL polypeptide. The purity of the MrMBL-N20 (89%) and MrMBL-C16 (93%) peptides were confirmed by MS analysis (MALDI-ToF). The purified peptides were used for further antimicrobial characterization including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, kinetics of bactericidal efficiency and analysis of hemolytic capacity. The peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity towards all the Gram-negative bacteria taken for analysis, whereas they showed the activity towards only a few selected Gram-positive bacteria. MrMBL-C16 peptides produced the highest inhibition towards both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the MrMBL-N20. Both peptides do not produce any inhibition against Bacillus sps. The kinetics of bactericidal efficiency showed that the peptides drastically reduced the number of surviving bacterial colonies after 24 h incubation. The results of hemolytic activity showed that both peptides produced strong activity at higher concentration. However, MrMBL-C16 peptide produced the highest activity compared to the MrMBL-N20 peptide. Overall, the results indicated that the peptides can be used as bactericidal agents. The MrMBL protein sequence was characterized using various bioinformatics tools including phylogenetic analysis and structure prediction. We also reported the MrMBL gene expression pattern upon viral and bacterial infection in M. rosenbergii gills. It could be concluded that the prawn MBL may be one of the important molecule which is involved in antimicrobial mechanism. Moreover, MrMBL derived MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides are important antimicrobial peptides for the recognition and eradication of viral and bacterial pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/genetics*; Arthropod Proteins/metabolism; Arthropod Proteins/chemistry
  11. Chaurasia MK, Ravichandran G, Nizam F, Arasu MV, Al-Dhabi NA, Arshad A, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2016 Jul;54:353-63.
    PMID: 27109581 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2016.04.031
    This study reports the comprehensive comparative information of two different detoxification enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) delta and kappa from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (designated as MrGSTD and MrGSTK) by investigating their in-silico characters and mRNA modulation against various biotic and abiotic oxidative stressors. The physico-chemical properties of these cDNA and their polypeptide structure were analyzed using various bioinformatics program. The analysis indicated the variation in size of the polypeptides, presence or absence of domains and motifs and structure. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrGSTD shared maximum identity (83%) with crustaceans GST delta, whereas MrGSTK fell in arthropods GST kappa. It is interesting to note that MrGSTD and MrGSTK shared only 21% identity; it indicated their structural difference. Structural analysis indicated that MrGSTD to be canonical dimer like shape and MrGSTK appeared to be butterfly dimer like shape, in spite of four β-sheets being conserved in both GSTs. Tissue specific gene expression analysis showed that both MrGSTD and MrGSTK are highly expressed in immune organs such as haemocyte and hepatopancreas, respectively. To understand the role of mRNA modulation of MrGSTD and MrGSTK, the prawns were inducted with oxidative stressors such as bacteria (Vibrio harveyi), virus [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)] and heavy metal, cadmium (Cd). The analysis revealed an interesting fact that both MrGSTD and MrGSTK showed higher (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/genetics*; Arthropod Proteins/metabolism; Arthropod Proteins/chemistry
  12. Mohd-Shamsudin MI, Kang Y, Lili Z, Tan TT, Kwong QB, Liu H, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e60839.
    PMID: 23734171 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060839
    Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (∼24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/genetics
  13. Lim FL, Hashim Z, Md Said S, Than LT, Hashim JH, Norbäck D
    Sci Total Environ, 2015 Dec 1;536:353-61.
    PMID: 26225741 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.137
    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/analysis
  14. Reginald K, Chew FT
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 21;8(1):3391.
    PMID: 29467434 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21792-1
    Epitope mapping of Der p 2, a clinically important dust-mite allergen is the first step in designing immunotherapy hypoallergen vaccine candidates. Twenty-one single alanine mutants of Der p 2 were generated and their secondary structure was analysed using circular dichroism spectra. Only one mutant, K96A resulted in a misfolded protein. All mutants were tested for serum IgE reactivity using serum from dust mite allergic individuals by immuno dot-blots. Mutations to five residues, N10, E25, K77, K96 and E102 consistently showed reduced IgE reactions compared to wild-type Der p 2, and therefore these residues constitute the major IgE epitopes of Der p 2. Two mutants with consistent low IgE binding, K96A and E102A, were subsequently evaluated as hypoallergen candidates. IgG antibodies raised in mice against both mutants could inhibit human IgE-binding to WT Der p 2. Both mutants had intact T-cell epitopes as they were able to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation similar to WT Der p 2. However, a switch in Th1:Th2 cytokine profile was not observed. In summary, we have identified the major conformational epitopes of Der p 2, and evaluated two Der p 2 hypoallergen vaccine candidates for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/immunology*
  15. Zokaeifar H, Balcázar JL, Saad CR, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Arshad A, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2012 Oct;33(4):683-9.
    PMID: 22659618 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.05.027
    We studied the effect of two probiotic Bacillus subtilis strains on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immune gene expression and disease resistance of juvenile white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A mixture of two probiotic strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU g(-1) feed to shrimp for eight weeks. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain and digestive enzyme activity were significantly greater in shrimp fed BM5 and BM8 diets. Significant differences for specific growth rate (SGR) and survival were recorded in shrimp fed BM8 diet as compared with the control; however, no significant differences were recorded for food conversion ratio (FCR) among all the experimental groups. Eight weeks after the start of the feeding period, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 63.3%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 20.0% with BM8 and 33.3% with BM5. Subsequently, real-time PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was significantly up-regulated (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/metabolism
  16. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins
  17. Lim FL, Hashim Z, Than LT, Md Said S, Hisham Hashim J, Norbäck D
    PLoS One, 2015;10(4):e0124905.
    PMID: 25923543 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124905
    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/immunology
  18. Kuo IC, Cheong N, Trakultivakorn M, Lee BW, Chua KY
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2003 Mar;111(3):603-9.
    PMID: 12642844
    BACKGROUND: Dual sensitization by Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites is common in tropical and subtropical countries. The human IgE cross-reactivity between clinical important group 5 allergens, Blo t 5 and Der p 5, remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of the IgE cross-reactivity between Blo t 5 and Der p 5 by using sera from a large cohort of asthmatic children in subtropical and tropical countries.

    METHODS: Purified recombinant Blo t 5 and Der p 5 were produced in Pichia pastoris and tested against sera from 195 asthmatic children. The IgE cross-reactivity was examined by direct, inhibitory and competitive human IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as skin prick tests.

    RESULTS: The Blo t 5 IgE responses were 91.8% (134 of 146) and 73.5% (36 of 49) for Taiwanese and Malaysian sera, respectively. The Blo t 5 specific IgE titers were significantly higher than those of Der p 5 (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins
  19. Huang CH, Liew LM, Mah KW, Kuo IC, Lee BW, Chua KY
    Clin Exp Allergy, 2006 Mar;36(3):369-76.
    PMID: 16499649
    Sensitization to mite and cockroach allergens is common, and diagnosis and therapy of allergy can be further complicated by the presence of allergen isoforms and panallergens. Purified recombinant and native allergens are useful for studies to resolve such problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins
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