MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a 20-year retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence, demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, and the association of oral candidiasis with clinical parameters in oral candidiasis cases reported in the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Malaya from 1999 until 2019. A total of 12,964 histopathological records from the Oral Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratory (OPDRL) between 1999 to 2019 were retrieved. Oral candidiasis cases were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information of interest was obtained and analysed.
RESULTS: From the total records retrieved, 378 oral candidiasis cases were recorded and 82.8% were diagnosed from smear test. This study showed that oral candidiasis was predominantly reported in female (64.2%) and Indian population (64.2%). The peak incidence was in the sixth decades of life (27.0%). The most commonly affected site was tongue and coated tongue was the most common clinical presentation. More than 50% of the cases had comorbidity and 10.6% were associated with dentures. Ethnicity and site of occurrence were significantly associated (p<0.05) with oral candidiasis.
CONCLUSION: This is the first large-scale study of oral candidiasis cases in Malaysia. The findings of this study are useful for clinical assessment of patients suspected of oral candidiasis.
METHODS: Standardised anthropometric measurements were compared against the self-reported values from 5,132 adult residents in a cross-sectional, epidemiological survey. Discrepancies in self-reports from measurements were examined by comparing overall mean differences. Intraclass correlations, Cohen's kappa and Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement, and sub-analysis by sex and ethnicity were also explored.
RESULTS: Data were obtained from 5,132 respondents. The mean age of respondents was 43.9 years. Overall, the height was overestimated (0.2cm), while there was an underestimation of weight (0.8kg) and derived BMI (0.4kg/m2). Women had a larger discrepancy in height (0.35cm, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22 to 0.49), weight (-0.95kg, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.79) and BMI (-0.49kg/m2, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.41) compared with men. Height reporting bias was highest among Indians (0.28cm, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.44) compared with Chinese and Malays, while weight (-1.32kg, 95% CI -1.53 to -1.11) and derived BMI (-0.57kg/m2, 95% CI -0.67 to -0.47) showed higher degrees of underreporting among Malays compared with Chinese and Indians. Substantially high self-reported versus measured values were obtained for intraclass correlations (0.96-0.99, P<0.001) and kappa (0.74). For BMI categories, good to excellent kappa agreement was observed (0.68-0.81, P<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Self-reported anthropometric estimates can be used, particularly in large epidemiological studies. However, sufficient care is needed when evaluating data from Indians, Malays and women as there is likely an underestimation of obesity prevalence.