DESIGN: A qualitative case study was conducted. Pertinent information about each type of coping strategy was gathered by in-depth interviews. To gauge the level of severity for each of the coping strategies, focus group discussions (FGD) were held. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis.
SETTING: OA villages in the states of Kelantan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor, Malaysia.
SUBJECTS: Sixty-one OA women from three ethnic groups (Senoi, Proto-Malay and Negrito) for in-depth interviews and nineteen OA women from the Proto-Malay ethnic group for three FGD.
RESULTS: The findings identified twenty-nine different coping strategies and these were divided into two main themes: food consumption (sub-themes of food consumption included dietary changes, diversification of food sources, decreasing the number of people and rationing) and financial management (sub-themes of financial management included increasing household income, reducing expenses for schooling children and reducing expenses on daily necessities). Three levels of severity were derived: less severe, severe and very severe.
CONCLUSIONS: This information would enable local authorities or non-governmental organisations to more precisely target and plan interventions to better aid the OA communities needing assistance in the areas of food sources and financial management.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400) visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions) which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance.
RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69%) participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009). Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.02). Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes.
CONCLUSIONS: Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor.
METHOD: We translated the TCI into Mandarin and had a non-psychiatric sample of Malaysian Chinese subjects complete the TCI at baseline and at a 1-month retest, with subsets completing English or Mandarin versions alternatively or on both occasions. Analyses examine the TCI factor structure and any impact of language and culture on TCI scoring.
RESULTS: We identified age, gender, occupation and language effects on TCI scale scores. Test-retest reliability was high and not compromised by language. Scale internal consistency was also high. Factor analyses of separate sets of TCI scales corresponded strongly to the structure identified in the TCI development studies.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that TCI is likely to have applicability to Chinese subjects, and argue against properties being constrained by the English language or by western culture.