Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Dilokthornsakul P, Chaiyakunapruk N, Campbell JD
    J Asthma, 2017 01 02;54(1):17-23.
    PMID: 27284904 DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2016.1193601
    OBJECTIVE: To test the association of clinical evidence type, efficacy-based or effectiveness-based ("E"), versus whether or not asthma interventions' cost-effectiveness findings are favorable.

    DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, Tufts CEA registry, Cochrane CENTRAL, and the UK National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database from 2009 to 2014.

    STUDY SELECTION: All cost-effectiveness studies evaluating asthma medication(s) were included. Clinical evidence type, "E," was classified as efficacy-based if the evidence was from an explanatory randomized controlled trial(s) or meta-analysis, while evidence from pragmatic trial(s) or observational study(s) was classified as effectiveness-based. We defined three times the World Health Organization cost-effectiveness willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold or less as a favorable cost-effectiveness finding. Logistic regression tested the likelihood of favorable versus unfavorable cost-effectiveness findings against the type of "E."

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: 25 cost-effectiveness studies were included. Ten (40.0%) studies were effectiveness-based, yet 15 (60.0%) studies were efficacy-based. Of 17 studies using endpoints that could be compared to WTP threshold, 7 out of 8 (87.5%) effectiveness-based studies yielded favorable cost-effectiveness results, whereas 4 out of 9 (44.4%) efficacy-based studies yielded favorable cost-effectiveness results. The adjusted odds ratio was 15.12 (95% confidence interval; 0.59 to 388.75) for effectiveness-based versus efficacy-based achieving favorable cost-effectiveness findings. More asthma cost-effectiveness studies used efficacy-based evidence. Studies using effectiveness-based evidence trended toward being more likely to disseminate favorable cost-effective findings than those using efficacy. Health policy decision makers should pay attention to the type of clinical evidence used in cost-effectiveness studies for accurate interpretation and application.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  2. Loh LC, Wong PS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Aug;62(3):210-3.
    PMID: 18246909
    A self-answered, anonymously completed, nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted between June 2002 and May 2003 among Malaysian doctors through post and at medical meetings. Findings based on 116 government and 110 private doctors who satisfactorily completed the forms (effective respondent rate: 30.1%) showed that more than 70% of government and private doctors claimed familiarity with asthma CPGs but proportionately more private doctors considered them "unworkable" and were reluctant to adopt them in their practice setting, quoting cost as the primary reason. Between those who frequently adopted the CPGs and those who did not, there was an equally high proportion of inappropriate prescribing. Despite the shortcomings of such a survey, our findings suggest that medicinal cost and practitioner's prescribing practices are important in the acceptance and execution of asthma CPGs recommendations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  3. Loh LC, Wong PS
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2005 Mar;23(1):7-17.
    PMID: 15997869
    A self-answered, anonymously completed questionnaire survey was performed between June 2002 and May 2003 where doctors from government and private sectors in Malaysia were invited to participate by post or during medical meetings. One hundred and sixteen government doctors and 110 private doctors provided satisfactorily completed questionnaires (effective respondent rate: 30.1%). The most preferred medications for 'first-line', 'second-line' and 'third-line' treatment were for government doctors: inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist (SABA) (98%), inhaled corticosteroids (CS) (75%), and leukotriene antagonist (52%); and for private doctors: oral SABA (81%), inhaled CS (68%), and oral CS (58%). The first choice inhaler device for most government and private doctors were metered dose inhalers, with cost and personal preferences (for private doctors), and technical ability (for government doctors) as the key considerations when deciding on the choice of device. This benchmark data on the asthma prescribing practices of a healthcare delivery system fully dichotomized into government and private sector, provides evidence for practice differences affected by the nature of the healthcare system, and might have implications on healthcare systems of other countries that share similarities with that of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  4. Zainudin BMZ
    Respirology, 1997 Mar;2(1):17-31.
    PMID: 9424402 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.1997.tb00051.x
    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two common illnesses that cause significant morbidity and mortality. Steroids are widely used in both conditions. They act through steroid or glucocorticoid receptors (GR) causing up or down regulation of protein synthesis resulting in an increase in lipocortin 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors, and decreased levels and activities of cytokines or cytokine receptors, which reduces the inflammatory process in the airways and decreases bronchial hyperreactivity. Consequently symptoms of airway obstruction are alleviated and lung function is improved. In asthma, steroids have been convincingly shown to be effective in the treatment of both acute exacerbations and chronic condition. In COPD, however, only a subset of patients seem to respond favourably to steroid therapy. Therapeutic trials are therefore recommended before committing to a long-term treatment in order to determine this subset of patients, as no markers of steroid responsiveness can be identified. The inhaled steroids currently available have a good safety profile with significant side effects occurring only occasionally. Such side effects are usually confined to the oropharynx, causing local irritation, candidiasis and dysphonia, which can be easily overcome. Biochemical abnormalities involving bone, adrenal, carbohydrate and lipid profiles have been noted with high doses of inhaled steroids; however, these have no significant clinical effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy
  5. Lai CK, De Guia TS, Kim YY, Kuo SH, Mukhopadhyay A, Soriano JB, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2003 Feb;111(2):263-8.
    PMID: 12589343
    Few data on asthma management are available for the Asia-Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  6. Zainudin BM, Ismail O, Yusoff K
    Thorax, 1994 Mar;49(3):267-9.
    PMID: 8202885
    BACKGROUND: The benefit of adding theophylline to beta 2 agonists in acute asthmatic attacks has been debated frequently.
    METHODS: In an open randomised study 25 patients with severe acute asthma who presented to the emergency department were treated with either a combined nebulised salbutamol (5 mg/dose) and aminophylline infusion (0.6-0.9 mg/kg/hour), or nebulised salbutamol alone.
    RESULTS: The responses to treatment as measured by peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the time taken to achieve maximum PEF were similar in both groups. Side effects were observed more commonly in patients receiving the combined treatment.
    CONCLUSIONS: Nebulised salbutamol is equally efficacious in acute asthma when given alone or in combination with aminophylline.
    Study site: Emergency department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  7. Zainudin BM, Sufarlan AW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Sep;45(3):235-8.
    PMID: 2152085
    The use of pressurised metered dose inhalers was assessed among 93 asthmatic patients attending the respiratory out patient clinic between January to October 1989. They were regular users of the inhalers prior to the assessment. 62.4% of the patients were found to use the inhalers incorrectly. Forty three percent made more than one error. The commonest error observed was the failure to actuate and inhale the aerosol together in 41.9%. There was no difference in the occurrence of incorrect performance between different sexes, age groups, duration of inhaler used and previous supervision or no supervision by the doctors.
    Study site: Respiratory clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UKM), Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  8. Wong LY, Chua SS, Husin AR, Arshad H
    Fam Pract, 2017 09 01;34(5):564-573.
    PMID: 28472499 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmx028
    Background: Although clinical guidelines are available for the management of asthma, this health condition is still poorly managed in many countries.
    Objectives: To assess the effects of a Pharmacy Management Service (PharMS) on asthma control of adult patients.
    Methods: This study comprised of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) that was conducted from April 2014 to July 2015 at four government health clinics. The control participants received usual pharmacy service, while the intervention participants were recruited into the PharMS. Each participant was monitored for 6 months, and the outcome measures included asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT), inhaler technique using a checklist and medication adherence using the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale.
    Results: A total of 157 participants were recruited: 77 in the control and 80 in the intervention group. At the end of the study, 90% of the intervention participants achieved well-controlled asthma compared to 28.6% in the control group (P < 0.001). The differences in the proportion of participants with correct inhaler technique was also significant, with an adjusted effect size of 0.953 (P < 0.001). In addition, the intervention participants showed significantly higher medication adherence than the control group (92.5% versus 45.5%, P < 0.001). The Generalised Estimated Equation analysis further confirmed that the PharMS (P < 0.001) was significantly related to an improvement in the ACT scores.
    Conclusion: A community-based asthma management program, the PharMS, that provided asthma education and skill training by a trained pharmacist, resulted in positive and significant improvements in clinical and management outcomes of adult asthma patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  9. Dokbua S, Dilokthornsakul P, Chaiyakunapruk N, Saini B, Krass I, Dhippayom T
    J Manag Care Spec Pharm, 2018 Nov;24(11):1184-1196.
    PMID: 30362920 DOI: 10.18553/jmcp.2018.24.11.1184
    BACKGROUND: Current evidence of the effects of pharmacy services on asthma outcomes are not conclusive, since most pharmacy services comprise a variety of interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a service containing self-management support delivered by community pharmacists to patients with asthma.

    METHODS: A systematic search was performed in the following databases from inception to January 2017: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library's Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) Plus, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and PsycInfo. Original studies were selected if they met the following criteria: (a) provided by community pharmacists; (b) the intervention service included the essential components of asthma self-management; (c) included a usual care group; and (d) measured control/severity of asthma symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), or medication adherence.

    RESULTS: Of the 639 articles screened, 12 studies involving 2,121 asthma patients were included. Six studies were randomized trials, and the other 6 were nonrandomized trials. Patients with asthma who received a self-management support service by community pharmacists had better symptom control/lower severity compared with those receiving usual care (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.09-0.82) with high heterogeneity (I2=82.6%; P = 0.000). The overall improvement in HRQOL and medication adherence among patients in the asthma self-management support group was greater than for those in the usual care group with SMD of 0.23 (95% CI = 0.12-0.34) and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.27-0.61), respectively. Evidence of heterogeneity was not observed in these 2 outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Self-management support service provided by community pharmacists can help improve symptom control, quality of life, and medication adherence in patients with asthma.

    DISCLOSURES: This study received financial support from Naresuan University's Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Fund. Two authors, Saini and Krass, have studies that were included in this review. However, they were not involved in the processes that could bias outcomes of the present study, that is, quality assessment and meta-analysis. The remaining authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  10. Chan PWK, Norzila MZ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):475-81.
    PMID: 15190621
    The treatment preferences of 109 general practitioners (GPs) for childhood asthma were determined. Availability and adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for the treatment of childhood asthma was also assessed. Ninety eight (90%), 60 (55%) and 33 (30%) GPs considered nocturnal symptoms > 2 times/week, exercise induced wheeze and cough respectively as indications for preventer therapy. An oral preparation was preferred for relief medication [72 (66%) for 2-5 years, 60 (55%) for > 5 years]. An inhaled preparation was however preferred for preventer medication [60 (55%) for 2-5 years, 85 (78%) for > 5 years]. The oral form was more likely prescribed for asthmatic children 2-5 years (p < 0.001). Corticosteroids and ketotifen were the commonest inhaled and oral preventer treatment prescribed respectively. Only 36(33%) GPs have a CPG copy for reference. Children with asthma symptoms that require preventer therapy may not always be identified in general practice. The oral route remains important for asthma medication especially in young children. The accessibility to the CPG among GPs is disappointing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  11. Chan PW, DeBruyne JA
    Pediatr Int, 2000 Oct;42(5):547-51.
    PMID: 11059547 DOI: 10.1046/j.1442-200x.2000.01278.x
    BACKGROUND: Parental attitudes towards the use of inhaled therapy in children with chronic asthma influence treatment adherence and outcome. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions and concerns of parents of children with chronic asthma towards inhaled therapy.
    METHODS: A self-administered standard questionnaire was distributed to parents of children attending the Paediatric Asthma Clinic. All these children required inhaled steroids for treatment.
    RESULTS: One-hundred and twelve of 170 parents (66%) surveyed were concerned with inhaled therapy. The most common concern with its use was medication side effects (91%), followed by 'inhaler dependency' (86%), cost of the inhaler (34%) and difficulty in using the inhaler (15%). Parental perception that the oral route was superior to the inhaled route, preference for the oral route for asthma prophylaxis and a higher steroid dose required for prophylaxis were more likely to be associated with concerns towards inhaled therapy. More importantly, these children were also more likely to miss > 25% of their prescribed doses of inhaled steroids (46 vs 22% in the group concerned about inhaled therapy compared with the group that was not concerned, respectively; P = 0.007) and had a higher mean number of nebulization treatments in the last year (3.2 +/- 2.9 vs 1.8 +/- 1.3 in the group concerned about inhaled therapy compared with the group that was not concerned, respectively; P = 0.01).
    CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of parents whose children were on inhaled prophylaxis had concerns towards the use of inhaled therapy. Parental concern towards inhaled therapy appeared to increase the problem of non-adherence to treatment. Education for these parents will need to be addressed to improve asthma management in our patient population.
    Study site: Paediatric Asthma clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  12. Liam CK, Lim KH
    Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 1998 Aug;2(8):683-9.
    PMID: 9712285
    University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy
  13. Norhaya MR, Yap TM, Zainudin BM
    Respirology, 1999 Mar;4(1):77-81.
    PMID: 10339734 DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1843.1999.00153.x
    The effect of adding inhaled salmeterol to inhaled corticosteroids was studied in patients with poorly controlled nocturnal asthma. In a double-blind, cross-over study, 20 patients were randomized to receive either salmeterol 50 micrograms twice daily or placebo via a Diskhaler after a 1-week run-in period. After 4 weeks of treatment, patients were subsequently crossed over to receive the other treatment for a further 4 weeks with a 2-week wash-out period in between. The response to treatment was assessed by peak expiratory flow rates (PEF) measured in the morning and evening, symptom scores of asthma, number of bronchodilators used, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at regular intervals. Patients' preference for the Diskhaler or metered-dose inhaler was assessed at the last visit. The results showed that morning PEF was significantly higher while on salmeterol than on placebo (296.9 +/- 70.2 vs 274.6 +/- 77.4 L/min). Evening PEF showed a trend towards a higher value while on salmeterol than on placebo (321.1 +/- 73.4 vs 288.7 +/- 79.4 L/min), but the difference was not significant. There was no statistically significant improvement in symptom scores, number of rescue bronchodilators used and FEV1 or FVC between the two treatment groups. The occurrence of side effects in terms of tremors and palpitations between treatment and placebo were similar. There were more patients who preferred Diskhaler to metered-dose inhaler (70% vs 30%). We conclude that salmeterol 50 micrograms twice daily produces significant improvement in morning PEF and is well tolerated in patients with nocturnal asthma. Diskhaler is a device which is easy to use and preferred to a metered-dose inhaler.
    Study site: Respiratory Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  14. Sharma JN
    Gen. Pharmacol., 1993 Mar;24(2):267-74.
    PMID: 8387049
    1. Bradykinin and related kinins may act on four types of receptors designated as B1, B2, B3 and B4. It seems that the B2 receptors are most commonly found in various vascular and non-vascular smooth muscles, whereas B1 receptors are formed in vitro during trauma, and injury, and are found in bone tissues. 2. These BK receptors are involved in the regulations of various physiological and pathological processes. 3. The mode of kinin actions are based upon the interactions between the kinin and their specific receptors, which can lead to activation of several second-messenger systems. 4. Recently, numerous BK receptors antagonists have been synthesized with prime aim to treat diseases caused by excessive kinin production. 5. These diseases are RA, inflammatory diseases of the bowel, asthma, rhinitis and sore throat, allergic reactions, pain, inflammatory skin disorders, endotoxin and anaphylactic shock and coronary heart diseases. 6. On the other hand, BK receptor antagonists could be contraindicated in hypertension, since these drugs may antagonize the antihypertensive therapy and/or may trigger the hypertensive crisis. 7. It is worth suggesting that the BK receptor agonists might be useful antihypertensive drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  15. Lim TO, Suppiah A, Ismail F, Selvan T, Khan NKI, Ngah BA
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Apr;33(2):174-6.
    PMID: 1621123
    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of morbidity associated with asthma and to audit the management of asthma in two out-patient clinics of two district hospitals. Patients were recruited for the study during a 3-month period from December 1990 to February 1991. Seventy asthmatic patients were studied. Eighty-six percent of the patients had their sleep disturbed by asthma, 77% took daily medication regularly, 63% felt that their activities were restricted by asthma, 60% had at least one acute exacerbation in the preceding six months. Of those who had their peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measured, 40% had a PEFR below 50% predicted, and only 11% had normal PEFR (greater than 80% predicted). The morbidity of asthma was thus considerable. On the other hand, the drug treatment of these asthmatics was grossly inadequate. They were prescribed on average 2.1 item of drugs, which for most patients comprised an oral beta agonist and a theophylline. Only 43% of the patients received inhaler therapy, but no patients were given steroids, inhaled or oral. The drug treatment was unrelated to the severity of patients' asthma. Further, objective measurement of severity was under-used in the assessment of asthma, only 8.5% of patients ever had their PEFR recorded. This study has found that asthma is poorly managed in out-patient clinics. We need to improve the training of doctors in the optimal management of asthma.
    Study site: General outpatient clinics, district hospitals, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy
  16. Sulaiman I, Lim JC, Soo HL, Stanslas J
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther, 2016 Oct;40:52-68.
    PMID: 27453494 DOI: 10.1016/j.pupt.2016.07.005
    Extensive research into the therapeutics of asthma has yielded numerous effective interventions over the past few decades. However, adverse effects and ineffectiveness of most of these medications especially in the management of steroid resistant severe asthma necessitate the development of better medications. Numerous drug targets with inherent airway smooth muscle tone modulatory role have been identified for asthma therapy. This article reviews the latest understanding of underlying molecular aetiology of asthma towards design and development of better antiasthma drugs. New drug candidates with their putative targets that have shown promising results in the preclinical and/or clinical trials are summarised. Examples of these interventions include restoration of Th1/Th2 balance by the use of newly developed immunomodulators such as toll-like receptor-9 activators (CYT003-QbG10 and QAX-935). Clinical trials revealed the safety and effectiveness of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) antagonists such as OC0000459, BI-671800 and ARRY-502 in the restoration of Th1/Th2 balance. Regulation of cytokine activity by the use of newly developed biologics such as benralizumab, reslizumab, mepolizumab, lebrikizumab, tralokinumab, dupilumab and brodalumab are at the stage of clinical development. Transcription factors are potential targets for asthma therapy, for example SB010, a GATA-3 DNAzyme is at its early stage of clinical trial. Other candidates such as inhibitors of Rho kinases (Fasudil and Y-27632), phosphodiesterase inhibitors (GSK256066, CHF 6001, roflumilast, RPL 554) and proteinase of activated receptor-2 (ENMD-1068) are also discussed. Preclinical results of blockade of calcium sensing receptor by the use of calcilytics such as calcitriol abrogates cardinal signs of asthma. Nevertheless, successful translation of promising preclinical data into clinically viable interventions remains a major challenge to the development of novel anti-asthmatics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  17. Mandhane PJ, Paredes Zambrano de Silbernagel P, Aung YN, Williamson J, Lee BE, Spier S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(8):e0182411.
    PMID: 28771627 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182411
    BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently used to treat wheezing children. Macrolides may be effective in treating bronchiolitis and asthma.

    METHOD: We completed a prospective, double-blinded, randomized placebo-control trial of azithromycin among pre-school children (12 to 60 months of age) presenting to the emergency department with wheeze. Patients were randomized to receive either five days of azithromycin or placebo. Primary outcome was time to resolution of respiratory symptoms after treatment initiation. Secondary outcomes included the number of days children used a Short-Acting Beta-Agonists during the 21 day follow-up and time to disease exacerbation during the following six months (unscheduled health care visit or treatment with an oral corticosteroid for acute respiratory symptoms).

    RESULTS: Of the 300 wheezing children recruited, 222 and 169 were analyzed for the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. The treatment groups had similar demographics and clinical parameters at baseline. Median time to resolution of respiratory symptoms was four days for both treatment arms (interquartile range (IQR) 3,6; p = 0.28). Median number of days of Short-Acting Beta-Agonist use among those who received azithromycin was four and a half days (IQR 2, 7) and five days (IQR 2, 9; p = 0.22) among those who received placebo. Participants who received azithromycin had a 0.91 hazard ratio for time to six-month exacerbation compared to placebo (95% CI 0.61, 1.36, p = 0.65). A pre-determined subgroup analysis showed no differences in outcomes for children with their first or repeat episode of wheezing. There was no significant difference in the proportion of participants experiencing an adverse event.

    CONCLUSION: Azithromycin neither reduced duration of respiratory symptoms nor time to respiratory exacerbation in the following six months after treatment among wheezing preschool children presenting to an emergency department. There was no significant effect among children with either first-time or prior wheezing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
  18. Howe TA, Jaalam K, Ahmad R, Sheng CK, Nik Ab Rahman NH
    J Emerg Med, 2011 Dec;41(6):581-9.
    PMID: 19272745 DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.10.017
    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if the slope of Phase II and Phase III, and the alpha angle of the expiratory capnographic waveform, as measured via computer-recognizable algorithms, can reflect changes in bronchospasm in acute asthmatic non-intubated patients presenting to the emergency department (ED).
    METHODS: In this prospective study carried out in a university hospital ED, 30 patients with acute asthma were monitored with clinical severity scoring and peak flow measurements, and then had a nasal cannula attached for sidestream sampling of expired carbon dioxide. The capnographic waveform was recorded onto a personal computer card for analysis. The patients were treated according to departmental protocols. After treatment, when they had improved enough for discharge, a second set of results was obtained for capnographic waveform recording. The pre-treatment and post-treatment results were then compared with paired-samples t-test analysis.
    RESULTS: On the capnographic waveform pre- and post-treatment, there was a significant difference in the slope of Phase III (p < 0.001) and alpha angle (p < 0.001), but not in the Phase II slope (p = 0.35). There was significant change in peak flow meter reading, but it was poorly correlated with all the capnographic indices.
    CONCLUSION: The study provides some preliminary data showing that capnographic waveform indices can indicate improvement in airway diameter in acute asthmatics in the ED. Capnographic waveform analysis presents several advantages in that it is effort-independent, and provides continuous monitoring of normal tidal respiration. With further refined studies, it may serve as a new method of monitoring non-intubated asthmatics in the ED.
    Study site: Emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy
  19. Loh LC, Lim BK, Raman S, Vijayasingham P, Mohd Yusuf S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):188-92.
    PMID: 19248687
    Budesonide/Formoterol (Symbicort) combination therapy as both maintenance and reliever treatment (SMART) is a novel approach in asthma management. We examined its 'real-life effectiveness' in treating Malaysian patients with moderate-to-severe asthma in whom despite on combined inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonist, were still inadequately controlled. In a retrospective study, 22 eligible adult patients on SMART [mean (range) age: 49 (36-65) years; FEV1: 41 (21-74)% predicted] were identified from medical records of an urban-based university hospital chest clinic, and their clinical outcomes studied at three months. Another 16 patients [50 (14-66) years; 48 (20-91)% predicted] of similar severity and treatment (i.e. Symbicort maintenance treatment plus short-acting beta2-agonist as reliever), but not on SMART, were used as comparator over the same assessment period. In addition, the patients were separately interviewed with standard questionnaire on their satisfaction and compliance to the SMART approach. In SMART group, rescue treatment requirement (p<0.001) and FEV1 [median difference = 2.5%, p=0.015; mean difference: 90 ml, p=0.013] showed significant improvement while in comparator, there was significant improvement only in the requirement for rescue treatment (p=0.023). Hospital admission rates were significantly reduced in SMART group compared to the other (p=0.039), but not in emergency treatment. Five patients asked to discontinue SMART while all others were satisfied, compliant and perceived improvement of their asthma with SMART. The maximum daily doses of inhaled budesonide and formoterol were 1400 microg and 31.5 microg respectively. Our preliminary findings suggest that SMART approach can be attempted as an effective and safe treatment option for patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe asthma in Malaysian setting.
    Study site: Chest clinic, Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/drug therapy*
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