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  1. Salim YS, Sharon A, Vigneswari S, Mohamad Ibrahim MN, Amirul AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2012 May;167(2):314-26.
    PMID: 22544728 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-012-9688-6
    This paper investigates the degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and its biofiber composites in both soil and lake environment. Time-dependent changes in the weight loss of films were monitored. The rate of degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-23 mol% 4HB)] and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-9 mol% 3HV-co-19 mol% 4HB)] were investigated. The rate of degradation in the lake is higher compared to that in the soil. The highest rate of degradation in lake environment (15.6% w/w week(-1)) was observed with P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) terpolymer. Additionally, the rate of degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-38 mol% 3HV)] was compared to PHBV biofiber composites containing compatibilizers and empty fruit bunch (EFB). Here, composites with 30% EFB displayed the highest rate of degradation both in the lake (25.6% w/w week(-1)) and soil (15.6% w/w week(-1)) environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  2. Moi IM, Leow ATC, Ali MSM, Rahman RNZRA, Salleh AB, Sabri S
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2018 Jul;102(14):5811-5826.
    PMID: 29749565 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9063-9
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in human diet. Despite the wide-ranging importance and benefits from heart health to brain functions, humans and mammals cannot synthesize PUFAs de novo. The primary sources of PUFA are fish and plants. Due to the increasing concerns associated with food security as well as issues of environmental contaminants in fish oil, there has been considerable interest in the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids from alternative resources which are more sustainable, safer, and economical. For instance, marine bacteria, particularly the genus of Shewanella, Photobacterium, Colwellia, Moritella, Psychromonas, Vibrio, and Alteromonas, are found to be one among the major microbial producers of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine bacteria as well as the metabolic engineering strategies for the improvement of PUFA production are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  3. Mohamad N, Buang F, Mat Lazim A, Ahmad N, Martin C, Mohd Amin MCI
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2017 Nov;105(8):2553-2564.
    PMID: 27690276 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.33776
    The use of bacterial cellulose (BC)-based hydrogel has been gaining attention owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. This study was designed to investigate the effect of radiation doses and acrylic acid (AA) composition on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of BC/AA as wound dressing materials. Physical properties of the hydrogel, that is, thickness, adhesiveness, rate of water vapor transmission, and swelling were measured. Moreover, the effect of these parameters on skin irritation and sensitization, blood compatibility, and cytotoxicity was studied. Increased AA content and irradiation doses increased the thickness, crosslinking density, and improved the mechanical properties of the hydrogel, but reduced its adhesiveness. The swelling capacity of the hydrogel increased significantly with a decrease in the AA composition in simulated wound fluid. The water vapor permeability of polymeric hydrogels was in the range of 2035-2666 [g/(m-2  day-1 )]. Dermal irritation and sensitization test demonstrated that the hydrogel was nonirritant and nonallergic. The BC/AA hydrogel was found to be nontoxic to primary human dermal fibroblast skin cells with viability >88% and was found to be biocompatible with blood with a low hemolytic index (0.80-1.30%). Collectively, these results indicate that these hydrogels have the potential to be used as wound dressings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2553-2564, 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry*
  4. Teh AH, Saito JA, Baharuddin A, Tuckerman JR, Newhouse JS, Kanbe M, et al.
    FEBS Lett., 2011 Oct 20;585(20):3250-8.
    PMID: 21925500 DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2011.09.002
    Hell's Gate globin I (HGbI), a heme-containing protein structurally homologous to mammalian neuroglobins, has been identified from an acidophilic and thermophilic obligate methanotroph, Methylacidiphilum infernorum. HGbI has very high affinity for O(2) and shows barely detectable autoxidation in the pH range of 5.2-8.6 and temperature range of 25-50°C. Examination of the heme pocket by X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics showed that conformational movements of Tyr29(B10) and Gln50(E7), as well as structural flexibility of the GH loop and H-helix, may play a role in modulating its ligand binding behavior. Bacterial HGbI's unique resistance to the sort of extreme acidity that would extract heme from any other hemoglobin makes it an ideal candidate for comparative structure-function studies of the expanding globin superfamily.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/chemistry*
  5. Kardi SN, Ibrahim N, Rashid NA, Darzi GN
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Feb;23(4):3358-64.
    PMID: 26490910 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5538-8
    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent one of the most attractive and eco-friendly technologies that convert chemical bond energy derived from organic matter into electrical power by microbial catabolic activity. This paper presents the use of a H-type MFC involving a novel NAR-2 bacterial consortium consisting of Citrobacter sp. A1, Enterobacter sp. L17 and Enterococcus sp. C1 to produce electricity whilst simultaneously decolourising acid red 27 (AR27) as a model dye, which is also known as amaranth. In this setup, the dye AR27 is mixed with modified P5 medium (2.5 g/L glucose and 5.0 g/L nutrient broth) in the anode compartment, whilst phosphate buffer solution (PBS) pH 7 serves as a catholyte in the cathode compartment. After several electrochemical analyses, the open circuit voltage (OCV) for 0.3 g/L AR27 with 24-h retention time at 30 °C was recorded as 0.950 V, whereas (93%) decolourisation was achieved in 220-min operation. The maximum power density was reached after 48 h of operation with an external load of 300 Ω. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the surface morphology of the anode and the bacterial adhesion onto the electrode surface. The results of this study indicate that the decolourisation of AR27 dye and electrical power generation was successfully achieved in a MFC operated by a bacterial consortium. The consortium of bacteria was able to utilise AR27 in a short retention time as an electron acceptor and to shuttle the electrons to the anode surface for bioelectricity generation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  6. Butt FI, Muhammad N, Hamid A, Moniruzzaman M, Sharif F
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Dec;120(Pt A):1294-1305.
    PMID: 30189278 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.002
    PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates) have emerged as biodegradable plastics more strongly in the 20th century. A wide range of bacterial species along with fungi, plants, oilseed crops and carbon sources have been used extensively to synthesize PHA on large scales. Alteration of PHA monomers in their structures and composition has led to the development of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with highly specific mechanical properties. This leads to the incorporation of PHA in numerous biomedical applications within the previous decade. PHAs have been fabricated in various forms to perform tissue engineering to repair liver, bone, cartilage, heart tissues, cardiovascular tissues, bone marrow, and to act as drug delivery system and nerve conduits. A large number of animal trials have been carried out to assess the biomedical properties of PHA monomers, which also confirms the high compatibility of PHA family for this field. This review summarizes the synthesis of PHA from different sources, and biosynthetic pathways and biomedical applications of biosynthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  7. Loh EYX, Mohamad N, Fauzi MB, Ng MH, Ng SF, Mohd Amin MCI
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 13;8(1):2875.
    PMID: 29440678 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21174-7
    Bacterial cellulose (BC)/acrylic acid (AA) hydrogel has successfully been investigated as a wound dressing for partial-thickness burn wound. It is also a promising biomaterial cell carrier because it bears some resemblance to the natural soft tissue. This study assessed its ability to deliver human epidermal keratinocytes (EK) and dermal fibroblasts (DF) for the treatment of full-thickness skin lesions. In vitro studies demonstrated that BC/AA hydrogel had excellent cell attachment, maintained cell viability with limited migration, and allowed cell transfer. In vivo wound closure, histological, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy evaluation revealed that hydrogel alone (HA) and hydrogel with cells (HC) accelerated wound healing compared to the untreated controls. Gross appearance and Masson's trichrome staining indicated that HC was better than HA. This study suggests the potential application of BC/AA hydrogel with dual functions, as a cell carrier and wound dressing, to promote full-thickness wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  8. Loh EYX, Fauzi MB, Ng MH, Ng PY, Ng SF, Mohd Amin MCI
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Sep 15;159:497-509.
    PMID: 32387606 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.011
    In skin tissue engineering, a biodegradable scaffold is usually used where cells grow, produce its own cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix, until the regenerated tissue gradually replaces the scaffold upon its degradation. However, the role of non-biodegradable scaffold remains unexplored. This study investigates the potential of a non-biodegradable bacterial nanocellulose/acrylic acid (BNC/AA) hydrogel to transfer human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) to the wound and the resulting healing effects of transferred HDF in athymic mice. Results demonstrated that the fabricated hydrogel successfully transferred >50% of HDF onto the wound site within 24 h, with evidence of HDF detected on day 7. The gene and protein study unveiled faster wound healing in the hydrogel with HDF group and characterized more mature newly formed skin microstructure on day 7, despite no visible differences. These findings give a new perspective regarding the role of non-biodegradable materials in skin tissue engineering, in the presence of exogenous cells, mainly at the molecular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry*
  9. Chen XY, Low HR, Loi XY, Merel L, Mohd Cairul Iqbal MA
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2019 08;107(6):2140-2151.
    PMID: 30758129 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34309
    Graphene oxide (GO) is a potential material for wound dressing due to its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effects of GO concentration on the synthesis of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC)-grafted poly(acrylic acid) (AA)-graphene oxide (BNC/P(AA)/GO) composite hydrogel and its potential as wound dressing. Hydrogels were successfully synthesized via electron-beam irradiation. The hydrogels were characterized by their mechanical properties, bioadhesiveness, water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs), water retention abilities, water absorptivity, and biocompatibility. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the successful incorporation of GO into hydrogel. Thickness, gel fraction determination and morphological study revealed that increased GO concentration in hydrogels leads to reduced crosslink density and larger pore size, resulting in increased WVTR. Thus, highest swelling ratio was found in hydrogel with higher amount of GO (0.09 wt %). The mechanical properties of the composite hydrogel were maintained, while its hardness and bioadhesion were reduced with higher GO concentration in the hydrogel, affirming the durable and easy removable properties of a wound dressing. Human dermal fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation studies showed that biocompatibility of hydrogel was improved with the inclusion of GO in the hydrogel. Therefore, BNC/P(AA)/GO composite hydrogel has a potential application as perdurable wound dressing. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 2140-2151, 2019.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry*
  10. Lam MK, Lee KT, Mohamed AR
    Biotechnol Adv, 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):500-18.
    PMID: 20362044 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.03.002
    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  11. Kamal N, Sabaratnam V, Abdullah N, Ho AS, Teo SH, Lee HB
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2009 Feb;95(2):179-88.
    PMID: 19125347 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-008-9301-8
    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment which involves activation of a photosensitizing drug with light to produce reactive oxygen species that kill tumors without causing damage to unirradiated normal tissues. To date, only Photofrin, Foscan and Levulan have been approved for clinical treatment of cancer. Tropical habitats such as those found in Malaysia are attractive sources of new therapeutic compounds as tremendous chemical diversity is found in a large number of plants, animals, marine- and micro-organisms. In our screening program for novel photosensitizers from nature, colorful strains of fungi (from Aspergillus and Penicillium genus) and bacteria (including actinomycetes and photosynthetic bacteria) were collected from various habitats in Peninsular Malaysia, such as coastal soil, peat soil, marine sponges and wastewater ponds. Methanolic extracts from a total of 85 different species were evaluated with a short-term cell viability assay for photo-cytotoxicity, where a promyelocytic leukemia cell-line, HL60 incubated with 20 microg/ml of extracts was irradiated with 9.6 J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light. Two of these extracts, one from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (PBUM003) and one from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (PBUM001) showed moderate to strong photo-cytotoxicity. Subsequent bioassay guided isolation of the PBUM001 extract yielded known photosensitisers that are based on bacteriochlorophyll-a by comparing their molecular weight data, HPLC profiles and UV-vis absorption spectra with literature values, thereby demonstrating the validity of our screening approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry*
  12. Ang TF, Maiangwa J, Salleh AB, Normi YM, Leow TC
    Molecules, 2018 05 07;23(5).
    PMID: 29735886 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23051100
    The variety of halogenated substances and their derivatives widely used as pesticides, herbicides and other industrial products is of great concern due to the hazardous nature of these compounds owing to their toxicity, and persistent environmental pollution. Therefore, from the viewpoint of environmental technology, the need for environmentally relevant enzymes involved in biodegradation of these pollutants has received a great boost. One result of this great deal of attention has been the identification of environmentally relevant bacteria that produce hydrolytic dehalogenases—key enzymes which are considered cost-effective and eco-friendly in the removal and detoxification of these pollutants. These group of enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond of organohalogen compounds have potential applications in the chemical industry and bioremediation. The dehalogenases make use of fundamentally different strategies with a common mechanism to cleave carbon-halogen bonds whereby, an active-site carboxylate group attacks the substrate C atom bound to the halogen atom to form an ester intermediate and a halide ion with subsequent hydrolysis of the intermediate. Structurally, these dehalogenases have been characterized and shown to use substitution mechanisms that proceed via a covalent aspartyl intermediate. More so, the widest dehalogenation spectrum of electron acceptors tested with bacterial strains which could dehalogenate recalcitrant organohalides has further proven the versatility of bacterial dehalogenators to be considered when determining the fate of halogenated organics at contaminated sites. In this review, the general features of most widely studied bacterial dehalogenases, their structural properties, basis of the degradation of organohalides and their derivatives and how they have been improved for various applications is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  13. Dalia AM, Loh TC, Sazili AQ, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2020 Sep 29;16(1):365.
    PMID: 32993790 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-020-02587-x
    BACKGROUND: Several studies indicated that dietary organic selenium (Se) usually absorbed better than an inorganic source, with high retention and bioavailability. Dietary Se as an antioxidant element affects the immune system and hematological status in animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of bacterial selenium as an organic source on hematology, immunity response, selenium retention, and gut morphology in broiler chickens.

    RESULTS: The present results revealed that supplementation of inorganic Se was associated with the lowest level of RBC, HB, and PCV with significant difference than ADS18-Se. In the starter stage, both T2 and T5 were associated with the significantly highest IgG level compared to the basal diet, while all supplemented groups showed higher IgM levels compared to the control group. In the finisher phase, all Se supplemented groups showed significant (P ˂ 0.05) increases in IgG, IgA, and IgM levels compared to T1. Birds fed bacterial-Se showed high intestinal villus height and better Se retention more than sodium selenite. The organic selenium of ADS18 had a superior action in improving Se retention compared to ADS1 and ADS2 bacterial Se.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial organic Se had a beneficial effect on the villus height of small intestine led to high Se absorption and retention. Thus, it caused a better effect of Se on hematological parameters and immunity response.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  14. Lee KX, Shameli K, Yew YP, Teow SY, Jahangirian H, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:275-300.
    PMID: 32021180 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S233789
    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are extensively studied nanoparticles (NPs) and are known to have profound applications in medicine. There are various methods to synthesize AuNPs which are generally categorized into two main types: chemical and physical synthesis. Continuous efforts have been devoted to search for other more environmental-friendly and economical large-scale methods, such as environmentally friendly biological methods known as green synthesis. Green synthesis is especially important to minimize the harmful chemical and toxic by-products during the conventional synthesis of AuNPs. Green materials such as plants, fungi, microorganisms, enzymes and biopolymers are currently used to synthesize various NPs. Biosynthesized AuNPs are generally safer for use in biomedical applications since they come from natural materials themselves. Multiple surface functionalities of AuNPs allow them to be more robust and flexible when combined with different biological assemblies or modifications for enhanced applications. This review focuses on recent developments of green synthesized AuNPs and discusses their numerous biomedical applications. Sources of green materials with successful examples and other key parameters that determine the functionalities of AuNPs are also discussed in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  15. Soopramanien M, Khan NA, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Int Microbiol, 2021 Jan;24(1):47-56.
    PMID: 32737845 DOI: 10.1007/s10123-020-00139-9
    Pollution, unhygienic conditions and organic waste are detrimental to human health. On the contrary, animals living in polluted environments, feeding on organic waste and exposed to noxious agents such as heavy metals must possess remarkable properties against contracting diseases. Species such as cockroaches and water monitor lizards thrive in unhygienic conditions and feed on decaying matter. Here, we investigated the antitumour properties of metabolites produced by gut bacteria isolated from Varanus salvator (Asian water monitor lizard). An adult water monitor lizard and a juvenile water monitor lizard were acquired, and dissected. Their aerobic gut bacteria were isolated and identificated through 16S rDNA sequencing. Next, bacterial conditioned media (CM) were prepared and utilised for subsequent assays. Growth inhibition, MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay, cytotoxicity and cell survival assays were accomplished against a panel of cancer cells as well as a normal cell line. Furthermore, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was employed to identify potential antitumour molecules. A plethora of bacteria were isolated from the gut of juvenile and adult V. salvator respectively. Moreover, CM prepared from selected bacteria exhibited antitumour activity. Of note, LC-MS results indicated the presence of several molecules with reported antitumour activity, namely, 3-butylidene-7-hydroxyphthalide, C75, enigmol, estrone 16-oxime, proglumide and S-allyl-L-cysteine. Furthermore, 356 potentially novel molecules from juvenile V. salvator and 184 from adult V. salvator were depicted. Thus, the gut microbiota of V. salvator might be considered as a great niche of antitumour molecules; however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to assess the antitumour properties of these molecules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry*
  16. Arbaoui AA, Chua TH
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Mar;31(1):134-42.
    PMID: 24862053 MyJurnal
    Since a safe and effective mass vaccination program against dengue fever is not presently available, a good way to prevent and control dengue outbreaks depends mainly on controlling the mosquito vectors. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can be monitored and reduced by using ovitraps baited with organic infusions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted which demonstrated that the bacteria in bamboo leaf infusion produce volatile attractants and contact chemical stimulants attractive to the female mosquitoes. The results showed that the female mosquitoes laid most of their eggs (59.9 ± 8.1 vs 2.9 ± 2.8 eggs, P<0.001) in bamboo leaf infusions when compared to distilled water. When the fresh infusion was filtered with a 0.45 μm filter membrane, the female mosquitoes laid significantly more eggs (64.1 ± 6.6 vs 4.9 ± 2.6 eggs, P<0.001) in unfiltered infusion. However when a 0.8 μm filter membrane was used, the female laid significantly more eggs (62.0 ± 4.3 vs 10.1 ± 7.8 eggs, P<0.001) in filtrate compared to a solution containing the residue. We also found that a mixture of bacteria isolated from bamboo leaf infusion serve as potent oviposition stimulants for gravid Aedes mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti laid significantly more eggs (63.3 ± 6.5 vs 3.1 ± 2.4 eggs, P<0.001) in bacteria suspension compared to sterile R2A medium. Our results suggest microbial activity has a role in the production of odorants that mediate the oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry*
  17. Soopramanien M, Khan N, Neerooa BNHM, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Mar 01;22(3):733-740.
    PMID: 33773536 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.3.733
    OBJECTIVES: The overall aim was to determine whether gut bacteria of Columbia livia are a potential source of antitumour molecules.

    METHODS: Faecal and gut microbiota of Columbia livia were isolated, identified and conditioned media were prepared containing metabolites. Growth inhibition, lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity and cell survival assays were accomplished against cervical cancer cells. Next, liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was conducted to elucidate the molecules present.

    RESULTS: A plethora of bacteria from faecal matter and gastrointestinal tract were isolated. Selected conditioned media exhibited potent anticancer effects and displayed cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells at IC50 concentration of 10.65 and 15.19 µg/ml. Moreover, cells treated with conditioned media exhibited morphological changes, including cell shrinking and rounding; indicative of apoptosis, when compared to untreated cells. A total of 111 and 71 molecules were revealed from these gut and faecal metabolites. The identity of 60 molecules were revealed including, dihydroxymelphalan. Nonetheless, 122 molecules remain unidentified and are the subject of future studies.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that gut bacteria of Columbia livia possess molecules, which may have anticancer activities. Further in silico testing and/or high throughput screening will determine potential anticancer properties of these molecules.
    .

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry
  18. Moniri M, Boroumand Moghaddam A, Azizi S, Abdul Rahim R, Zuhainis SW, Navaderi M, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:5097-5112.
    PMID: 30254435 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S164573
    Background: In recent years, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) based nanocomposites have been developed to promote healing property and antibacterial activity of BNC wound dressing. Molecular study can help to better understanding about interaction of genes and pathways involved in healing progression.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to prepare bacterial nanocellulose/silver (BNC/Ag) nanocomposite films as ecofriendly wound dressing in order to assess their physical, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties. The in vitro molecular study was performed to evaluate expression of genes involved in healing of wounds after treatment with BNC/Ag biofilms.

    Study design materials and methods: Silver nanoparticles were formed by using Citrullus colocynthis extract within new isolated bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) RM1. The nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Besides, swelling property and Ag release profile of the nanocomposites were studied. The ability of nanocomposites to promote wound healing of human dermal fibroblast cells in vitro was studied. Bioinformatics databases were used to identify genes with important healing effect. Key genes which interfered with healing were studied by quantitative real time PCR.

    Results: Spherical silver nanoparticles with particle size ranging from 20 to 50 nm were synthesized and impregnated within the structure of BNC. The resulting nanocomposites showed significant antibacterial activities with inhibition zones ranging from 7±0.25 to 16.24±0.09 mm against skin pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, it was compatible with human fibroblast cells (HDF) and could promote in vitro wound healing after 48h. Based on bioinformatics databases, the genes of TGF-β1, MMP2, MMP9, CTNNB1, Wnt4, hsa-miR-29b-3p and hsa-miR-29c-3p played important role in wound healing. The nanocomposites had an effect in expression of the genes in healing. Thus, the BNC/Ag nanocomposite can be used to heal wound in a short period and simple manner.

    Conclusion: This eco-friendly nanocomposite with excellent antibacterial activities and healing property confirming its utility as potential wound dressings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/chemistry*
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