Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 158 in total

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  1. Segar ST, Fayle TM, Srivastava DS, Lewinsohn TM, Lewis OT, Novotny V, et al.
    Trends Ecol Evol, 2020 05;35(5):454-466.
    PMID: 32294426 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2020.01.004
    The structure of ecological networks reflects the evolutionary history of their biotic components, and their dynamics are strongly driven by ecoevolutionary processes. Here, we present an appraisal of recent relevant research, in which the pervasive role of evolution within ecological networks is manifest. Although evolutionary processes are most evident at macroevolutionary scales, they are also important drivers of local network structure and dynamics. We propose components of a blueprint for further research, emphasising process-based models, experimental evolution, and phenotypic variation, across a range of distinct spatial and temporal scales. Evolutionary dimensions are required to advance our understanding of foundational properties of community assembly and to enhance our capability of predicting how networks will respond to impending changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  2. Das S
    Anat Sci Int, 2008 Jun;83(2):120; author reply 121.
    PMID: 18507622 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-073X.2008.00232.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  3. Schwallier R, Gravendeel B, de Boer H, Nylinder S, van Heuven BJ, Sieder A, et al.
    Ann Bot, 2017 05 01;119(7):1179-1193.
    PMID: 28387789 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx010
    Background and Aims: Nepenthes attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant's iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of Nepenthes is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation.

    Methods: Observations were performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Ancestral states of selected wood and pith characters were reconstructed using an existing molecular phylogeny for Nepenthes and a broader Caryophyllales framework. Pairwise comparisons were assessed for possible relationships between wood anatomy and developmental stages, growth habits, substrates and ecology.

    Key Results: Wood anatomy of Nepenthes is diffuse porous, with mainly solitary vessels showing simple, bordered perforation plates and alternate intervessel pits, fibres with distinctly bordered pits (occasionally septate), apotracheal axial parenchyma and co-occurring uni- and multiseriate rays often including silica bodies. Precipitation and growth habit (stem length) are linked with vessel density and multiseriate ray height, while soil type correlates with vessel diameter, vessel element length and maximum ray width. For Caryophyllales as a whole, silica grains, successive cambia and bordered perforation plates are the result of convergent evolution. Peculiar helical sculpturing patterns within various cell types occur uniquely within the insectivorous clade of non-core Caryophyllales.

    Conclusions: The wood anatomical variation in Nepenthes displays variation for some characters dependent on soil type, precipitation and stem length, but is largely conservative. The helical-banded fibre-sclereids that mainly occur idioblastically in pith and cortex are synapomorphic for Nepenthes , while other typical Nepenthes characters evolved convergently in different Caryophyllales lineages.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  4. Polgar G, Malavasi S, Cipolato G, Georgalas V, Clack JA, Torricelli P
    PLoS One, 2011;6(6):e21434.
    PMID: 21738663 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021434
    Coupled behavioural observations and acoustical recordings of aggressive dyadic contests showed that the mudskipper Periophthalmodon septemradiatus communicates acoustically while out of water. An analysis of intraspecific variability showed that specific acoustic components may act as tags for individual recognition, further supporting the sounds' communicative value. A correlative analysis amongst acoustical properties and video-acoustical recordings in slow-motion supported first hypotheses on the emission mechanism. Acoustic transmission through the wet exposed substrate was also discussed. These observations were used to support an "exaptation hypothesis", i.e. the maintenance of key adaptations during the first stages of water-to-land vertebrate eco-evolutionary transitions (based on eco-evolutionary and palaeontological considerations), through a comparative bioacoustic analysis of aquatic and semiterrestrial gobiid taxa. In fact, a remarkable similarity was found between mudskipper vocalisations and those emitted by gobioids and other soniferous benthonic fishes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  5. Teo J, Abbass HA
    Evol Comput, 2004;12(3):355-94.
    PMID: 15355605
    In this paper, we investigate the use of a self-adaptive Pareto evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) approach for evolving the controllers of virtual embodied organisms. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the trade-off between quality of solutions and computational cost. We show empirically that evolving controllers using the proposed algorithm incurs significantly less computational cost when compared to a self-adaptive weighted sum EMO algorithm, a self-adaptive single-objective evolutionary algorithm (EA) and a hand-tuned Pareto EMO algorithm. The main contribution of the self-adaptive Pareto EMO approach is its ability to produce sufficiently good controllers with different locomotion capabilities in a single run, thereby reducing the evolutionary computational cost and allowing the designer to explore the space of good solutions simultaneously. Our results also show that self-adaptation was found to be highly beneficial in reducing redundancy when compared against the other algorithms. Moreover, it was also shown that genetic diversity was being maintained naturally by virtue of the system's inherent multi-objectivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  6. Wang MMH, Gardner EM, Chung RCK, Chew MY, Milan AR, Pereira JT, et al.
    Am J Bot, 2018 05;105(5):898-914.
    PMID: 29874392 DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1094
    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Underutilized crops and their wild relatives are important resources for crop improvement and food security. Cempedak [Artocarpus integer (Thunb). Merr.] is a significant crop in Malaysia but underutilized elsewhere. Here we performed molecular characterization of cempedak and its putative wild relative bangkong (Artocarpus integer (Thunb). Merr. var. silvestris Corner) to address questions regarding the origin and diversity of cempedak.

    METHODS: Using data from 12 microsatellite loci, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic/geographic structure for 353 cempedak and 175 bangkong accessions from Malaysia and neighboring countries and employed clonal analysis to characterize cempedak cultivars. We conducted haplotype network analyses on the trnH-psbA region in a subset of these samples. We also analyzed key vegetative characters that reportedly differentiate cempedak and bangkong.

    KEY RESULTS: We show that cempedak and bangkong are sister taxa and distinct genetically and morphologically, but the directionality of domestication origin is unclear. Genetic diversity was generally higher in bangkong than in cempedak. We found a distinct genetic cluster for cempedak from Borneo as compared to cempedak from Peninsular Malaysia. Finally, cempedak cultivars with the same names did not always share the same genetic fingerprint.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cempedak origins are complex, with likely admixture and hybridization with bangkong, warranting further investigation. We provide a baseline of genetic diversity of cempedak and bangkong in Malaysia and found that germplasm collections in Malaysia represent diverse coverage of the four cempedak genetic clusters detected.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  7. van Wyhe J
    PMID: 27721035 DOI: 10.1016/j.shpsc.2016.09.004
    This article examines six main elements in the modern story of the impact of Alfred Russel Wallace's 1855 Sarawak Law paper, particularly in the many accounts of Charles Darwin's life and work. These elements are: Each of these are very frequently repeated as straightforward facts in the popular and scholarly literature. It is here argued that each of these is erroneous and that the role of the Sarawak Law paper in the historiography of Darwin and Wallace needs to be revised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  8. Chong SY, Tiňo P, He J, Yao X
    Evol Comput, 2019;27(2):195-228.
    PMID: 29155606 DOI: 10.1162/evco_a_00218
    Studying coevolutionary systems in the context of simplified models (i.e., games with pairwise interactions between coevolving solutions modeled as self plays) remains an open challenge since the rich underlying structures associated with pairwise-comparison-based fitness measures are often not taken fully into account. Although cyclic dynamics have been demonstrated in several contexts (such as intransitivity in coevolutionary problems), there is no complete characterization of cycle structures and their effects on coevolutionary search. We develop a new framework to address this issue. At the core of our approach is the directed graph (digraph) representation of coevolutionary problems that fully captures structures in the relations between candidate solutions. Coevolutionary processes are modeled as a specific type of Markov chains-random walks on digraphs. Using this framework, we show that coevolutionary problems admit a qualitative characterization: a coevolutionary problem is either solvable (there is a subset of solutions that dominates the remaining candidate solutions) or not. This has an implication on coevolutionary search. We further develop our framework that provides the means to construct quantitative tools for analysis of coevolutionary processes and demonstrate their applications through case studies. We show that coevolution of solvable problems corresponds to an absorbing Markov chain for which we can compute the expected hitting time of the absorbing class. Otherwise, coevolution will cycle indefinitely and the quantity of interest will be the limiting invariant distribution of the Markov chain. We also provide an index for characterizing complexity in coevolutionary problems and show how they can be generated in a controlled manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  9. Norhazrina N, Vanderpoorten A, Hedenäs L, Patiño J
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2016 12;105:139-145.
    PMID: 27530707 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.08.008
    As opposed to angiosperms, moss species richness is similar among tropical regions of the world, in line with the hypothesis that tropical bryophytes are extremely good dispersers. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the pantropical moss genus Pelekium to test the hypothesis that high migration rates erase any difference in species richness among tropical regions. In contrast with this hypothesis, several species considered to have a pantropical range were resolved as a complex of species with a strong geographic structure. Consequently, a significant phylogeographical signal was found in the data, evidencing that cladogenetic diversification within regions takes place at a faster rate than intercontinental migration. The shape of the Pelekium phylogeny, along with the selection of a constant-rate model of diversification among species in the genus, suggests, however, that the cladogenetic speciation patterns observed in Pelekium are not comparable to some of the spectacular examples of tropical radiations reported in angiosperms. Rather, the results presented here point to the constant accumulation of diversity through time in Pelekium. This, combined with evidence for long-distance dispersal limitations in the genus, suggests that the similar patterns of species richness among tropical areas are better explained in terms of comparable rates of diversification across tropical regions than by the homogenization of species richness by recurrent migrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  10. Jørgensen TS, Petersen B, Petersen HCB, Browne PD, Prost S, Stillman JH, et al.
    Genome Biol Evol, 2019 05 01;11(5):1440-1450.
    PMID: 30918947 DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evz067
    Members of the crustacean subclass Copepoda are likely the most abundant metazoans worldwide. Pelagic marine species are critical in converting planktonic microalgae to animal biomass, supporting oceanic food webs. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, only six copepod genomes are publicly available, owing to a number of factors including large genome size, repetitiveness, GC-content, and small animal size. Here, we report the seventh representative copepod genome and the first genome and the first transcriptome from the calanoid copepod species Acartia tonsa Dana, which is among the most numerous mesozooplankton in boreal coastal and estuarine waters. The ecology, physiology, and behavior of A. tonsa have been studied extensively. The genetic resources contributed in this work will allow researchers to link experimental results to molecular mechanisms. From PCR-free whole genome sequence and mRNA Illumina data, we assemble the largest copepod genome to date. We estimate that A. tonsa has a total genome size of 2.5 Gb including repetitive elements we could not resolve. The nonrepetitive fraction of the genome assembly is estimated to be 566 Mb. Our DNA sequencing-based analyses suggest there is a 14-fold difference in genome size between the six members of Copepoda with available genomic information. This finding complements nucleus staining genome size estimations, where 100-fold difference has been reported within 70 species. We briefly analyze the repeat structure in the existing copepod whole genome sequence data sets. The information presented here confirms the evolution of genome size in Copepoda and expands the scope for evolutionary inferences in Copepoda by providing several levels of genetic information from a key planktonic crustacean species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  11. Klomp DA, Ord TJ, Das I, Diesmos A, Ahmad N, Stuart-Fox D
    J Evol Biol, 2016 Sep;29(9):1689-700.
    PMID: 27234454 DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12908
    Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament's colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding lizards (Agamidae; genus Draco) from Malaysia and the Philippines. We found a negative relationship across species between colour contrast against the background and dewlap size in males, but not in females, suggesting that males of different species use increasing colour contrast and dewlap size as alternative strategies for effective communication. Male dewlap size also increases with increasing sexual size dimorphism, and dewlap colour and brightness contrast increase with increasing sexual dichromatism in colour and brightness, respectively, suggesting that sexual selection may act on both dewlap size and colour. We further found evidence that relative predation intensity, as measured from predator attacks on models placed in the field, may play a role in the choice of strategy (high chromatic contrast or large dewlap area) a species employs. More broadly, these results highlight that each component in a signal (such as colour or size) may be influenced by different selection pressures and that by assessing components individually, we can gain a greater understanding of the evolution of signal diversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  12. Wills C, Wang B, Fang S, Wang Y, Jin Y, Lutz J, et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol, 2021 04;17(4):e1008853.
    PMID: 33914731 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008853
    When Darwin visited the Galapagos archipelago, he observed that, in spite of the islands' physical similarity, members of species that had dispersed to them recently were beginning to diverge from each other. He postulated that these divergences must have resulted primarily from interactions with sets of other species that had also diverged across these otherwise similar islands. By extrapolation, if Darwin is correct, such complex interactions must be driving species divergences across all ecosystems. However, many current general ecological theories that predict observed distributions of species in ecosystems do not take the details of between-species interactions into account. Here we quantify, in sixteen forest diversity plots (FDPs) worldwide, highly significant negative density-dependent (NDD) components of both conspecific and heterospecific between-tree interactions that affect the trees' distributions, growth, recruitment, and mortality. These interactions decline smoothly in significance with increasing physical distance between trees. They also tend to decline in significance with increasing phylogenetic distance between the trees, but each FDP exhibits its own unique pattern of exceptions to this overall decline. Unique patterns of between-species interactions in ecosystems, of the general type that Darwin postulated, are likely to have contributed to the exceptions. We test the power of our null-model method by using a deliberately modified data set, and show that the method easily identifies the modifications. We examine how some of the exceptions, at the Wind River (USA) FDP, reveal new details of a known allelopathic effect of one of the Wind River gymnosperm species. Finally, we explore how similar analyses can be used to investigate details of many types of interactions in these complex ecosystems, and can provide clues to the evolution of these interactions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  13. Ruzanna Zam Zam
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(1):113-0.
    MyJurnal
    This paper discusses the evolution of PSR development for people with severe mental illness since the early 20th century in Malaysia. The various aspects of PSR include the activities, service target, the treatment settings, factors contributed to the development and the challenges that have been faced are also described along with the evolution, comparing the past and
    present. It is learned that despite of many challenges, PSR in Malaysia has now continued to progress with increasing supports from the stakeholders and is in keeping with the current PSR concept.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution
  14. Ożgo M, Liew TS, Webster NB, Schilthuizen M
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3938.
    PMID: 29093997 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3938
    Natural history collections are an important and largely untapped source of long-term data on evolutionary changes in wild populations. Here, we utilize three large geo-referenced sets of samples of the common European land-snail Cepaea nemoralis stored in the collection of Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden, the Netherlands. Resampling of these populations allowed us to gain insight into changes occurring over 95, 69, and 50 years. Cepaea nemoralis is polymorphic for the colour and banding of the shell; the mode of inheritance of these patterns is known, and the polymorphism is under both thermal and predatory selection. At two sites the general direction of changes was towards lighter shells (yellow and less heavily banded), which is consistent with predictions based on on-going climatic change. At one site no directional changes were detected. At all sites there were significant shifts in morph frequencies between years, and our study contributes to the recognition that short-term changes in the states of populations often exceed long-term trends. Our interpretation was limited by the few time points available in the studied collections. We therefore stress the need for natural history collections to routinely collect large samples of common species, to allow much more reliable hind-casting of evolutionary responses to environmental change.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution
  15. Teoh SB
    Theor Appl Genet, 1982 Mar;61(1):91-5.
    PMID: 24271380 DOI: 10.1007/BF00261517
    Four out of 10 diploid orchid species showed "complement fractionation" a complex cytological phenomenon, hitherto reported only in polyploid plants. The manifestation of this phenomenon during meiosis is the formation of chromosome subgroups resulting eventually in cells with more than the usual four sporads; five or six being the optimum number in the investigated orchid species. No implications whatsoever can be deduced as to the genetic or genomic constitution of the end products. The presence of the phenomenon in these orchid species could perhaps indicate a polyploid ancestry or concealed hybridity. The operation of "complement fractionation", however, could be interpreted as an alternative evolutionary pathway opposed to polyploidy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution
  16. Liu JW, Li SF, Wu CT, Valdespino IA, Ho JF, Wu YH, et al.
    Am J Bot, 2020 04;107(4):562-576.
    PMID: 32227348 DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1455
    PREMISE: Unique among vascular plants, some species of Selaginella have single giant chloroplasts in their epidermal or upper mesophyll cells (monoplastidy, M), varying in structure between species. Structural variants include several forms of bizonoplast with unique dimorphic ultrastructure. Better understanding of these structural variants, their prevalence, environmental correlates and phylogenetic association, has the potential to shed new light on chloroplast biology unavailable from any other plant group.

    METHODS: The chloroplast ultrastructure of 76 Selaginella species was studied with various microscopic techniques. Environmental data for selected species and subgeneric relationships were compared against chloroplast traits.

    RESULTS: We delineated five chloroplast categories: ME (monoplastidy in a dorsal epidermal cell), MM (monoplastidy in a mesophyll cell), OL (oligoplastidy), Mu (multiplastidy, present in the most basal species), and RC (reduced or vestigial chloroplasts). Of 44 ME species, 11 have bizonoplasts, cup-shaped (concave upper zone) or bilobed (basal hinge, a new discovery), with upper zones of parallel thylakoid membranes varying subtly between species. Monoplastidy, found in 49 species, is strongly shade associated. Bizonoplasts are only known in deep-shade species (<2.1% full sunlight) of subgenus Stachygynandrum but in both the Old and New Worlds.

    CONCLUSIONS: Multiplastidic chloroplasts are most likely basal, implying that monoplastidy and bizonoplasts are derived traits, with monoplastidy evolving at least twice, potentially as an adaptation to low light. Although there is insufficient information to understand the adaptive significance of the numerous structural variants, they are unmatched in the vascular plants, suggesting unusual evolutionary flexibility in this ancient plant genus.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution
  17. Golding RE
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2012 Apr;63(1):72-81.
    PMID: 22210412 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.016
    Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  18. Schilthuizen M, van Til A, Salverda M, Liew TS, James SS, bin Elahan B, et al.
    Evolution, 2006 Sep;60(9):1851-8.
    PMID: 17089969
    Genetic divergence in geographically isolated populations is a prerequisite for allopatric speciation, one of the most common modes of speciation. In ecologically equivalent populations existing within a small, environmentally homogeneous area, an important role for environmentally neutral divergence is often found or inferred. We studied a species complex of conspicuously shaped Opisthostoma land snails on scattered limestone outcrops within a small area of lowland rainforest in Borneo. We used shell morphometrics, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, and marks of predation to study the factors involved in allopatric divergence. We found that a striking geographic divergence exists in shell morphology, which is partly associated with neutral genetic divergence. We also found geographic differentiation in the behavior of the snails' invertebrate predator and evidence of an evolutionary interaction between aspects of shell shape and predator behavior. Our study shows that adaptation to biotic aspects of the environment may play a more important role in allopatric speciation than previously suspected, even on a geographically very small scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  19. Schilthuizen M, Davison A
    Naturwissenschaften, 2005 Nov;92(11):504-15.
    PMID: 16217668
    The direction that a snail (Mollusca: Gastropoda) coils, whether dextral (right-handed) or sinistral (left-handed), originates in early development but is most easily observed in the shell form of the adult. Here, we review recent progress in understanding snail chirality from genetic, developmental and ecological perspectives. In the few species that have been characterized, chirality is determined by a single genetic locus with delayed inheritance, which means that the genotype is expressed in the mother's offspring. Although research lags behind the studies of asymmetry in the mouse and nematode, attempts to isolate the loci involved in snail chirality have begun, with the final aim of understanding how the axis of left-right asymmetry is established. In nature, most snail taxa (>90%) are dextral, but sinistrality is known from mutant individuals, populations within dextral species, entirely sinistral species, genera and even families. Ordinarily, it is expected that strong frequency-dependent selection should act against the establishment of new chiral types because the chiral minority have difficulty finding a suitable mating partner (their genitalia are on the 'wrong' side). Mixed populations should therefore not persist. Intriguingly, however, a very few land snail species, notably the subgenus Amphidromus sensu stricto, not only appear to mate randomly between different chiral types, but also have a stable, within-population chiral dimorphism, which suggests the involvement of a balancing factor. At the other end of the spectrum, in many species, different chiral types are unable to mate and so could be reproductively isolated from one another. However, while empirical data, models and simulations have indicated that chiral reversal must sometimes occur, it is rarely likely to lead to so-called 'single-gene' speciation. Nevertheless, chiral reversal could still be a contributing factor to speciation (or to divergence after speciation) when reproductive character displacement is involved. Understanding the establishment of chirality, the preponderance of dextral species and the rare instances of stable dimorphism is an important target for future research. Since the genetics of chirality have been studied in only a few pulmonate species, we also urge that more taxa, especially those from the sea, should be investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
  20. Fiala I, Hlavničková M, Kodádková A, Freeman MA, Bartošová-Sojková P, Atkinson SD
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2015 May;86:75-89.
    PMID: 25797924 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.004
    In order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the main marine myxosporean clades including newly established Ceratonova clade and scrutinizing their evolutionary origins, we performed large-scale phylogenetic analysis of all myxosporean species from the marine myxosporean lineage based on three gene analyses and statistical topology tests. Furthermore, we obtained new molecular data for Ceratonova shasta, C. gasterostea, eight Ceratomyxa species and one Myxodavisia species. We described five new species: Ceratomyxa ayami n. sp., C. leatherjacketi n. sp., C. synaphobranchi n. sp., C. verudaensis n. sp. and Myxodavisia bulani n. sp.; two of these formed a new, basal Ceratomyxa subclade. We identified that the Ceratomyxa clade is basal to all other marine myxosporean lineages, and Kudoa with Enteromyxum are the most recently branching clades. Topologies were least stable at the nodes connecting the marine urinary clade, the marine gall bladder clade and the Ceratonova clade. Bayesian inference analysis of SSU rDNA and the statistical tree topology tests suggested that Ceratonova is closely related to the Enteromyxum and Kudoa clades, which represent a large group of histozoic species. A close relationship between Ceratomyxa and Ceratonova was not supported, despite their similar myxospore morphologies. Overall, the site of sporulation in the vertebrate host is a more accurate predictor of phylogenetic relationships than the morphology of the myxospore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Evolution*
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